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Good Roads. 

^"^■'v^'c/^// Illustrated Monthly (Magazine, Devoted to the '''^^ 
Improvement of the Tiiblic Roads 
and Streets. 



VOLUME THREE, 
JANUARY TO JUNE, 1893. 



Published by the 

Roads Improvement Bureau of the League of American Wheelmen 

Potter Building, New York. 



Copyright, 1893, by The League of American Wheelmen. 



INDEX. 



Page 

Agitation for Better Roads, The J. W. Stockwell 24 

Aid and Direction, Government Clarence D. Warner, C.E.. 41 

Axles, Wheel Tires and William A. Stveet 78 

A Few Important Lines from the Editor 167, 216, 266, 330 

A Korean State Vehicle Robert E. Petiit 214 

April Calendar 2x9 

^sop Revised to Date W. W. Beadell 251 

Asphalt Pavements, Cleaning '. . . .253 

A Relic of English Coaching Days 259 

Better Roads, The Agitation for J. W. Stockwell 24 

Better Management, Less "Politics," ^ a^ted .. Elmer D. Howe.. 3S 

Better Roads, For 40 

Birthplace of American Road Improvement, The, 

James Owen, C. E. 313 

Borrowed Wit 60, 119, 174, 225, 276, 336 

Bricks, Paving, and How to Test Them, Gorham Dana, S. B 205 

Bridges, Highway John N. Ostrom, C. E. .225, 321 

Brooklyn Cobblestones 261 

Country Roads, Give us Better 31 

City and Country, Good Roads for. . . Col. Albert A. Pope 36 

Contract Notes 55, n?, i73. 223, 274, 335 

Convict Labor on Public Roads Rev. Louis A. Pope 121 

Calendar 219, 269, 332 

Cleaning Asphalt Pavements 253 

Cobblestones, Brooklyn 261 

Divisions, League Work in Charles H. Ltcscomb . . : 68 

Editors Table : ''. ;'; .//, . I,* L<.;. . ... . \ .\i^, icf?>,\i'^o', qOp, 270, 333 

English Coaching Days, A ' Relic bi?" .'.•.: 1 ',..':!.•..•::.'.• .' ;.'... '. 259 

Famous Roads of Union County, 'tnE. '. C(iarle'f\ C'.'Mc Bride 285 

For Better Roads '.'.'.'..'...' '. .' • 40 

Fund for '93, The Roai;. .$M>PR0^Eirj3N<r... ,'.•;.... .^.. .•...'..*:.'.:.■: ^17. 267, 331 

Growth and Condition 'of* t^ie 'R6x'DS''QiffisTi(5N,' TiIe, 

Hoft. Geo. A. Per h ins 4 

Give Us Better Country Roads 31 

Good Roads for City and Country. . . Col. Albert A. Pope 36 

Government Aid and Direction Clarence D. Warner, C. E. . 41 

Good Work in Lenox, Mass 44 

Good Roads and School Attendance, 

Francis J. Cheney, A. M., Ph. D. 71 

General Miles and The Wheelmen 164 

Good and Bad, Roads Gen. Charles W. Darling. .175 



Page 

" Good Roads" for March 252 

Good Mule Carts, Prizes for 263 

Highways, Staten Island 94, 132 

Highway Bridges „ John N. Ostrom, C. E. . 225, 321 

June Calendar 332 

Korean State Vehicle, A Robe7-t E. Pet tit 214 

Lenox, Mass. , Good Work in 44 

League Work in Divisions. Charles H. Luscomb 68 

Lead, State Should, and Counties YoiAJd^N .. .Hon. Marthi Scheiick 75 

Labor on Public Roads, Convict Rev. Louis A. Pope 121 

Legislation, Massachusetts 158 

Massachusetts, The Situation in Gov. Russell i 

Massachusetts Roads W. E. McClintock, C. E. . . . 10 

Massachusetts' Opportunity Rev. C. S. Walker, Ph. D. . 32 

Merging of Two Systems, The Dr. Charles S. Butler 88 

Macadam and Telford Roads Isaac B. Potter 98, 196 

Metropolitan Road Making 143 

Massachusetts Legislation 158 

Mule Carts, Prizes for Good 263 

May Calendar 269 

Need of Trained Road Makers, The. . ./*/'(?/". Nathaniel S. Shalcr . 20 

New Jersey's Progress Hoti. Edward Burrough . . .i-]-i 

New Jersey Road Legislation Hon. Fratiklin Dye 296 

New York, Road Improvement in Gov. Flower 61 

News and Comment no 

National Debt, The Unrecorded C. M. Plumb 192 

Opportunity, Massachusetts' Rev. C. S. Walker, Ph. D . . 32 

Plain Facts of the Case, The W. S. Bull 81 

Proposed Road Department at Washington, The 106 

Public Roads, Convict Labor on Rev. Louis A. Pope 121 

Philosophy, Wheel-Tire 148 

Paving Bricks and How to Test Them, Gorhani Dana, S. B 205 

Pavements, Cleaning Asphalt 253 

Practical Points in Brief Hon. Eraneis H. Apple ton. . 43 

Prizes for Good Mule Carts 263 

Progress, New Jersey's Hon. Edward Burrcugh. . . . 277 

Queries and Answers 113, 221, 272 

Roads Question, The Growth and Condition of the, 

Hon. Geo. A. Perkins 4 

Roads, Massachusetts W. E. McClintock, C. E. . . 10 

Road Makers, The Need of Trained.. .Prof. Nathaniel S. Shaler . . 20 

Roads A. H. Overman 27 

Rural Towns, State Aid for the Hoti. William R. Sessions . . 28 

Recent Patents 56- "S- 171. 222, 275, 334 

Road Improvement in New York Gov. Flower 61 

Roads and School Attendance, Good, 

Francis J. Cheney, A. M., Ph. D. 71 



Page 

RoAUs, Macadam and Telford Isaac B. Potter 98, 196 

Road Making, Metropolitan 143 

Roads, Good and Bad Gen. Charles IV. Darli7ig. . . 175 

Road-Law in Switzerland Edgar R. Dawson, M. E., 182, 242 

Road Improvement Fund for '93, The 217, 267, 331 

Revised to Date, uEsop W. W. Beadell .. . 215 

Relic of English Coaching Days, A 259 

Road Legislation, New Jersey Hon. Franklin Dye 296 

Situation in Massachusetts, The Gov. Russell i 

State Aid for the Rural Towns Hon. IVill/ain R. Sessions . . . 28 

School Attendance, Good Roads and, 

Francis /. Cheney, A. M., Ph. D. 71 
State Should Lead and Counties Follow . .Hon. Martin Schejick . . 75 

State and the Farmer, The . . . .Hon. William P. Richardson 84 

Staten Island Highways 94, 132 

Switzerland, Road-Law in Edgar R. Dawson, M. E. . 182, 242 

The Situation in Massachusetts Gov. Russell i 

The Growth and Condition of the Roads Question, 

Hon. Geo. A. Perkins 4 

The Need of Trained Road Makers.. .Prof. Nathaniel S. Shaler . 20 

The Agitation for Better Roads /. IV. Stockwell 24 

The Rural Towns, State Aid for . . . .Hon. Williatn R. Sessions . . . 28 

The Plain Facts of the Case W. S. Bull 81 

The State and the Farmer Hon. William P. Richaidsoti 84 

The Merging of Two Systems Dr. Charles S. Butler 88 

To the Wheelmen of America Dr. D. W. Barker 91, 168 

The Proposed Road Department at Washington 106 

Tires, Wide 163 

The Wheelmen, General Miles and 1 64 

The Editor, A Few Important Lines from 167, 216, 266, 330 

The Unrecorded National Debt C. M. Plumb 192 

The Road Improvement Fund for '93 217, 267, 331 

The Famous Roads of Union County. . . . Charles C. Mc Bride 285 

The Jersey Road (Poem) Ernest N. Bagg 311 

The Birthplace of American Road Improvement, 

James Oweti, C. E. 313 

To the Wheelmen of New Jersey Dr. G. Carleiofi Brown 329 

Unrecorded National Debt, The C. M. Plumb 192 

Union County, The Famous Roads of. .Charles C. Mc Bride 285 

Wanted, Better Management, Less " Politics". .Elmer D. Howe . . . 38 

Work in Divisions, League Charles H. Luscotnb 68 

Wheel Tires and Axles William A. Sweet 78 

Wheelmen of America, To the Dr. D. W. Barker 91, 168 

Washington, The Proposed Road Department at 106 

Wheel-Tire Philosophy 148 

Wide Tires 163 

Wheelmen, General Miles and the 164 

Wheelmen of New Jersey, To the Dr. G. Carleton Brown. . . . 329 



Good Roads. 



Vol. 3' 



January, 1893. 



No. I. 




HON. WILLIAM E. RUSSELL, GOVERNOR OF MASsACUL :3E 1 TS. 

THE SITUATION IN MASSACHUSETTS. 
'Bv Hon. William E. Russell Governor. 

DESIRE for the improvement of the comm^on roads of Massa- 
chusetts is the general sentiment of thoughtful and 
progressive citizens who have considered her needs and 
the benefits which better roads would insure. Hardly a state in 
the Union has more favorable conditions for the construction of 
good and durable roads within a reasonable limit of cost. Yet 
many of our roads are in a bad condition and should be im- 
proved. Undoubtedly our people are annually suffering great 



THE SITUATION IK MASSACHUSETTS. 



loss and inconvenience on account of bad roads. The move- 
ment for better roads, which now is so general throughout the 
country, has had its share of help from the citizens of Massa- 
chusetts. The act of the last legislature, providing for the 
appointment of a state highway commission, I heartily ap- 
prove. Able commissioners were appointed under its authority 
who have been doing excellent and zealous work Their re- 
port is to be presented to the legislature in February and will 
undoubtedly receive the thoughtful attention of all our citizens. 
The press of the state has educated and stimulated the public 
sentiment in favor of better roads, and its excellent work ex- 
presses the popular will, which is strongly in favor of this 




" MAW OF OUR ROADS ARE IX A BAD CONDITION AND SHOULD BE IMPROVED." 

View of road near Charlemont, Mass., on line of highway between North Adams 
and Boston. Deep sand and difficult teaming. (From photograph by Massachusetts 
Highway Commission.) 

reform. I believe we have in Massachusetts men perfectly 
competent to build first class roads, as well as road officials in 
the towns who are faithful and earnest men. The question 
is largely one of ways and means on the part of our towns. It 
is not my purpose in this brief paper to suggest the form of 
legislation for the improvement of Massachusetts roads, nor 
to attempt the solution of the question. This is already iDeing 
thoroughly considered by our highway commission. 

It is my purpose rather to express briefly my conviction 
that this form of internal improvement is urgently needed. It 
promises the development and growth of our country districts 
by the improvement of those roads which connect the farm and 



THE SITUATIOy IN MASSACHUSETTS. 3 

the market, and furnish to the producers, the merchants and 
other travelers a means of communication which should at all 
times be open, safe and convenient. Official reports of our 
consuls abroad, reports of our boards of agriculture, dis- 
cussions and papers of the farmers' granges, as well as 
numerous publications in the newspapers and elsewhere, fur- 
nish abundant material upon all branches of the question within 
easy reach. Recent road laws in other states contain useful 
suggestions for our guidance. Under these circumstances 
action in this state ought to be so wisely considered and well 
directed as to accomplish resu]ts which will be a credit to the 
thrift, intelligence and progressive spirit of her people. 



In the manufacture of cotton goods Massachusetts shows a 
wonderful development and stands first among the states. In 
1880 she had 175 cotton mills, representing a total invested 
capital of over $72,000,000. In 1890 the number of mills had 
increased to 187, having an aggregate capital of nearly 
$130,000,000. 

In the ten years ending in 1889 the gross earnings of the 
railways operated within the New England states amounted to 
nearly $600,000,000 and the final net income for the same 
period, after deducting expenses, interest on funded debt, 
rentals, taxes and miscellaneous expenses, amounted to about 
$79,000,000. The New England railways show $9,283 gross 
earnings per mile of line as against $6,290 for the railways of 
the entire country, and net income of $2,937 as against $2,087. 
In the matter of payments the New England railways pay $886 
per mile of line for interest on funded debt, as against $1,389 
of all the railways in the country; dividends are $1,160 as 
against $535 ; while rentals are $628 for both the New England 
railways and those of the country at large. Thus it appears 
that there is little in common between the financial condition 
of New England railways and the railways of those of the 
country at large. 

Avoiding reference to the populous cities and towns of 
Massachusetts and looking only to the conditions shown in the 
agricultural districts, it will appear that within the last decade 
about 149 townships show an increase of population as against 
156 which show an actual decrease. 



Massachusetts has about 64,000 horses on the farms of the 
state. The United States have about 17,000,000 horses and 
mules on the farms. 



THE GROWTH AND CONDITION OF THE ROADS QUESTION. 

WHAT THE LEAGUE HAS DONE TO ADVANCE IT. 

Bv Hon. George A. Perkins, of Boston, 

Member of the Massachusetts Highway Commission and Chief Consul of the 
Massachusetts Division, L. A. W. 

COMMUNITIES located on poor and isolated roads can take no 
successful part in competition with others located on good 
thoroughfares and having the advantage of prompt and 
regular communication with the markets at all seasons. Give 
to an isolated community good substantial roads and they will 

do more toward bringing 
about a general prosperity 
than will any other reform 
that can be introduced. 

The Romans clearly saw 
this, and by their system of 
roads left a memorial that is 
to-day a lesson for us. They 
saw the necessity for roads 
that would permit them to 
travel at all seasons of the 
year, and bring into easy ac- 
cess their remote provinces. • 
Later, as Europe became 
divided into several nations, 
governments, instead of pre- 
serving the roads, actually 
destroyed many of them, so 
that foreign armies should 
find it more difficult to invade 
their country. From the time 
of the famous Roman roads 
to the present century, roads were neglected, and their bad condi- 
tion, so often described, was clearly a drawback to the prosperity 
of Europe. According to the old statutes (2 and 3, Philip and 
Mary, Chapter 8, "For amending the highways, being now 
both very noisome and tedious to travel on, and dangerous to 
all passengers and carriages"), it would appear that the roads 
of England were in a bad condition, and we are told that com- 
munities in one section were suffering from lack of food which 
was plenty in other places, but inaccessible on account of bad 
roads. a, 




HON. GEO. A. PERKINS. 



THE ROADS QUESTION. ^ 

Beg-innlng with, the latter part of the last century, it appears 
from the English statutes that the public had awakened to the 
necessity for united action. Public hearings and investigations 
of the subject were had, and prominent men were made to 
realize the importance of the new reform. It was demonstrated 
how immense was the loss to the country owing to the bad con- 
dition of the roads, and as a result, strict highway laws were 
enacted. Turnpikes were built and a large number of statutes 
passed to encourage and protect them, but these turnpikes, 
througb the general ignorance of practical methods, were not 
kept up nor properly maintained. 

Fortunately, the subject was grasped by snch men as Mac- 




VIEW OF ROAD SURFACE NEAR RUSSELL, MASS. 

A team can haul only one-third to one-half the load over this road that could be 
hauled over a good macadam surface. (From photograph. 

adam, Telford and others, and a new era in road building was 
begun. They proved to the people that good and permanent 
roads could be constructed, and the people soon were convinced 
that their methods were good ones — a conviction that has many 
time since been realized by the excellent roads of Europe and 
some portions of the United States. 

It is interesting to examine some of the English statutes and 
to see how strict some of the road laws have been. For instance, 
a penalty of five pounds is imposed against a surveyor of high- 
ways who allows a pile of stones to remain over night in the 
highway; there is another penalty for encroaching upon the 



6 THE ROADS QUESTION. 

highway ; another for using wheels not of a certain width ; one 
upon officials for neglecting their duty ; and no one is permitted 
to carry at one load in London, or within ten miles thereof, in 
wagons whose wheels are bound with iron streaks, more than 
twelve sacks of meal, on forfeiture of one of the horses. Cart 
ways are prescribed to be twenty feet wide, and no tree can be 
planted within fifteen feet of the centre of the way. By the 
statute (5 and 6, William IV. ), surveyors could make contracts 
for getting material, but could not share in any contract or let 
to hire any team. 

What has been true of England is so in this country. In 
Massachusetts, all through the colonial and provincial times, the 
road question was an absorbing one, for the legislature was 




UETWEEN NORTH ADAMS AND BOSTON. 



VIEW NEAR SHELBURNE, OX M \\ 

This view, though taken in a dry season, shows a loose, heavy surface which 
greatly impedes traffic and cripples the efficiency of the farmer s team. (From 
photograph.) 

constantly enacting laws to bring about abetter system of high- 
ways. In 1639 an act was passed, entitled " To the end there 
may be convenient highwa5^s for travel." This was the first 
act passed by the Massachusetts Bay Colony relating to high- 
ways, and provided for the laying out of country highways "so 
that they be most easy and safe for travelers. " In 1670 an act 
was passed authorizing towns to choose surveyors of highways. 
In 1693 the Province of Massachusetts Bay passed an act "for 
the better amending and keeping in repair and clean the high- 
w^ays and common roads, leading from town to town and place 
to place, and for the laying out of new highways, and turning 



THE ROADS QUESTION. 7 

old highways when it shall be needful." This act provided for 
the annual selection of two or more freeholders in each town, 
to be surveyors of the highways, and gave them power to press 
any carriage, workmen, or other things fit to be employed in 
the highways, and all men over sixteen years of age were liable 
to work by themselves or other competent persons in their stead. 
If any person, chosen a surveyor, refused to accept and take his 
oath, he should forfeit twenty shillings, and having accepted, 
if he neglected his duty, he forfeited for every neglect five 
pounds. It also provided the method for laying out new roads. 
From this time on the people have been agitating the same 
question and, by legislation, endeavoring to improve the high- 




3 



A SUMMER ROAD IN THE TOWN OF WARREN, MASS,, SHOWING AGAIN THE " POWDERY" 
SAND WHICH OBSTRUCTS WAGON TRAFFIC AND INCREASES COST OF TRANSPORTATION. 

This view is on the main road between Springfield and Worcester. (From 
photograph by the Massachusetts Highway Commission.) 

ways. In 1696, by private enterprise, the system of turnpikes 
was begun in Massachusetts and this work proceeded till finally 
some thousand miles of such turnpikes were built. But people 
naturally object to being taxed every time they travel, and pre- 
fer to pay a general assessment and have the roads free to all 
the public. The consequence is that many towns are to-da)' 
spending all that the tax payers think they can bear, and al- 
though the roads are free and open to public travel, yet in 
many towns they are in a bad condition and not likely to be im- 
proved under the present system. The statute of 187 1, repeal- 
ing the law whereby people work out their tax on the road, has 



8 



THE ROADS QUESTION. 



proved beneficial, and the act of 1889, providing for the appoint- 
ment of superintendents of streets in towns, is also giving satis- 
faction. But, however much the legislation, the fact remains 
that the roads are not what they should be, and the people are 
now seeking a remedy. The improvement of the highways has 
become to-day the great and important question, and to the 
League of American Wheelmen is due the credit of bringing it 
to its present state. In 1880 at Newport, R. I., a few cyclists 
from various parts of the United States convened and organized 
this league, which has grown to a size and attained an influence 
in public affairs never reached by any similar body. Its con- 
stitution provides that its objects shall be to promote the 




STONE IN THE WALL AND DIRT IN THE ROAD. 

A common error exemplified. View of sandy roadway near Greenfield on main 
highway between North Adams and Boston- (From photograph by Massachusetts 
Highway Commission.) 

general interest of cycling, and to secure improvement in the 
condition of the public roads and highways. This small body 
has now grown to a membership of thirty-five thousand, and 
includes some of the most prominent public men of the nation. 
It is thoroughly organized, having a national body and a state 
division within each state. By its system of consuls in nearly 
every town it is possible to communicate within a short time 
with nearly every part of the country. For years it has carried 
on the agitation of the question of improved roads and, as all 
are aware, for a long time in the face of opposition ; people 
everywhere saying that the movement was a purely mercenary 
one on the part of the cyclists. Committees worked year after 



THE ROADS QUESTION. 9 

year before the legislatures of the several states, each year 
meeting the same opposition, and it soon became apparent 
that a work of education must be carried on and the importance 
of the subject made known to all. The League then began a 
system of work through magazines, lectures, articles in the 
public press and photographs, and by these means have awak- 
ened the masses, so that to-day various organizations and 
people that once opposed are to-day the foremost in advocating 
the measure. Farmers through their granges, the various 
mercantile and commercial clubs, engineering societies, and 
the people in general are discussing it, and articles in the lead- 
ing magazines and the press favor action. The League has 
convinced the people of the great loss yearly sustained on ac- 
count of bad roads. In Massachusetts the question has been 
before the legislature for several years, and last session repre- 
sentative men of all classes appeared with one desire, namely, 
for better roads ; and they only differed as to the way to get them. 
The legislature passed a law for a commission to inquire into 
the entire subject and report to the legislature this Winter. 
The commission was appointed, given a liberal appropriation, 
and at once began work. It has now about completed its 
labors and the people, who have been posted as to their work 
through the papers, have confidence to believe that something 
will now be accomplished. 

Photographs have been taken of the main roads from Boston 
to New York State by way of Worcester, Springfield and Pitts- 
field, along the New York line to Williamstown, and then to 
Boston by way of North Adams, Greenfield, Athol, Gardner, 
and Fitchburg. Also from Provincetown along Cape Cod to 
Boston, including Martha's Vineyard. These were taken on an 
average of each mile, and show better than any argument the 
need of a better and more general system for constructing the 
public roads. Many pictures were taken in other places, and 
all with the same showing. Some of the pictures are here pro- 
duced. The commission has investigated into the different 
methods of constructing roads now in use and the best ones 
to adopt. They have considered the tire question, and the cost 
of maintaining the roads, and have gathered an amount of data 
of great value. Hearings have been held in all parts of the 
state, and selectmen, road officials and prominent public men, 
by their voice, have demanded some action. 

Massachusetts has begun a miovement which other states 
are sure to follow, and as in all great reforms she is bound to 
be in the van. All desire good roads, and they hope that the 
time is not far distant when the roads of Massachusetts and the 
other states, shall be as good as those of England and the Euro- 
pean countries. 



MASSACHUSETTS ROADS. 



"By IV. E. mcClintocK C. E., 

CMetnber oftAmcrican Society of Civil Engineers; Instructor in Highway Engineering, 
Harvard University; dVIcmhcr of ^Massachusetts Highway Commission. 

WITH the advent of the present century the civilized world 
seemed to awaken to the necessity of improved systems 
of highways. We can see but very little, if any, 
progress in the science or application of road improvement 
from the time the barbarian hordes of the north swept back 
the civilization of the south and rendered useless those mag- 
nificent avenues of war and 
- - - - commerce, built by the 

Roman emperors during their 
progressive conquests. At 
the beginning of the nine- 
teenth century the roads of 
England, Scotland, "Wales and 
France were described by 
historians and novelists as 
being in a deplorable condi- 
tion. In England the ques- 
tion was carefully considered, 
and a series of hearings, be- 
fore a royal commission, 
culminated in a report to 
Parliament which resulted 
in great improvements. 
Amongst the witnesses ap- 
pearing before this commis- 
sion, we see the names of 
John Loudon Macadam and 
Sir Thomas Telford, two men who have done more than any 
others to bring order out of chaos, and to leave behind them 
monuments of engineering skill and good judgment. Macadam 
and Telford proved beyond a doubt that it was cheaper to build 
well than to continue on in the old line of unskilled and 
unscientific work. While the work as at first organized was 
defective in its details, yet a better system was soon substituted, 
which gave to England the splendid roads of to-day. 

At about this same time France, under the first Napoleon, 
started out on the development of a system which has no 
superior; and under this system some forty-eight thousand 
miles of national and state roads have been constructed, which 




W. E. MCCLINTOCK. 



MASSACHUSETTS ROADS. 



make travel by highway a pleasure, and reduce the cost of 
transportation of freight to a minimum. It is not my purpose 
to describe the French system, as it has often been described 
of late, and is possibly familiar to most of your readers. 
Sui!ice it to say that the responsibility of all French work is 
concentrated in the hands of a regular corps of engineers and 
each mile of road is placed in the hands of capable men, who 
are held personally responsible for its condition, and the 
responsibility is gradually concentrated through overseers, 
divisional engineers and state engineers up to an engineer in 
chief, who plans the whole grand scheme and sees that it is 
executed according to his plan. Such a system of supervision 
makes it possible to keep an exact record; to experiment with 
different materials for the purpose of determining their value, 
for road purposes; to study from actual wear the best type of 




" ROAD r.UILniNG IS TREATED AS A SCIENCE." 

View of country road in France, showing clean, smooth surface and tool house 

for " cantonnier," or road man, in foreground. 

road ; to gradually eliminate uncertainties, and above all, to fix 
the responsibility, in each and every case. Road building is 
treated as a science, and down to the most menial position, 
experience is the one requisite for permanent employment. 
Under such a system, we fail to see the important position of 
superintendent of many miles of roads elected solely because 
he has a large family to support, and needs the salary, or 
because he has done good work during election, and must be 
rewarded. What is true of England and France in the matter 
of supervision is also true of other European nations. The 
work is systematized and men are educated to build and 
maintain. 

While Europe was struggling with the problem as to the 
best method of surfacing roads, over which scores of genera- 



12 



MASSACHUSETTS ROADS. 



tions had passed, our own people were cutting roads through 
wildernesses and attempting to remove the trees and bridge 
the streams, so as to make it possible to get from point to 
point. Our people naturally followed in the footsteps of the 
mother country, and it is not strange to see the turnpike 
system of old England duplicated in nearly all its details in New 
England. 

Previous to 1796, no systematic effort seems to have been 
made to secure a direct inter-town communication. A charter 
granted in that year to a private turnpike company was followed 
in quick succession by about one hundred and twenty like 






'^ 



"A SAVING OF FIVE C\ \'TS PER TON PER MILE MEANS A SAVING THROIT.TIOT'T THR 
STATE OF $1,862,967 PER YEAR." 

Road between Athol and East Templeton, Mass. The cost of hauling a ton load 
over thisheavv surface is from two to three times the expense of hauling the same 
load over a smooth, hard road. (From photograph by Massachusetts Highway 
Commission.) 

charters, covering the state with a network of fully one thousand 
miles of turnpike roads, costing, in the aggregate, between two 
and three million dollars. While but little engineering skill 
was shown either in the laying out or building of these turnpikes, 
their influence must have been very great in the development 
of a new country. And it is fair to say that the first cost of 
construction was in every case lost to the projectors and that 
the state at large received the benefit of at least a right of way 
and a graded roadway. 

Shortly after the advent of the turnpike system, the canal 
scheme of our state was inaugurated by the opening of the 



MASSACHUSETTS ROADS. 



n 



Middlesex Canal in 1808, connecting- Boston with Lowell. Fol- 
lowing this came the Blackstone Canal, connecting Worcester 
and Providence, and the New Haven and Northampton 
Canal, connecting New Haven with Northampton, costing 
the projectors in the aggregate a million and a quarter, 
none of which was ever returned. The cost of transporting 
freight over the turnpikes was in cases sixty cents a ton per 
mile., and twenty-five cents for the same service was probably 
the minimum. By canal, freight was transported for about six 
and one-sixth cents a ton per mile, and it is difficult to predict 
what would have been the history of our canals if railroads 




HOW EXPENSIVE TEAMING CAN BE SAVED. 

View of improved road in Spencer, Mass. (From photograph by Massachusetts 
Highway Commission.) 

had not been built. The long, cold Winters, and closing of 
canals by ice for from two to four months of the year, combined 
with trouble from floods in Spring and lack of water in Summer, 
made prompt or regular delivery of freight by this method im- 
possible, and our people were prompt in changing from canals 
to railroads when they felt assured that railroads would prove a 
success. Thus we see that when the Boston and Albany re- 
ceived its charter in 1834, the whole state seemed ready for a 
change, and between that date and 1849 (during which year 
the N. Y. and N. E. R. R. received its charter), charters were 
granted to all the leading railroads, as we know them to-day. 
With the first opening of the railroads the canals were doomed, 



M 



MASSACHUSETTS ROADS. 




"anyone WHO HAS KlUUEN OVER THE MILES ON MILES OF LOOSE, SANDY AND 
BADLY RUTTED ROADS TO BE FOUND IN MANY PARTS OF OUR STATE, MUST HAVE 
BEEN IMPRESSED WITH THE FACT THAT THEY OFFERED THE GREATEST POSSIBLE 
RESISTANCE TO THE PASSAGE OF TEAMS." 

View of road in the town of Palmer, Mass. (From photograph by Massachusetts 
Highway Commission.) 

and by the time the last named railroad was started, they 
closed up their business and the New Haven and Northampton 
Canal Company took out a railroad charter, constructing- the 
road-bed on the old tow path. 

The effect of railroads on the turnpike may be judged by 
examining the toll returns of the Salem turnpike, connecting 
Boston and Salem, nearly parallel to the line of the Eastern 
Railroad, the railroad being opened in 1840. These tolls in 
1839 amounted to about twelve thousand dollars, while in 
1840, they were a little over six thousand dollars. The turn- 
pike and canal have served a useful purpose, but the railroad is, 
and will be, the great carrier. It will be built when there is 
sufficient segregation of population to warrant it,- and wherever 
it leads, prosperity will follow. 

While the railroad has been, and is now, building up the 
country, the fact must not be lost sight of that it cannot to any 
great extent reach out into the sparsely settled parts, and its 
work must be carefully supplemented by the highway. 

A greater part of the manufactured and most of the agri- 
cultural products, must be transported over the country roads, 
either to or from the railroad stations, and in many cases, team 
transportation has to be resorted to at both ends of the railroad 
journey, and it must be admitted that a small saving per ton 



MASSACHUSETTS ROADS. 15 

on this means a large sum in the aggregate. Many estimates 
have from time to time been made as to the possible saving in 
cost of transportation on good roads. The English commission, 
in their report of 181 1, say: "The saving in the United Kingdom 
by the introduction of good roads means the annual saving of 
five millions sterling ($25,000,000) and the saving of an immense 
number of horses. " It is claimed that the loss in the State of 
Illinois in transporting the cereals to the railroad stations 
amounts to fifteen million dollars annually. 

The reference by the Royal Commission to a saving in the 
number of horses if the roads of the United Kingdom were all 
good, suggests a study in this direction, and I give below a few 
figures which, in my opinion, show conclusively that their con- 
clusions were sound. 

A comparison of the horses and population shows that one 
horse does the work of thirteen and three-tenths persons in 
France, twenty-four persons in England, twenty and six-tenths 
persons in Scotland, and twelve and three-quarters persons in 
Massachusetts. The rate has not appreciably varied in our 
state for the past twenty years, and going back as far as 1840, 
we find that one horse did the work of twelve and one-half per- 
sons. Our railroad facilities are certainly equal to those of 
either Scotland, England or France, and yet we use a larger 
number of horses to perform the work. 

By last year's returns there were 178,742 horses in Massachu- 
setts. Assuming that the same amount of work is done as in 
the other countries referred to, we ought to have the following 
number of horses: If compared with France, 167,000; Scot- 
land, 108,600; England, 93, 100, or a saving, as compared with 
England, of 85,642 horses; Scotland, 70,142 horses; France, 
11,742 horses. Taking the interest on the value of the horses 
saved as four per cent., and the value of each horse one hun- 
dred dollars, we figure an annual saving in interest of $342,568 
if compared with England, $280,568 compared with vScotland, 
$46,963 compared with France. Estimating the cost of keep- 
ing as $144 per year for each horse, and adding this amount to 
what is saved in interest, we have a total saving, if the work is 
done on the basis of English work, of $12,332,448, Scotland, 
$10,100,448, and France, $1,737,816. 

Approaching the problem from another direction we may 
possibly give increased value to the above figures. 

The railroads of Massachusetts transported 27,944,500 tons 
of freight during the year 1 89 1. Assuming that two-thirds of 
this may be credited to the cities on the basis that two-thirds of 
the manufactured products are from the cities, and two-thirds 
of the state tax is derived from the cities, it leaves us one-third 
of the railroad freight to pass over the section of the state 
outside of the cities, or 9,314,514 tons. I estimate that each 



1 6 MASSACHUSETTS ROADS. 

ton of freight is teamed over the country road on an average 
of four miles, giving as a result 37,259,336 tons hauled one mile. 
A saving of five cents per ton per mile means a saving through- 
out the state of $1,862,967. 

It must be remembered that in this estimate we take no ac- 
count of the freight that passes over the roads directly to the 
consumer without the aid of the railroads. A study of the 
eight main roads leading into Boston shows that there are fully 
eight million tons of freight hauled one mile, or nearly one 
quarter of what I have before estimated for the state at large 
outside the cities. These figures show that even on a small 
basis of estimate, the net loss is enormous, by reduced loads; 
and on the other hand, the saving is equally large by increas- 
ing the load per horse and by so doing reducing the number of 
horses. 

Anyone who has ridden over the miles on miles of loose, 
sandy and badly rutted roads to be found in many parts of our 
state, must have been impressed with the fact that they offered 
the greatest possible resistance to the passage of teams. A 
practical road builder would observe that in many instances 
nothing but native soil has been used ; in other instances he 
would see where more or less gravel has been placed directly 
on the soil ; and in certain other instances, where sand prevails, 
he would notice that clay forms the wearing surface. 

In the ordinary repairs, the road machine plays an import- 
ant part, its use being in the main to give shape, by dragging 
back materials that have long since ceased to be of any value. 
So long as roads are built of a material that is loose and ruts 
up, the road scraper will be of great value in repairing. But 
the result cannot be considered satisfactory, as a road so re- 
paired will not increase the load per horse and will, to but a 
limited extent, shed water. Water below, but near the surface, 
is a destroying element, and the whole theory and practice is 
to get it out and keep it out. There is no division of opinion 
on this point. The division comes on the cheapest and most 
practical way of doing this. A dirt road, under cover, would 
doubtless give satisfaction to light travel and it would probably 
retain its shape for a long time, if sprinkled just enough to 
prevent dust forming and not enough to make mud. 

There are so many different kinds of gravel, it would be 
difficult to say what you can or cannot do with it. Some is 
naturally good, and will make a road that will stand, under 
light travel, for a long ' term of years. Some is rather poor, 
but by careful manipulation and constant care, will make a 
fairly good road. Some is so poor that it is not economy to 
move it for surfacing the road with. All our gravels, how- 
ever, make a good foundation, and there are hundreds of 
miles of roads throughout our state dosed with this gravel until, 



MASSACHUSETTS ROADS. 



17 



by mixing with the mud, it has formed a foundation of the 
most soHd sort, and these roads are now open for the skilled 
road builder to accomplish splendid results at small cost. 
There are large quantities of rock scattered throughout the 
state, which, when broken up into proper sizes, will make the 
very best possible road metal. The complete railroad system 
of the state renders it possible to move this rock and deliver 
where needed at a comparatively small expense. In my 
opinion, private capital will be the best means of qaurrying and 
breaking the rock ready to use, and delivering on cars to the 
towns ; that is, when the work is located within a reasonable 
distance of the railroad. When the haul becomes so great that 




" so LONG AS ROADS ARE BUILT OF A MATERIAL THAT IS LOOSE AND RUTS UP, THE 
ROAD SCRAPER WILL BE OF GREAT VALUE IN REPAIRING." 

View of modern high-class road grader at work, showing action of steel blade in 
moving earth into proper form. Under fair conditions one of these machines will 
do the work of thirty to forty men, and they are great labor-savers in the work of 
repairing dirt roads. With good drainage and the use of wide wheel tires, one 
road grader will keep a dirt road in fairly good condition the year round. 

the cost of teaming is materially increased, it will then be nec- 
essary to resort to portable crushers. 

There are but small sections of our state where an abund- 
ance of field stone of good quality cannot be found. A portable 
crusher set up on a piece of road, so as to work one mile in 
either direction, can readily be furnished with all the stone 
needed, and the cost of breaking and putting on to the roads 
can be met economically. 



1 8 MASSACHUSETTS ROADS. 

It is safe to say that the experienced road builder of to-day 
will admit that satisfactory results cannot be obtained without 
extreme care and careful attention to every detail of the work, 
from the foundation, with proper drainage where needed, up 
to the final surfacing and completion of the road. Care and 
proper implements make it possible to build a first-class road 
to-day by the use of far less material than under the old 
method. A careful compacting of the foundation jDrevents the 
road metal from being buried in such a manner as to destroy 
all bond, and make it necessary to put on an extra thickness 
for the sake of getting an impervious roof over the road, which 
shall keep out all water. On a porous foundation nature fur- 
nishes good drainage. On a soggy, clayey foundation the 
good road builder will cut off the ground water in such a 




" A PORTABLE CRUSHER SET UP OX A PIECE OF ROAD, SO AS TO WORK ONE MILE IN 

EITHER DIRECTION, CAN READILY BE FURNISHED * * AND THE COST 

CAN BE MET ECONOMICALLY." 

View of portable stone crusher capable of crushing from 7 to 15 tons per hour. 
Requires 8 to 10 horse power to drive it. 



manner as to prevent its getting under the road, and this, in 
connection with an impervious roof, will defy the action of 
frost. One universal reason given for not building stone 
roads is that they are an expensive luxury. While this may be 
true in some cases, yet I think in most cases it is far from true. 
The difficulty comes from the fact that most of our road builders 
fail to look beyond the present year, and simply make a com- 
parison of cost without regard to the length of time the road 
will be used without extensive repairs. If a road costs fifteen 
cents a square yard to build of gravel, clay, or other cheap ma- 
terial and will last five years, we must figure the cost for a term 
of twenty-five years as seventy-five cents, or three cents per 
square yard annually. If the same road can be built of broken 



MASSACHUSETTS ROADS. 19 

stone for, say sixty cents a square yard, and will stand twenty- 
five years without repairs, the annual cost becomes two and 
one-quarter cents per square yard. A comparison extending 
over a second term of twenty-five years will show a still greater 
saving, as the cost of the poorer material would continue on 
in the same manner, while the cost of repairing the macadam 
would probably not exceed twenty-five cents a square yard, to 
make it last through the second term. While these figures may 
not be absolutely correct, yet they do apply to hundreds of 
roads that have come under my own observation. When it is 
considered that the work-producing power of a horse is in- 
creased from twenty to forty per cent, by the use of the mac- 
adam road, it will readily be seen that it is bad economy to 
build a cheap road. 

When we reach this point, we will be where England and 
France were at the beginning of the present century. Until 
we reach this point, we will remain where we are, satisfied 
with "good enough," and apply the old proverb, "When 
the tool is dull put on more more strength." The execution of 
road work in IMassachusetts is carried out by road commission- 
ers elected directly by the people, or superintendents elected 
by the selectmen. As a whole, a better lot of men cannot be 
found. They are honest and industrious and fully understand 
how to manage the forces under their control, but they do not 
have that knowledge which comes of large experience and long 
continued observation. If there can be found a way to direct 
these men, or to broaden their views by bringing them together 
to discuss their work and familiarize themselves with each 
others methods, great good must follow, and with the fact es- 
tablished that they can build good roads, more money will, in 
most cases, be voted to build with. One leading cause of our 
slow progress in road improvement is, that too much is at- 
tempted in the way of scattered repairs with nothing well done. 

Do a small piece of first-class work each year, and the re- 
sult will be that we may point to our good work and tell others 
how it is done. 



The total assessed valuation in the United States has 
increased between 1880 and 1890 from $17,000,000,000 to 
$24,250,000,000. The increase of total assessed valuation in 
Massachusetts has been from $1,600,000,000 to $2,154,000,000, 
the increase being $570,000,000. The total assessed valuation 
per capita in Massachusetts is $962.12 and exceeds that of any 
other state in the Union. In Massachusetts the increase per 
cent, of assessed valuation in the last ten years has been thirty- 
six and the increase per cent, of population in the same period 
has been twenty-five per cent. 



THE NEED OF TRAINED ROAD-MAKERS. 



By Prof . Nathaniels. Shaler of Harvard University. 

CMember of iMassachiisetts Highway Commission. 

ALTHOUGH the highways of this country have not been much 
bettered since the agitation concerning them began, the 
situation of the problem which they present has been 
greatly improved. It is doubtful if in any country a social or 
economic question has ever so swiftly and effectively been 

brought to the attention of the 
people. In about three years 
our people have passed from an 
attitude of indifference to a 
state in which they not only de- 
sire improvement, but begin to 
see their way as to the methods 
by which they may gain the 
end. This rapid progress has 
been due mainly to the effective 
manner in which the press has 
supported the endeavors of 
those reformers who have un- 
dertaken to deal with the mat- 
ter. 

While the task of better- 
ing our roads has been most 
' auspiciously begun, we are 

as yet in that part of the 
PROF. N. s. SHALER. Undertaking where serious 

dangers are to be met. Our 
people understand something as to the grievous nature of the 
tax which bad roads inflict ; they furthermore perceive that any 
effective system of improvement demands the assistance of well 
trained road masters. We have now to find the way by which 
men of sufficient training, and in sufficient numbers, can be 
provided to take charge of the work. 

To those who are little acquainted with the difficulties of 
what we may fairly term road architecture, the conditions of 
highway construction naturally seem to be very simple. All 
that is necessary to obtain is a smooth, well graded, hard sur- 
face, which will uphold the wheels and give a good footing for 
the feet of the draft animals. In fact it would be easy, even 
within the limits of this brief paper, to set forth all the main 
steps which need be taken to provide a good road; but, after all. 




THE NEED OF TRAINED ROAD-MAKERS. 21 



such a prescription would be about as useful as that which 
Hamlet gave concerning pipe playing; the ignorant though 
able road master would be in no wise helped by the array of 
maxims. In practice he finds himself, in each new field, in the 
face of endlessly varying problems as to the conditions of the 
earth over which his road is to be carried, and the nature of the 
material to which he may have access for use as *'road metal." 
His problems are indeed almost as complicated as are those of 
the chemist when he seeks to attain a given end and has to 
determine what reagents and apparatus he is to employ. In 
both cases this choice is a large part of the action. Thus it 
appears to me that the present question is as to how we may 
adequately train road engineers. 




"THE GRIEVOUS NATURE OF THE TAX WHICH BAD RoADS INFLICT." 

Dirt road near Shelburne Falls, Mass., showing deep ruts and "heavy " surface 
in dry season. A chain is no stronger than its weakest link ; a road is no better 
than its deepest hole. (Prom photograph by Massachusetts Highway Commission.) 

To the equipment of a skilled highway engineer there must 
go a certain share of several sciences and arts. He must be 
trained in civil engineering to the point where he can be trusted 
to plan and build considerable bridges, make a good plane-table 
survey with contours, determine the nature and probable use- 
fulness of the various rocks with which he has to deal, and care 
for the somewhat complicated machinery, such as steam crushers 
and rollers, which are required in the construction of good roads. 
To give the student this training he must be taught a number 
of things which can only be adequately presented in our techni- 
cal schools of the higher grade. Besides the engineering 



22 



THE XEED OE TRAIXED ROAD-MAKERS. 



courses, strictly so called, he should have a knowledge of 
geology taught in the field, and of chemistry where the instruc- 
tion is by well directed laboratory practice. He needs to know 
something of the strength of materials, and to gain the knowl- 
edge by a considerable use of testing machines. He should 
moreover be to a certain extent practiced in hand labor in the 
manner in which this class of work is taught in a good manual 
training school. 

There is no reason to doubt that our greater technical 
schools, at least those which are connected with the universities 
of this country, will soon provide a training which will enable 




THE WORK OF A SKILLED Ri lAD-M AKER. 
View of improved road in Newton, Middlesex Co., ]\Iass. A team can haul 
over this road thrice the load that it can haul over the road shown in the last 
picture. (From photograph by Massachusetts Highway Commission.) 

young men to fit themselves to take charge of the roads of this 
country. The Lawrence Scientific School, a constituent part of 
Harvard College, has already taken steps to provide for a 
department of road engineering. Mr. William E. McClintock, 
a person of large experience in road building, is to have 
immediate charge of the course, which is to be begun in 
February, 1893, with a class of a dozen or more students. In 
addition to their training in the civil and mechanical engineer- 
ing necessary for their development, these pupils will receive 
instruction in the collateral branches before mentioned ; the 
work will be illustrated by collections of materials and models, 
and by observations on the practical work of road building, its 
processes and results, exemplifications of which can be found in 



THE NEED OF TRAINED ROAD-MAKEES. 



23 



great variety in the immediate neighborhood of the school. By 
the Autumn term of the year 1893, this department of the 
university will have passed through the difficulties of organiza- 
tion and be in a condition effectively to deal with as many 
students as may resort to it. 

When the development of railways began in this country 
the art opened a new field to 3^oung engineers, many of whom 
have attained eminent success in this walk of life. There 
seems every reason to believe that the reconstruction and care 
of our highways will afford room for a yet greater number of 
able men to enter on prosperous careers. There is no place 




POOR WORK AND A POOR SURFACE. 

Highway surface at Worcester, Mass., showing effect of dirty, ill-assorted materials 
and narrow wheel tires. (From photograph by Massachusetts Highway Com- 
mission.) 

in the economic work of our time which may so well tempt 
enterprising and able youths. Those who are in position to do 
so should at once provide the means for their education. The 
present tide which sets in favor of good roads is clearly strong ; 
we need only to make due use of it to go far towards the end 
we seek. The people have already come to desire improve- 
ment ; we must at once provide them with trained men who 
can execute their will. 



Massachusetts has about 371,000 pupils enrolled in her 
public schools and about 60,000 in private schools and acade- 
mies making about 430,000 in all. 



THE AGITATION FOR BETTER ROADS. 



"By J. IV. Stockwell, of Sutton, Mass. , Official Lecturer. 
Massachusetts State Grange. 

THE question of good roads is one of the most prominent 
problems of the country to-day. From the east, west 
and south comes the demand for better facilities of road 
transportation and cheaper road freights for the farmer's 
products. Figures are thrust before us at every town, demon- 
strating the loss from bad 
roads — the waste from the 
present systems; and legis- 
lation is invoked. 

It is not fair that we of 
Massachusetts or of New 
England should adopt the 
arguments or the statistics 
of the west or south, as 
conditions are so very dif- 
ferent. In those fertile sec- 
tions of this country, they 
know only two kinds of 
roads, "mud roads" and 
"macadamized roads," and 
on these fertile, plains the 
"mud road" is for a 
portion of the year im- 
passable for teams, and 
dangerous for travelers even on horseback. At just the time 
of the farmer's leisure, just the season when the farmer should 
transport his product to the market, he is shut up to an inso- 
lation unknown to us, sometimes for weeks or months, and the 
work of transportation is delayed to the time of the seed sow- 
ing or the grain harvest, greatly to his loss. 

These sections would be more than satisfied, blest indeed, 
could they have as good roads as New England now has. We do 
not wonder; we rejoice, indeed, that these farmers demand better 
avenues of wagon transportation for their products to the 
business centres. And we are glad that this demand is now re- 
ceiving the serious and careful consideration of our best politi- 
cal economists throughout the country. The grange has taken 
hold of this question and is moving forward in many states and 
the wheelmen are prime organizers in the movement for better 
roads. 24 




STOCKWELL. 



THE AGITATION FOR BETTER ROADS. 



25 



But of our own Massachusetts roads, considering the ma- 
terial at hand and the amount of money expended, are they 
what they should be? No, is the unanimous reply. We all rec- 
ognize the wasteful methods of road supervision and road mak- 
ing, the foolish expenditure of the people's money, and the 
consequent loss to the state. 

Starting from this point of agreement, let us consider what 
has been done in the past year, and what the prospect for future 
legislation. 




" THE FARMER IS SHUT UP AND THE WORK OF TRANSPORTATION IS DELAYED, 

GREATLY TO HIS LOSS." 

View of country road at end of wet season. Impassable for heavy loaded 
farm wagons. (From photograph.; 

To the cyclists belongs the honor of introducing the first bill 
for a radical change in road management. They had one ob- 
ject in view, better roads for the " wheel "; they had money 
and talent at their command; they represented the bicycle manu- 
facturers and the wheelman's clubs of the state ; they were 
courteous, and, in the truest sense of the term, gentlemen. It 
was delightful to meet men who, desiring legislation favorable 



26 THE AGITATION FOR BETTER ROADS. 

to themselves, desired equal benefit to all and injury to none. 
They were quick to see the defects in their bill. The grange 
was consulted and the amended bill, with slight modifications, 
is the law of to-day It provided for a commission to go over 
the state to observe the roads and the methods of construction 
and repair, to consult with the county commissioners and re- 
port its recomendations to the next general court. As pro- 
posed, this report closes the work of this commission, as en- 
acted. The commission continues: 

That this report will be valuable is beyond question ; that 
its recommendations will have great weight with the next legis- 
lature is also assured ; that the legislation consequent will be of 
the highest importance to the farmers is equally certain. 
Therefore it is the immediate duty of the grange to guard well 
the interests of the town and of the state, that this burden shall 
not be unduly felt by any, or unfairly distributed. We believe 
that this commission created by the state should be supported 
by the state and its expenditures paid out of the state treasury. 
The business centre is more interested than the rural town, 
and the benefit will be mutual. 

It is the farmer's grand opportunity or his misfortune. The 
wheelmen desire to work with us ; they request our co-opera- 
tion and our aid. I believe we shall work together and accom- 
plish a grand reform. However that may be, we are nearing 
the end of wasteful economy, or rather extravagance, in road 
making. The old methods and old machinery are going away 
never to return. The actual known need of better roads is a 
propelling force we cannot safely stand in the way of. Our 
united strength is needed to give it a right direction and the 
crisis is just before us. 



The average decrease of debt of the United States daring 
the last ten years has exceeded one hundred millions of dollars 
per year. The decrease per capita of combined national state 
and local debt during the same period was from $60. 73 to $32. 37, 
while the value of property assessed for taxation has increased 
in the same period from $17,000,000,000 to $25,500,000,000, or 
fifty per cent., indicating a deduction of public debt and an 
increase of wealth for the country unprecedented at least in 
modern times. 



This Copy of Good Roads has a special value to the Massachusetts 
reader. After you have read it you can aid a good work by sending 
your copy to Hon. G. A. Perkins, 5 P ember ton Square, Boston, Mass. 
He will use it where it will do the most good. 



ROADS. 



By A. H. Overman, President of the Overman Wheel Company. 

THE civilization of a people may be measured by the condi- 
tion of their roads, and their breadth of mind by their 
appreciation of means of locomotion. 
Life is ever linked with motion, and the man who would be 
in the greatest sense comprehensive must lend himself to the 

best means of getting about. 
As our arteries are the 
means of circulation, so our 
roads are the real evidences of 
life in our great land. 

Since time is the most 
precious gift we have, let us 
save it, as we cannot make it. 
We save it best by improv- 
ing our means of getting 
about quickly. 

First in importance is good 
roads. 

Second, good machinery. 
I gladly express my ap- 
proval of the men who have 
done so much for the improve- 
ment of our highways, and 
only regret that there are so 
many who are willing to share 
in the benefits while they 
decline to help bear the 
burdens of the work. 
If I should attempt a suggestion it would be that, while the 
general system of road improvement is being fostered, it would 
be well to make and smooth out narrow paths along the road 
sides, which should answer the purpose of bicyclers till the en- 
tire road is completed. 




H. OVERMAN. 



If you are a Alassac/iusetts reader of GOOD ROADS, 
send this copy to one of your local newspapers and ask the Editor 
to review, and, if possible, to commend it ; — or send it to one of 
your County Officers and advise him to read it. 2^ 



STATE AID FOR THE RURAL TOWNS. 

By Hon. William R. Sessions, Secretary Massachusetts State 
Board of Agriculture. 



M 




ASSACHUSETTS is a State of cities and large villages, but it 
has also 'a large number of towns distant from railroad 
stations and from the centres of business. The schemes 
of many enthusiasts for better roads seem chimerical to a farmer 
living in a town having small valuation and many miles of road. 

Let us look at the question 
from the standpoint of such a 
farmer. The town of Hamp- 
den in which I reside has 
fifty miles of road. The as- 
sessed valuation of the town 
in the year 1891 was $407,728, 
and this sum was, as a whole, 
quite up to the cost value of 
the property assessed. Stone 
roads cost from $2,000 to 
$10,000 per mile. Were we 
to macadamize all the roads 
in town at a cost of 
$4,000 per mile, the expense 
would amount to one-half the 
value of all the taxable prop- 
erty of the town. It would 
double our taxes to build one 
and one-half miles of such road 
in one year, and if all the roads 
of the town should be recon- 
structed at the rate of one and one-half miles per year, it would 
take thirty-three years of double taxes to accomplish the job. 
Many of our hill towns have a smaller valuation and a much 
larger mileage of road than Hampden. Such towns, unaided, 
can never build stone roads, and it is folly to advocate them, 
unless state aid is to be provided. Many of these towns have 
within their limits a supply of good gravel. With thorough 
drainage and six inches to one foot of good gravel, country roads 
can be wonderfully improved. The matter of road drainage 
has received little attention in most towns and the advent of 
the road machine has not helped this condition, but has indi- 
rectly caused towns to neglect this vital necessity more and 
more. The machines are expensive, and the tendency is to> 
depend entirely on them for road repairing. If the state would 



SESSIONS. 



STATE AID FOR THE RURAL TOWNS. 



29 



build a first class road to connect each town with its natural 
market, or with its most accessible railroad station, such roads 
would not only be a wonderful help, but would be a valuable 
object lesson for the towns. These roads would be constructed 
under the supervision of a competent engineer. The hills 
would be properly graded, the road bed thoroughly drained 
and ballasted with good gravel or broken stone, according to 
the kind and amount of traffic that would be likely to pass over 
them. If good gravel were close at hand it would be better to 
use it; while if it must be hauled a long distance broken stone 
might be economical. The details of the cost of the roads 
should be fully reported in all cases, so that the towns could 




"WITH THOROUGH DRAINAGE AND SIX INCHES TO ONE FOOT OF GOOD GRAVEL, 
COUNTRY ROADS CAN BE WONDERFULLY IMPROVED." 



View of soft dirt road in Leominster, Mass. In Summer, loose and dusty; in 
Spring and Fall, heavy with deep mud. Plenty of good stone and gravel in this 
neighborhood. 

compare the advantages received with the cost, and be able to 
decide how much such work they could afford on the other 
roads of the town. Along with such a plan should go a system 
of bounties or gratuities offered by the state to encourage the 
towns to reconstruct the remaining roads. The state might, 
by legislation, say to the towns : " For every mile of road recon- 
structed by a town, to the acceptance of the state road engineer, 
the state will reconstruct another mile within the limits of that 
town." If the state has better facilities for building such roads 
than the towns have the offer might be: " If a town will raise 
and appropriate the sum necessary for a certain amount of 



3° 



STATE AID FOR THE RURAL TOWNS. 



road, the same to be expended by or under the direction of the 
state road engineer, the state will build or reconstruct double 
that amount within that town. " This plan might be inaugu- 
rated without including the building of the main roads by the 
state, although in my opinion it would not be wise to do so. 
The scheme should also provide that the state engineer should, 
at the request of the town, advise which of the town roads 
should be first improved, and make plans, specifications and es- 
timates of cost before the voting of appropriations by the town. 




THE WORK OF A STATE. 



View of improved road in Switzerland; built by trained road makers under the 
direction of the general government. 

By this plan the enterprise of one town would stimulate adjoin- 
ing towns to emulation, and the result would be a gradual 
change from the poor roads of the present to first class roads in 
the near future. 

I believe in state aid for road building, but am of the opin- 
ion that the towns should bear part of the burden. Such a 
plan would result in the building of roads according to the use 



GIVE US BETTER COUNTRY ROADS. 31 

that would be made of them. Where a large amount of heavy 
teaming needed accommodation, the state engineer would, of 
course, plan the road for that kind of traffic. Roads for light 
vehicles would be built accordingly. The cost would be ac- 
cording to the requirements in each case. We must have better 
roads. The problem is how to get them. In formulating a 
state plan the circumstances and conditions of all parts of the 
commonwealth must be considered. 



GIVE US BETTER COUNTRY ROADS. 

PEOPLE who live in a city or in the vicinity of a city have but 
a faint idea of the deplorable condition of country roads 
at this season of the year. They are mud rivers flowing 
through the landscape. Travel upon these roads is an amphibi- 
ous process, a compromise between wading and swimming. 

The average country road in the Spring of the year is usually 
a very crooked line between two given points, supplying the 
worst conceivable facilities for travel. 

Until within comparatively recent years this has been con- 
sidered an inevitable condition of affairs. These mud rivers, 
too solid for canals and too fluid for highways, have been navi- 
gated by the patient farmers, whose horses have wallowed 
through the public thoroughfares as the hippopotamus wallows 
through the marshes of the Ganges. As the poets have asso- 
ciated Spring and " ethereal mildness " so the farmers have asso- 
ciated Spring and mud. 

But of late, through the agitation instigated by Colonel Pope, 
Isaac B. Potter and others, it is becoming apparent that country 
roads need not be mud rivers in the Spring nor dust rivers in 
the Summer. It has been shown that the country roads in 
France, in England and in Belgium are hard, smooth, and dry 
at all seasons of the year. But the roads in those countries are 
built on scientific principles by scientific engineers. Our 
roads are, on the contrary, usually repaired by the farmers them- 
selves, who ostensibly " work out " their road taxes every Spring. 

It is a well-known fact that the farmers do not make this 
labor extremely laborious. But they have a good time socially, 
and the long shovel handle furnishes a convenient rest upon 
which to lean w^hile they discuss politics and neighborhood gossip. 

Mr. Potter is of the opinion that the care of the roads should 
be assumed by the state, which should put them imder the 
supervision of scientific superintendents, who should construct 
and repair them upon the best scientific principles. 

Whether the care of the roads should be assumed by the 
general State Government is a question upon which there is a 
difference of opinion. The prosperity of the nation depends to 
a larger degree than has been hitherto acknowledged upon the 
condition of our public roads. — The Boston Globe .^ April, T8g2. 



MASSACHUSETTS' OPPORTUNITY. 




'By 1{ev. C. S. Walker, Th. D. . (Massachusetts ^Agricultural 

College. 

GOOD ROADS are of paramount importance to every citizen of 
Massachusetts, but to the farmer especially. For the 
past few decades the farmer has devoted his attention 
to the problem oi producing crops of the best quality, in the 
greatest abundance, at the least cost, and in the solution of this 

problem he has succeeded 
admirably. But the longer 
and the better and the 
cheaper his product, the 
;■ poorer, apparently, does he 

find himself to be at the end 
of the year ; others seem to 
gain the profit, loss falls to 
his share. 

One cause of this state of 
affairs is not difficult to find. 
The average farmer has not 
yet comprehended and solved 
the problem of exchange. 
The expense of getting his 
produce to market and of 
returning those commodities 
for which he h as exchanged 
the products of the farm falls 
as a heavy burden upon the 
agriculturist. The cost of 
cartage of crops one way from 
the farm to the railroad station, five to ten miles distant, and of 
fuel, fertilizers, machinery, commercial feed stuffs, furniture, 
clothing and provisions from the markets to the country home 
has been so great as to reduce the value of farms, a little 
distant from the centres, fifty to one hundred per cent., causing 
them in many cases to be abandoned. For example, a farm of 
twenty-five acres of arable land, in a square lot, contaming 
a pretty house of five rooms in good repair, a barn, plenty of 
fruit trees, located in the midst of magnificent scenery, on a 
main road, one mile and a half from Amherst College, within 
two miles of two stations on two railroads, hardly a mile from 
church and school house and store, has been for years offered 
for sale without a purchaser, and has often been vacant, while 
many have paid fifty or a hundred dollars more for a tenement 



RF.V. C. S. WALKER. 



MA SSA CHUSE TTS' OPPOR TUNITY. 



ZZ 



of five rooms in a second story of a village house than was 
asked for the rent of the whole farm house, barn, garden, 
orchard, pasture and tillage. 

Poor roads are an efficient factor in producing the discontent 
of our rural population. Dusty and stony in Summer, muddy 
and deluged in Spring and Autumn, rough, or slippery, or 
drifted with snow in the Winter, poor roads are dangerous to 
life and limb, a constant tear upon horses and harnesses, wagons 
and carriages; they isolate the farmer's family from the school, 
from the church, from the post-office and all of its educational 
facilities, from all the social centres of thought and advancing 
civilization. They have done more than any other single factor 




"THE C03T OF CARTAGE OF CROPS HAS BEEN SO GREAT AS TO REDUCE 

THE VALUE OF FARMS." 

Deep ruts and difficult hauling near Charlemont (Boston and North Adams road). 

From photograph by Massachusetts Highway Commission. 

to destroy the glory of the New England home of olden time, 
to produce the abnormal growth of the city, with its increasing 
evils, and to make agriculture unremunerative to the farmer. 
What can be done to show the farmer the necessity of good 
roads? Poor, bad, abominable roads are common: a piece 
of road properly constructed upon which the farmer might 
drive his teams would do more to convince him of the value 
and economy of good roads and to send him annually into the 
town meeting, and his representative into the legislature, de- 
manding good roads in return for taxes assessed, than any 
amount of pamphlets and pictures and speech-making. For 



34 MASSACHUSETTS' OPPORTUNITY. 

several years an attempt has been made to have the town of 
Amherst build a few rods of macadamized road to test its value ; 
but each year the proposition has been voted down in the 
annual meeting- and the old method of spending thousands of 
dollars in scraping the surface of the highways adopted. 

At this point the Commonwealth of Massachusetts may 
come to the rescue. It maintains an agricultural college at 
Amherst. Every Spring the legislature sends its three com- 
mittees, on agriculture, on education, on military affairs, to in- 
spect the institution. These legislators, sometimes fifty to 
seventy in number, are jolted over poor roads from the station 
to the farm. In the college library they find many volumes 
on the subject of good roads, in the annual report of the college 
they find an able and scientific discussion, illustrated, on roads, 
showing how to construct and preserve them. Provision is made 
in the course of study for instruction in road building. To what 
has already been done let the State of Massachusetts give to the 
college a special appropriation which shall be spent in the 
construction of a mile or two of good roads, suited to the soil 
and to the circumstances, on the college farm. Let these 
roads be properly drained and lighted and kept in order. Let 
an accurate account be kept of the cost of construction, of the 
cost of keeping in repair, and an estimate made of the amount 
of gain made in the drawing of loads. Such roads located 
here would be an object lesson to the town of Amherst, to all 
the hundreds of college students educated in the two colleges, 
and to the many farmers who annually visit the institution, 
coming from all parts of the state and of the w^orld to find out 
the latest discoveries made by the two experiment stations and 
by the college, for the benefit of agriculture, and also to the 
legislative committees, to the Governor and his staff, who make 
their annual visit of inspection. Five or ten thousand dollars 
invested in good roads on the farm of the Massachusetts Agri- 
cultural College would accomplish untold good to present 
and future generations. Here is an opportunity for some 
public spirited individual, or corporation, to set a good ex- 
ample by the donation of a sum of money that would redound 
to his honor. 

Another way in which the State of Massachusetts might ad- 
vance the cause of good roads, without injury to the self help of 
the towns, would be to assist the agricultural societies in the 
construction of a driving track on its fair grounds. A track, 
half a mile in length, that should be fit for draft horses, or car- 
riage horses, or trotting horses, in all seasons and all kinds of 
weather, would prove to be an object lesson of more value even 
than a crazy bed quilt, a mammoth squash or a prize pig. 
These agricultural societies do a vast amount of good to the 
farmer and to the state, but in no way could they do more 



MASSACHUSETTS OPPORTUNITY. 35 

good than by convincing all, of whatsoever occupation, who at- 
tend them, of the prime importance of good roads to the well- 
being of all classes of our citizens, and of their direct relation 
to the production, distribution, exchange and profitable con- 
sumption of wealth, and of the fact that bad roads are a sign of 
immature or disintegrating society, while good roads are the sure 
avenues to advancing civilization and progressive development. 



So important is this work becoming that a periodical is now 
published at New York wholly in the interest of good 
roads. We here, at the carriage centre of the country, 
should set a good example in this direction, and our roads should 
be models. As Dr. Leslie well said, the day has passed when 
we should continue to haul on material to our roads this Spring 
and cart it off in the Fall. Roads well made will last a life time 
and to build a road well, like everything else you have got to lay 
a good foundation. This cannot be done without going below 
the surface, and while it costs more in the beginning it is 
cheaper in the end. Nothing makes a town or city look any 
more thrifty than paved streets in its business portions and the 
paving which v/as so well commenced on Elm Street two years 
ago should, as the doctor suggested, be continued. 

At no very heavy expense it can be continued up the hill, 
and a part of the Market can be done this season. By doing a 
little each year Main Street could be paved to the Ferry, and 
what would make a better driveway or would speak more for 
the thrift of our town than such a fine paved highway. It 
costs money as we well imderstand to do this kind of work, but 
the way to do it is, as Dr. Leslie suggested, a little each year 
and before we are aware of it or have felt the expense we shall 
have model streets. Outside of our main thoroughfare there 
is nothing better than good macadamized roads, and the work 
that is done on them can be done in a first-class manner, as we 
have everything to do it with, a first-class superintendent, good 
stone crusher and plenty of good material. Having once started 
in the right direction on improving our roads as we should 
do, we shall get far better results, and in the end will find it will 
cost us less. — A?nesbury [Mass.) Daily. 



Notwithstanding the fact that farming is at low ebb in all 
the North Atlantic States, manufactures have assumed so great 
prominence that they have not only sufficed to maintain the 
former rate of increase of population, but have, in many cases, 
served to increase it. The rate of increase in Massachusetts 
has been 25 per cent, in the last decade as against 22 per cent, 
in the decade ending in 1880. 



GOOD ROADS FOR CITY AND COUNTRY. 

By Col. Albert A. Pope, of Boston, President, Pope Manufac- 
turing Co. 

WE cannot afford to ignore this movement. It is not a 
movement for greater expense. It costs little to 
maintain a road that is built well, but a poorly con- 
structed road is a reservoir for wasteful expenditure. 

In our state we have 3,898,429 acres of land, and only 939, 260 

acres are cultivated. The cul- 
\ tivated land varies in value 

(disregarding Nantucket and 
Suffolk Counties) from $38.87 
per acre in Berkshire to 
$112.60 in Middlesex, a differ- 
ence of more than $73 an acre. 
With more than seventy-five 
per cent, of our land unim- 
proved, and a difference in 
value of the improved land 
of $73 an acre, owing prin- 
cipally to difference in lo- 
cation, there is a large margin 
of practical interest to the 
farmer and manufacturer, and 
the carrier and the merchant, 
in the improvement of the 
highways and in the eco- 
nomical expenditure of the 
moneys appropriated for 
their construction and main- 
tenance. 

We have by the census in this state 77,661 people engaged 
in agriculture. Every one of these people is directly interested 
in the care and maintenance of good macadam and gravel 
roads. I am not now urging city streets, which are wasteful 
enough, too. We have 28,000 of our people engaged in trans- 
porting freight on our roads, besides those engaged in agricul- 
ture, manufacture, professional and all other business requiring 
the use of roads. Surely the magnitude of the question and the 
universality of the interest in highway improvements to the 
people of this state are sufficient to demand the most strenuous 
attention. 

So far I have been speaking of the dwellers in the country, 
and omitted the consideration of city streets. It may not be 




COL. ALBERT A PUTE. 



GOOD ROADS FOR CITY AND COUNTRY. 37 

generally appreciated, however, that the mileage of paved 
streets — that is, stone or asphalt streets — is comparatively small. 
Of the 404 miles of public streets in the city of Boston, for ex- 
ample, 321 miles, or about eighty per cent., are macadam or 
gravel. The cities, therefore, have substantially the same in- 
terest in the better highway question that the country districts 
have. 

Our state should not be behind any of the others in this 
movement for better roads. Nearly all the freight that is car- 
ried on the railroads has to be brought to them over some kind 
of a road; all the freight that is brought into the state by the 
railroads has to be distributed to the citizens over some kind of 
a road. The value of farm lands, the value of mill privileges, 
the value of factory locations, all depend largely upon means of 
transportation, that is to say, on local roads. 

I am strongly of the opinion that Massachusetts should, by 
legislative act, do at once two or three things in the direction 
of this movement and keep abreast of the times: First, it should 
have a bureau of information, where the facts relating to the 
expense, mechanical construction, care, durability, use and ex- 
tent of the different kinds of roads should be known and ascer- 
tained. We are met at the outset now with a difficulty in ob- 
taining sufficient facts, sufficient collation of experience and 
experiments of others. Second, we should have some kind of 
state supervision and advisory assistance by competent engineer 
or engineers, appointed by the state, in aid of the building and 
repairing, upon scientific principles and upon a comprehensive 
and economic plan for the whole state, its roads and bridges ; 
and third, I think that the state should either own or control 
and maintain some through highways of the state, where they 
are most needed, either for great public exigencies or for the 
greatest general use, and that it should aid or in some way con- 
tribute to the equalization of the expense of building and main- 
taining roads, so that in localities where the expense is great 
and the inhabitants are few, the roads should have the benefit 
of the fact that they are also made for the people who live in 
localities where the roads are good and the inhabitants are 
many. 

This movement for better roads has been started and can- 
not be stopped, and sooner or later we shall have good roads 
all over our state. What we want is to have the benefit of 
some of them while we live ourselves. 



If you do not reside in Massachusetts and would like to 
help the cause in that state, send this copy of GOOD 
ROADS to Hon. Geo. A. Perkins, Chief Consul, 5 Pemberton 
Square, Boston. 



WANTED— BETTER MANAGEMENT, LESS "POLITICS." 

"By Elmer T>. Howe, of ^Marlboro, (Mass. , (Master of 
(Massachusetts State Grange. 

THE value of good roads cannot be overestimated, nor does 
their value relate to the farmers alone ; for every owner 
of a horse or team, as well as the rapidly increasing 
number of " cyclers," are mightily interested in their improve- 
ment. Not a few Massachusetts towns have already made some 
bold strikes in this direction, and the miles of crushed stone 

roads are rapidly multiplying, to 
the great satisfaction of the ex- 
ponents of this new gospel. It is 
undoubtedly time that more towns 
and cities would be willing to enter 
upon a systematic improvement of 
their roads if only intelligent and 
skilled men could be secured to 
supervise the construction. To 
this end, it is highly important, 
therefore, that the campaign of 
education shall continue. 

Most of the farmers of this state 
who have exhibited ambition 
enough to identify themselves with 
the grange movement, have be- 
come convinced of the great value 
of permanently improved roads, and the question which now 
confronts them is not rvhat, but how ? 

They have just awaked to the fact that for years they have 
been paying more than their just share of taxation, simply 
because they have staid at home and allowed others to misrep- 
resent them. And they hesitate about making large appropria- 
tions of money until assured that others, who are to be bene- 
fitted equally with them, shall also bear their share of the 
burden. For this reason any scheme looking to the wholesale 
improvement of our country roads must include in it some 
plan for distributing the cost over village and town. The 
farmers will not be gulled into the belief that they alone are to 
be benefitted and consequently they alone must foot the bills. 
It seems to me that all the main roads leading from town to 
town might well be put into perfect condition and kept in repair 
at the expense of the state and then each municipality look 
after the side roads within its own boundary. It would seem 
wise also that the cost of building these roads should be 




ELMER D. HOWE. 





"IT IS HIGHLY IMPORTANT THE CAMPAIGN OF EDUCATION SHALL CONTINUE." 



View of badly kept road, with stonv surface and poor drainage, near Warren, 
Mass. (.From photograph by Massachusetts Highway Conunissiun.) 




"IN THE LONG RUN GOOD ROADS ARE EVEN CHEAPER THAN POOR ONES." 

View showing easy teaming on improved road near village boundary. (From 
photograph taken in Spring of 1892.) 39 



40 FOR BETTER ROADS. 

extended over a period of not less than twenty years and that the 
credit of the national government be invoked to assist the states 
in borrowing money at a low rate of interest. As for branch 
or side roads in each municipality, where the benefit is almost 
entirely local, they should be built and maintained by local 
enterprise. The increase in value of land for business and 
residence purposes will largely pay for the expense incurred. 

The construction and maintenance of roads should be 
removed entirely from the realm of politics. Too much job- 
bery in return for political favors has in years past had any- 
thing but a beneficial effect upon our highways. 

I believe it would be wise for our agricultural colleges, 
and possibly our institutes of technology, to establish a course 
of study upon road and road -making with a view to fitting men 
for the responsible position of superintendent of construction 
and repairs. 

After all, the main thing is to get the people, all the people, 
educated up to the idea that in the long run good roads are even 
cheaper than poor ones and the improvement is bound to come. 
Keep up the agitation; call to your aid the photographer's and 
lithographer's art, strew the country broadcast with short, pithy 
"bits " and ere long the uprising of good roads sentiment will 
sweep the country. 

FOR BETTER ROADS. 

ON several occasions we have alluded to the movement being 
made throughout the country for the improvement of the 
highways and have zealously indorsed such action as timely 
and of importance to every citizen of whatever rank or station. 

The ridiculous and irregular manner in which the country roads 
are patched up according to the caprice of successive district sur- 
veyors, so called, is a disgrace to the intelligence of this age. 

It is simply a matter of wonder, considering the advancement and 
march of improvement that has been made in nearly every other di- 
rection, that a subject of so much inteiest, and so largely fraught 
with the comfort and economy of all classes and business pursuits, 
should have been so long neglected. And singularly enough, the 
present movement originates with a body of men who have not been 
accustomed to use the highways much, until recently, it is presumed, 
rather than with the farmers, teamsters and carriage owners, who, 
since the settlement of the country, generally speaking, have jolted 
rough-shod over the rude roads at the sacrifice of comfort. — if not at 
the peril of life and limb — and the almost reckless wear and tear of 
horseflesh and wagon gear. A petition is being circulated for signa- 
tures asking congress for proper legislation for the establishment of 
a road department, an institute of road engineering, and a permanent 
road exhibit in the city of Washington. H. W. Drj^den has charge of 
the local petition, which should receive the signature of all citizens 
who desire better roads, and an intelligent and uniform system of 
constructing them. — The Mansfield {Mass:) News. 



GOVERNMENT AID AND DIRECTION. 



A WORD IN FAVOR OF A ROAD DEPARTMENT AT WASHINGTON. 

%v Clarence T). IVanier, C. E., Professor of Civil Engineering, 
Massachusetts Agricnltural College. 

IT is safe to affirm that no subject needs greater agitation in 
Massachusetts than that of roads, and what is true of our 
state is no less true of every other state in the Union. The 
roads of Massachusetts, like nearl}^ all the highways in New 
England, exist where first were only footpaths, leading from 
cabin to cabin of the early settlers, and as the latter generally 

built their homes on elevations 
for safety, these trails in time 
became roads deviating but 
little from the beaten track. 
Thus we have a system of 
highways running over the 
^ f*v N m o s t h i 1 1 y parts of our 

country. 
^-' To remedy this evil and 

. "' construct a system of roads on 

the most improved plans would 
cost millions of dollars, and the 
various towns would find it 
impossible to carry out such an 
undertaking, for many of them 
are heavily in debt, the tax rates 
are high, a large number of the 
farms are partially or wholly 
abandoned, and in some por- 
tions of the state there seems to 
be an atmosphere of discontent 
settling down upon the farmers. 
A country can ill afford to neglect the farmer or discourage any 
reasonable measure for promoting and encouraging agriculture, 
because the life and success of a nation depends upon her agri- 
cultural resources, and the prosperity of the farming- community 
rests largely upon the facilities for communicating with the 
thickly settled sections. Where there are no railroads the 
farmer must, from necessity, take his produce to market over 
the public highways, and where the latter are bad, the cost of 
transportation often exceeds that of the raw material. 

In many of the towns throughout the state frequent discus- 
sions on the subject of "better roads" have taken place, and 




PROF. CLARENCE D. WARNER. 



42 



GOVERNMENT AID AND DIRECTION. 



there seems to be a general awakening to the fact that the 
farmer is badly handicapped in his race with other branches of 
industry. However sober and industrious he may be, however 
much the demand for his produce may increase and the market 
may grow, the present facilities for transportation places in his 
path an obstacle which he is unable to surmount. This has a 
most depressing effect upon the farmer. 

We believe that the time has come when the Government 
should lend its aid, and it seems proper, therefore, to advocate the 
establishment of a department of roads at Washington. The 
duties of this commission should be to control and instruct 
similar commissions maintained by the several states, and these 




SAND AND DEEP RUTS ON THE HILLSIDE. 

View of an upland road in Massachusetts, showing narrow wheelway and "heavy ' 
surface. (From a photograph by Massachusetts Highway Commission.) 

state and national commissions should be given entire charge 
of building and maintaining a system of macadam roads, which 
would be for the best interests of the country. 

With a system of good roads, property would greatly 
increase in value, many of the abandoned acres would again be 
brought under cultivation and much would be added to the 
comfort and prosperity of the people. 



Jf you live in Afassachusetts, send this copy of GOOD ROADS to 
your local newspaper and request the Editor to quote ^ in his 
columns, such portions as ■will be of interest to his readers. 



PRACTICAL POINTS IN BRIEF. 



Tiy Hon. ■Francis H. Appleton, yice-President, Massachusetts 
Horticultural Society. 

LIKE many another, I am fond of bicycle riding and of a good 
horse, so that in any review of the road subject I should 
deem it best, from my personal standpoint, to include a 
reference to their importance to the bicyclist and to the 
horseman. 

The need of prescribing by law the width of tires for new 

vehicles, in proper proportion to 
the weight they will be called 
upon to carry, in order to best 
preserve good roads after they 
are built, I deem of equal im- 
portance. Such tires would not 
only help to preserve, but 
would tend to solidify the im- 
proved road beds, and should 
be gradually adopted in the use 
of new wagons in the reasonable 
manner that I have suggested. 
The amount of force required 
to pull a load a given distance 
is that force (or power) which is 
needed to pull the same load 
over the most difficult part of 
the road, whether such part is 
hill, mire, or otherwise bad. 
A road made of the best grades and with the best materials, 
if the wagon used has the proper width of tire, will require the 
minimum amount of force to pull it. Thus we see the economy 
of good roads in respect to the team. 

Under similar proportionate conditions the greatest size of 
load that is desirable can be most economically handled. Are 
not good roads far better feeders to the railway freight depart- 
ments and far more useful for bringing the salable goods of 
the agriculturists and other merchants to market than are 
poor roads ? Wherever the street car is used, or is likely to be 
used, let it have a special space reserved for it where it shall 
not interfere with the needs of farmers and merchants who 
have a common interest in the condition of the road, nor with 
the citizen, who drives his horse or uses his vehicle for pleasure. 
Let all modes of conveyance be used in happy harmony, 
each under most favorable conditions, .. 




HON. FRANCIS H. APPLETON. 



GOOD WORK IN LENOX, MASS. 

IT is doubtful if the State of Massachusetts can supply a better ex- 
ample of practical road making than that carried out by the 
town of Lenox in the work of its village improvement, begin- 
ning in May, 1891, and ending within the last year. To make 
this improvement possible the town appropriated the sum of 
$10,000, to which was added something over $15,000, contributed 
by public spirited citizens. A recent report by Mr. George W. 
Folsom, superintendent of streets, contains the statement that 




GOOD WORK IN LEXOX, MASS. VIEW OF IMPROVED KOAliW.-W AKI KK lOMHLETION OF 
TELFORD AND MACADAM WORK. (FROM PHOTOGKAt'H.) 

the sum of $3,416.16 remains unexpended and recommends a 
further appropriation of $7,000 on the part of the town to con- 
tinue the work and to reconstruct the sidewalks in many places 
where repairs are needed. 

The work already completed includes the construction of an 
excellent telford-macadam roadway on several streets of the 
village, including gutters, surface and under drains, and the 
work seems to have been completed in so thorough and solid 
a manner as to leave little doubt of its permanent value. From 
a recent number of the Engineering Record we take the follow- 
ing description of the Lenox work ; ^^ 



GOOD WORK IN LENOX, MASS. 



45 



The Board of Selectmen of the town of Lenox appropriated 
the amount asked for and also appointed Mr. George W. 
Folsom Superintendent of Streets, with full authority to pro- 
ceed to improve to the best advantage the streets comprehended 
in what is known in Massachusetts villages as the fire districts. 
]\Ir. Folsom- first secured the services of an engineer and selected 
William S. Bacot, M. Am. Soc. C. E., Engineer of County 
Roads, Richmond County, N. Y., for the position in April, 
1 89 1. Under Mr. Bacot's direction, surveys were made and 
data gathered for subsequent operations. 

Every engineering undertaking has its prominent features, 




IMPROVED STREET IN LENOX, MASS. (FROM PHOTOGRAPH TAKEN AFTER COMPLETION 
OF TELFORD-MACADAM ROADWAY.) 

which distinguish it from others of the same class. In the case 
of Lenox, the distinctive conditions that confronted the engineer 
were : First, the instability of the subsoil, which consisted of a 
very mobile and retentive quality of clay peculiar to the region ; 
and, second, the necessity of procuring a hard and durable 
quality of stone road metal at a reasonable figure. To meet 
the former condition, the recommendation of the engineer 
called for a telford pavement twelve inches in depth, supple- 
mented by a system of under-drainage, described below. Stone 
in abundance was founded amply good enough for the founda- 
tion courses of the telford near at hand, but to obtain a stone 



46 GOOD WORK IN LENOX, MASS. 

hard enough for surfacing- was a matter requiring close figuring 
and investigation, the determination resting between two pos- 
sible courses, either to bring a standard quality of stone from 
remote quarries, such as Hudson River trap, etc., at great 
cost, or to put up with a possibly inferior local grade. A 
thorough examination of the surrounding country and the rocks 
there contained, happily decided the matter, and after two days 
diligent searching, Mr. Bacot discovered the proper article 
about a mile and a half from the centre of the village. The 
stone in question was a fine species of granite, similar in struct- 
ure, color and grain to the boulder stone, found quite generally 
throughout the Eastern and Middle States, commonly known as 
" niggerheads. " This stone was first found in large fragments 
of ledge rock on one of the mountain sides, but there is no 
reason to doubt the existence of it in inexhaustible quantities, 
in the body of the mountain itself, from which these parts have 
for ages been severed. The metal stone was subjected to com- 
pression tests, and reached about 16,600 pounds per square 
inch, being about the strength of good granites. The inferior 
stone provided for the base of the pavement reached 14,550 
pounds. The latter stone was of a laminated structure, which 
was one, if not the chief reason for rejecting it as road metal. 
The harder stone was homogeneous in quality and altogether 
free from veins, or lines of cleavage. 

These two points satisfactorily settled, bids were asked 
for by advertisement in June, 1891 ; work was commenced 
July I, and the contract was completed by December i. 
The proposals called for 15,000 square yards of telford pave- 
ment, 5,000 cubic yards of excavation, 2,500 square yards of 
cobble gutters and 3,000 lineal feet of subdrain pipe, together 
with some additional items. Two bids were received, and the 
work finally awarded to Messrs. Connolly Bros., of Beverly 
Farms, Mass., at the following prices : Telford pavement, 90 
cents per square yard ; excavation, 60 cents per cubic yard ; 
cobble gutters, $1 per square yard; under drains (complete) 50 
cents per lineal foot. The finished contract comprised a large 
number of the inevitable specials, including catch-basins and 
the like, summarized below. The total amounts of work did 
not reach the original figure, but were as follows : Telford pave- 
ment, laid, 13,205 square yards; excavation, 4,676 cubic yards; 
cobble gutters, 1,750 square yards; under drains, 3,146 lineal 
feet ; surface water pipe drains, 1,043 lineal feet; brick basins, 
10; curbs reset, 396 lineal feet. The total cost of the work, in- 
cluding hire of steam roller, engineer and all incidentals, 
footed up $21,933.74. The average cost per square yard of 
telford pavement, including excavation, stone, rolling, water- 
ing, under drains, etc., was $1.34. 



GOOD WORK IN LENOX, MASS. 



47 



The preparation of the road-beds preceding- the laying of 
the pavements consisted in the construction of French drains, 
as shown in the figure, running lengthwise along the edges of 
the stoned wheelway, on sections where the lay of the ground 
indicated such requirement. The drains were put below frost 




f-5r^55^,-^',.^':r,, 



rave 



I a Soil 



vm 1 -J 




— Cros s Section 



— J^onqttudinal Sect 



STREET IMPROVEMENT AT LENOX, MASS. SECTIONAL VIEWS, SHOWING METHOD OF 
CONSTRUCTING UNDER DRAINS. (FROM DRAWING BY WM. S. BACOT, CHIEF EN- 
GINEER.) 

line, and from all indications are doing their work satisfactorily. 
The accompanying cut sufficiently explains the manner of con- 
struction. As a rule drains were ^aid on one side of the roads 
only — /. e.^ on the side adjoining the higher ground from which 
subsoil water might be expected to percolate into the road- 
bed. 

Mr. Bacot states that he experienced much difficulty at first 
in forming the road-bed in the subsoil, owing to its peculiar 
character, especially when wet, and even when slightly moist. 
In such cases the 12-ton steam roller was used to compact the 
foundation surface of the road and after continuous rolling re- 
duced the ground to such a songy and springy condition that 
it was quite impossible to lay the telford bottom stone thereon. 
For some time after rains, rolling was wholly impracticable, 
and after many and fruitless trials this treatment was carried 
no further than its practical value warranted, and the subse- 
quent rolling of the telford stone was relied upon to put the 
foundation down to a solid bearing. 

The mode of treatment followed in this connection is 
worthy of observation. The specifications called for a pave- 
ment to be laid in three courses : first, 7 inches of telford stone ; 
second, 3 inches of road metal on which, after consolidation and 
the introduction of binding material, a third course was laid 2 
inches in thickness, and finally the top dressing, not counted 
as a course. It was found to be out of the question to get 
good work with the 7 -inch stone in the soft ground, so that 
blocks ranging from 10 to 12 inches were substituted by the 
contractor, which went down readily under the 12 -ton roller, 
sinking from 3 to 5 inches before taking the roller off. The 



48 



GOOD WORK JN LENOX, MASS. 



usual knapping, barring and wedging were of course done 
prior to rolling, which to some extent reduced the depth of the 
stones, but for the most part they were forced down by the 
roller. 

Before the surface courses were laid the sub-pavement 
presented a fairly smooth appearance, and was so thoroughly 
wedged in position that it was capable of bearing the heaviest 
trucks without a tremor. Mr. Bacot considers this the cardinal 
requisite of the telford method — viz., locking the bottom stone 
closely and compactly together by barring, wedging and roll- 
ing until the entire structure is brought in action to resist dis- 
turbance as a single mass in contradistinction to the simple 




STREET IMPROVEMENT AT LENOX, MASS. VIEW SHOWING IMPROVED ROADWAYS. 
(DRAWING PROM PHOTOGRAPH TAKEN AFTER COMPLETION OF WORK.) 

aggregation of materials not structurally bonded, which latter 
method is held by some authorities to be sufficient, and which 
lies at the base of the macadam theory. 

The action of the Lenox soil, when subjected to the influ- 
ence of frost, admitted of no doubt in this regard. No stone 
gate post, no wall, no masonry structure of any kind set in the 
ground, short of a house, was ever known to stay in its original 
position in this clay soil, so that the early upheaval of the tel- 
ford road bottom was freely predicted, and its failure looked 
for as certain. Realizing fully the force of this adverse condi- 
tion, the effect of which the engineer had ample opportunity of 



GOOD WORK IN LENOX, MASS. 



49 



witnessing, he provided himself against it in the manner 
described by making the foundation as nearly as possible an 
elastic body of material, holding together, yet capable of moving 
as a mass if influenced by frost action. The results have so far 
borne out this theory and no bad results have followed. The 
pavement has passed safely through a critical period, and main- 
tains an unbroken surface without the remotest indication of 
failure. 

The making up of the surface courses is one on which much 
discussion is freely indulged in. At Lenox, Mr. Bacot followed 
principles which he holds to be important ones in dealing with 




IMPROVEMENT AT LENOX, MASS. 
AFTER COMPLETION OF WORK. 



VIEW OF FINISHED ROADWAY SURFACE 
(DRAWN FROM PHOTOGRAPH.) 



telford roads. In the first place he maintains that the road 
metal should never be applied in less than two courses ; second, 
that the sizes of the stone should be not larger than 2^ -inch 
gauge for the first course nor larger than i Yi -inch gauge for 
the second course, all stone to be as nearly cubical as can be 
obtained, but need not be absolutely uniform in grade, the 
2 >^ -inch ranging between i J^ and 2^ -inch gauge, but averag- 
ing rather more than two inches, the i^-inch stone ranging 
from I to I >^ inches, but averaging nearer i ^ ; in the third 
place, that each course be thoroughly rolled, with judicious 
application of water; fourth, that binding material of approved 



50 GOOD WORK IN LENOX, MASS. 

kind be applied always on the first course (not on a telford 
bottom as sometimes practiced), in quantities suf^cient to 
thoroughly fill all voids and leave a little surplus besides on the 
top; fifth, that the binder to be used as finisher or top dressing 
be applied as sparingly as possible and only enough left on the 
surface to cover the stone. 

These principles were essentially followed on the Lenox 
telford roads. The first and second course stone were applied 
and rolled wet to the ultimate degree ; a binder of an unusu- 
ally fine grade was found in a gravelly clay pit near by, exten- 
sively employed for walks and roads in the village, for which 
its peculiarly good qualities were well known. The effect of 
putting this material on the first course was to make a perfectly 
firm and rigid base for the superimposed wearing surface. The 
particular advantage for this measure consists in its preventing 
the disintegration of the surface course at trying periods, par- 
ticularly when the road is new and forming, and also when the 
traffic is first admitted. The distressing experience of the 
young roadmaker who neglects this precaution is apt to stick 
in his memory, says Mr. Bacot, for not until his road metal has 
become jumbled up and his binding materials sifted through to 
the bottom is he likely to indulge in a regret that he did not 
take the trouble to bind his stone as described in the first 
instance. 

The surface binder and finisher were the rock dust and 
screenings of the road metal stone, which was applied lightly and 
in as many layers as it were found necessary to flush the voids 
by the application of water. The rock dust did not bind read- 
ily. Rupture of the surface occurred frequently until the 
roller had thoroughly compressed the materials together, when 
no further trouble was encountered. Great care had to be 
exercised throughout to prevent soakage of the subsoil during 
the finishing processes. Water was used sparingly and it was 
aimed to distribute it generally, so as to avoid making puddles 
in the soil of the road-bed. Wherever, owing to carelessness, 
too much water was applied, the subsequent passages of the 
roller betrayed a weakness, making a depression which had to 
be remedied by the addition of more stone. 

The crown given to the roads varied between /o and gV The 
former was most satisfactory. It was found necessary to make 
allowance of about 2 inches in the centre for subsequent settle- 
ment. The form given to the roads approximated the English 
rule of yk total height at quarter point from centre to sides, yi 
at half point, then straight to side line grade. This rule worked 
well, making a good appearance and a shape favorable to 
shedding water, although no great significance need be 
attached, in Mr. Bacot's opinion, to such close refinement of 
form. It is of far greater importance to secure a smooth, even, 



GOOD WORK IN LENOX, MASS. 51 

and uniform surface, from which the water will shed readily 
and rapidly. Special prominence has been given in this article 
to certain features of the telford construction, because they are 
deemed of vital importance to good roadmaking. There are of 
necessity inferior methods that might do as well, in some local- 
ities, but such procedure would have been a fatal mistake in 
making roads in Lenox soil. The secret of their success lies in 
the thoroughness of their construction in every detail. 

The work done does not quite finish the village streets of 
Lenox. Further appropriation and subscriptions in the amount 
of $10,000 have been raised and the work will proceed until all 
the village streets are completed. This additional work will be 
prosecuted under the same specifications as heretofore, for 
which contracts will shortly be made. What will be done in 
the future with roads outside of the fire district is at this time 
conjectural. Many of the principal highways need treatment 
of some kind sorely, but will, no doubt, fall into line in their 
own good time. 

'I AM greatly obliged for your courtesy in supplying me 
with the extra copies. I have tried to use them where they would 
do the most good. One gentleman who had been having a 
local fight for road improvement, saw Good Roads for the first 
time, and remarked, ' I forgive the wheelmen all their follies if 
they are doing this work for roads. ' " — C. M. Plumb, Oakland^ Cal. 



" I WANT to thank you for writing the ' Gospel of Good 
Roads' ; it is capital. Everything you issue is fine. They are 
just what we need in Missouri. * * * Good Roads is a 
splendid educator and I wish we had a hundred of them taken 
in this county. I shall speak to some of the wheel boys here 
to see if they will not help to get up a club of 100 at $1 each. I 
should think that the boys all over the state and county would 
would do that for you and the good cause." — H. E. Ho7ciell, 
Chairmaji, County Road Reform Orga?iizaiion, Springfield, Green 
County, Mo. 

" I PROPOSE to put in some good licks with your little 
monthly sling of Good Roads and see if we can't lay low the 
old Goliath of ignorance. I called at your office yesterday and 
subscribed for the magazine and was told that 3"ou would send out 
fifty subscribers of your little David at reduced rates, which I 
will furnish instanter. I enclose the names and addresses here- 
with and I want the subscribers sent to begin with the first 
number of the magazine. The total is fifty-six. Send bill and 
get check. Also quote me lowest price of quarter page advertise- 
ment in Good Roads." — Dr. George D. Clift, Scarsdale, N. Y. 



/># 








PITORSlABlE, 




Much of the indifference and perhaps all 
of the oijposition manifested by certain 
classes to the movement for better roads, 
may be said to grow out of that kind of 
perversity which makes us cling to familiar 
things and to repel strange and unfamiliar 
innovations. To speak for the human race 
entire, it would be correct to say that we 
have lived in the mud for a thousand gen- 
erations. Nor has the hard, common sense 
Anglo-Saxon race prevailed to acquaint 
itself fully with the gospel of cleanliness 
and the costly conditions which belong to 
the mud road. 

That interesting Connecticut scribe, who 
has made himself known to the public as 
Mark Twain, gives us, in one of his books, 
a bit of conversation between a certain 
ancient Prince of Wales who succeeded his 
father, Henry VIII. , and Master Tom Canty, 
whom the fortunes of the day domiciled 
within the royal palace and placed for a 
brief period in a position of royal power. 
If it cannot be safely asserted that Mr. 
Mark Twain is exact in his work as a histo- 
rian, it will be at least conceded that his 
marvelous knowledge of human nature 
makes this historic conversation a possible, 
if not, indeed, a probable one, whether it 
occurred between the prince and the pauper 
or any other two persons of whatever de- 
gree. Tom has met the Prince for the first 
time, and the two youngsters, according to 
manners suited to their different stations, 
are swapping confidences. Master Canty is 
relating, with the graphic enthusiasm of a 
boy, the different kinds of amusement in 
which the lads of his own kind engage. 
The conversation runs like this: 

" We strive in races, sir, to see who of us 
shall be fleetest." 

" That would I like also. Speak on." 

"In Summer, sir, we wade and swim in 
the canals, and in the river, and each doth 
duck his neighbor and spatter him with 
water, and dive, and shout, and tumble" 

" 'Twould be worth my father's kingdom 
but to enjoy it once ! Prithee go on." 

"We dance and sing about the Maypole 
in Cheapside ; we play in the sand, each 
covering his neighbor up; and times we 
make mud pastry. Oh the lovely mud, it 
hath not its like for loveliness in all the 
world ! we do fairly wallow in the mud, sir, 
saving your worship's presence." 

"Oh, prithee say no more, 'tis glorious! 
If that I could but clothe me in raiment like 



thine and strip me feet, and revel in the 
mud just once, just once, with none to 
rebuke me or forbid, meseemeth I could 
forego the crown." 

And so, alas, alack, the human affection 
for soft and pasty mud is, after all, a disease 
of heredity, justified by the chronicles of an 
empire and approved by the instincts of 
royalty. 

But, after all, Avhat has all this to do with 
the kind of laws and methods which should 
direct the civic machinery of a practical, 
progressive people ? 



There is no fear that Massachusetts will 
go astray in the solution of her roads ques- 
tion. The State Highway Commission ap- 
pointed by Governor Russell is doing its 
work in a thorough and effective waj^ and 
there is enough intelligence and thrift in 
Massachusetts to forbid anything but a pop- 
ular approval of any well devised scheme 
for the general improvement of country 
roads, and for the appropriation of sufficient 
means to make this improvement a general 
and permanent one. It is safe to say that 
the legislative work to which the law makers 
of Massachusetts will now direct their atten- 
tion will prove both interesting and instruc- 
tive. 



The excellent full page picture on page 
280 of the November number of Good 
Roads, was made from a large oil painting, 
by A. G. Richmond, Esq., of Meadville, 
Pa., by whose kind permission Good Roads 
obtained the use of a photographic copy. 
Mr. Richmond is an attorney practicing at 
the Pennsylvania Bar, and employs a share 
of his leisure time in the exercise of his 
artistic talents. His work as an amateur 
artist is highly regarded by the people of 
his state, and this picture of farmers " Work- 
ing Out the Road Tax" is an admirable 
specimen of his work. It shows so clearly 
the listless and slovenly methods to which 
the bad condition of the country roads is 
due, that it is easy to imagine that Mr. 
Richmond must have " been there " on one 
or more occasions, when this sort of 
work (?) was indulged in. By an oversight, 
Mr. Richmond failed to receive due credit 
in our November number, but we take 
pleasure in expressing our acknowledgment 
here. 



Ail letters from readers who request 
answers by mail must be accompanied by 
stamps to pay return postage. 



"Kitt" (Cambridge, N. Y.)— The picture 
on page 145, September number of Good 
Roads, is reproduced from an actual photo- 
graph. The wheelman shown in the picture 
is a graduate of the Harvard University 
Medical School, and the photograph repre- 
sents him as he appeared while returning 
from his vacation in Maine in the year 1891. 



"Asheville" (Asheville, N. C.)— Most 
engineers, though not all, recommend the 
laying of telford sub-pavements in courses 
at right angles with the direction of the 
road. It is not necessary that this should 
be done, though it is a convenient method, 
and enables the workmen to so arrange the 
stones as to "break joints" with greater 
uniformity than if the stones are set in 
random style and without reference to 
courses. The quality of stone used in the 
sub-pavement is not important. It is sub- 
jected to no direct wear and forms merely a 
supporting layer for the smaller broken 
stone which composes the upper layers. 
Almost any stone that is fit to be called by 
that name will answer these requirements. 
The upper layers, however, should be care- 
fully selected, for upon the quality of the 
material used in these layers will depend 
largely the permanent character of the 
work and the tractive qualities of the road 
surface. 



•' F. M. D." (Columbus, Ohio).— Good 
Roads will publish an article on the cost, 
use and capacity of stone crushers in an 
early issue, and full information on all 
points mentioned by you will be published 
with explanatory illustrations. 

"M. S. S." (Portland, Me.)— i. Colonel 
Pope's scheme does not look to any appro- 
priation by the general government for the 



actual construction of roads in the several 
states, but only for the establishment of a de- 
partment of roads at Washington, which shall 
serve as a general bureau of information and 
instruction in the matter of road building. It 
interferes in no way with any legislation 
pending in the several states, but rather 
tends to encourage it. 2. Colonel Pope's 
guarantee contribution to the L. A. W. to 
aid in its work for better roads was four 
thousand dollars. 



"Roger" (Oakland, Cal.)— The bicycle 
about which you inquire is in every respect 
a first-class machine. It has been in the 
market for 5'ears and has always been as 
good as the best material and the best skill 
could make it. 

" M. S." (Lexington, Ky.)— The Staten 
Island roads were built under the provision 
of an act of the legislature of the state of 
New York, and a copy of this act may be 
obtained at this office. Send your full name 
and address. 



"Ironmonger" (Pittsburgh, Pa.) — We do 
not advocate the various propositions for 
building iron tramways on the public roads, 
because these tramways seem to offer no 
special advantages, while they have been 
shown to possess startling defects. They 
have been tried for many years in the coun- 
tries of the old world, but have never been re- 
garded as worthy of general adoption. It is 
not enough that the wheels of a vehicle should 
be supported on a continuous rail, because 
vehicles are frequently compelled to turn 
from the track fixed by the tramway, and if 
the entire roadway is not made firm and 
secure, the wagon which leaves the tram- 
way-rails is likely to become hopelessly 
stalled in the mud, not only to its own dis- 
aster, but so as to impede all traffic passing 
in the same direction. 




^ifkf"^^^^ 



ROVED 



FRANCES' PRAYER. 

Five-year-old Frances was indisposed re- 
cently while away from home, and the 
physician called in to prescribe for her gave 
medicine more unpalatable than her doctor 
at home is in the habit of giving. When 
Frances said her prayers that night, she 
added : 

" Dear Lord, put it into the heart of that 
doctor to give me nicer medicine. I don't 
want people to monkey with my medicine. 
Amen ! " 



AN AWKWARD MOMENT. 

It was on the avenue. A young Harvard 
man walking rapidly down from the new 
bridge overtook a pretty girl he knew. The 
two walked on together toward the shopping 
region of the city. The girl had to stop to 
inspect a flat in a new building, an errand 
for father, and the young Harvard man 
stopped with her. But they got through the 
errand in no time at all, for the janitor 
asked them how large their family was, and 
how soon they should like to move in. And 
now this girl makes her father inspect the 
flats in his new buildings himself. — Boston 
Transcript. 

She talks no more about dresses, 
She often gets on with one meal, 

She now wears salves and compresses, 
But you bet she can ride a wheel. 

—Chicago Inter-Ocean. 



'• Dear Father: We are well and happy. 
The baby has grown ever so much, and 
has a great deal more sense than he used to 
have. Hoping the same of you, I remain 
your daughter, Molly." — Texas Sif tings. 



The fact that three newspaper offices 
were demolished in the recent cyclone in 
Kansas leads the editor of one of them to 
remark that " even the Lord's chosen some- 
times get it in the neck." — N. V, Adver- 
tiser. 




A BOOMERANG. 

"Oh, misery," cried the editor. 

" What's the matter now ?" 

" I just threw a poet out of the window; 
and his vvife, who was waiting for him 
below, has presented one of our insurance 
coupons at the cashier's desk. He had it on 
him ! Another live hundred dollars gone, 
when two dollars would have bought not 
only his poem, but his everlasting grati- 
tude." — Pnck. 



A POSSIBLE MISCONCEPTION. 

Editor of Prohibition Paper — This poem 
of yours called " A Smile and a Tear" won't 
do for our paper. 

Would-be Contributor — Why not ? 

Editor — I'm afraid some of our sub- 
scribers might misunderstand the title and 
take offense. — K'ate Field' s Washington. 



Hazy — Did you ever contribute to the 
press? 

Mary (blushing) — I have turned down the 
light sometimes. — Chicago Sun. 



"Would you like some garden hose?" 
said the clerk in the general supply store. 
"No, thanks," was the answer, "I gin' rally 
go in barefooted to do my weedin'." 

An old dame riding home along Cockenzie 
Sands, pretty hilarious, fell off the pillion, 
and her husband, being in good order also, 
did not miss her till he came to Prestonpans. 
He instantly returned with some neighbors, 
and found the good woman seated amidst 
the advancing tide, which had begun to rise, 
with her lips ejaculating: " Nae ae drap 
mair, ah thank ye kindly." 



Miss de Muir — How charming you look 
to-day ! Miss de Meanor (slightly dyspep- 
tic) — I regret that I cannot say as much for 
you. Miss de Muir (sweetly) — You could, 
dear, if you were as accomplished a liar aa 
I am. 



J J 







^^ 



milllHIHWlnliHnlullniiliiliilnliiliilnliJliilinllllHllliil..l.;«iiliiliHnBiHilllHlllllilHlHUIlnlili. 

opiTRACT Motes 



— "-<^ 



iiPSTNjT^^^*^^^' 



ROADS AND STREETS. 

PENNSYLVANIA. — Williamsport. — Resolu- 
tions have been passed by the Board of Trade to 
urge the City Council to take steps towards local 
improvements in this city, principally street pav- 
ing. It is hoped the work will be begun as soon as 
possible. 

ILLIXOIS. — Sterling. — Bids are being received 
by the City Clerk for 4,400 lineal feet of curbing, 
12,812 square j-ards brick paving and 750 square 
yards stone retaining wall. 

Rock Island. — It is proposed to expend in the 
neighborhood of $100,000 for laying brick pavements 
this year. 

Streator. — Street paving will be undertaken 
this year on an extensive scale. Aboiit ten miles 
is the estimated length of the work. 

Pekin. — This town is discussing the question of 
raising the sum of $27,000 for paving in several of 
its streets. 

WISCONSIN.— Kenosha.— The estimated cost 
of paving and curbing Main Street is said to be 
$16,340. 

Madison. — It is being agitated that improve- 
ments in the paving of the streets in this place are 
needed. Steps will probably be taken to procure 
these requisites. 

INDIANA.— Goshen.— Brick is to be used for 
paving the principal streets of this place. 

About eleven blocks of street paving are pro- 
posed to be constructed at an early day in this 
town, and bids will be asked for in all probability. 
I. D. Wolfe, City Clerk. 

MUNCIE. — Early in the Spring street improve- 
ments will be begun, including paving to a great 
extent. The city will ask for bids. 

CALIFORNIA. — SAN FRANCISCO. — Brick for 
paving purposes has been considered favorably, 
and four of the principal streets of this city are to 
be paved with that material. 

SACRAMENTO. — Either asphalt, granite or basalt 
will be used for the work of repaving J Street. 

MASSACHUSETTS. — BRADFORD. — It is pro- 
posed to hold a special meeting in this town for 
the purpose of discussing the question of paving 
Main Street. It is estimated that the cost of this 
work will be in the neighborhood of $20,000. 

VIRGINIA.— Radford.— Bids are being received 
by the Street Committee for the work of laying 
brick sidewalks and stone curbs. 

MINNESOTA.— Winona.— It has been ordered 
that plans and specifications are to be prepared by 
the City Engineer for paving ten streets with 
vitrified brick. 

OHIO. — Canton. — improvements are to be made 
in Camden Avenue. 

Toledo. — Brick paving is to be done in about 
twenty of the streets of this city. 



Fostoria. — It is under discussion to pave and 
boulevard Fremont Street. 

Dayton. — Street paving will be begun in the 
Spring in this city on an extensive scale, plans and 
specifications for over ten miles of work having 
already been ordered to be prepared. Brow^n, St. 
Clair, East Fourth and Perry are among the many 
streets that are to be improved. 

Two streets are to be paved in this city at an 
estiinated cost of about $110,000 to $150,000. The 
material to be used in this work will determine 
the exact cost. 

Defiance. — It is proposed to construct about 
two miles of brick paving in this town early next 
Spring, and" bids will be asked for when the work 
of preparing plans and specifications, etc., is 
coinpleted. 

Elyria.— Two streets. Broad and East Bridge, 
will be paved with brick in the Spring, if present 
intentions are to be carried out. L. C. Kelsey, 
City Engineer. 

KENTUCKY.— Bellevue.— The extra improve- 
ment of brick paving in several streets is under 
discussion, the cost to be averaged at about 
$50,000. 

NEBRASKA.— BEATRICE. — On January 24, a 
special election will be held to vote on the issuance 
of $20,000 street paving bonds. 

IOWA.— Creston.— Bids will be asked for at an 
early date for street paving in this place. 

FLO'RIDA.—Jacksonville.— Important paving 
ordinances have been passed with proposals to 
issue bonds for municipal improvements amount- 
ing to $500,000. 

MISSOURI.— St. Louis.— It is proposed to pave 
three miles of Easton Avenue with asphalt. Bids 
will probably be asked for at an early date. 



SEWERS. 

MINNESOTA.— Minneapolis.— Sewers to the 
distance of about six miles are expected to be 
built this year in this city. 

DULUTH. — Proposals will be received in a short 
time for an extended sewerage system. Infor- 
mation can be obtained of T. W. Abell, City Clerk. 

NEW YORK.— North Tonawanda. — Next year 
the sewerage system will be extended to a great 
distance. 

Batavia.— It is now being considered whether 
it is advisible to lay a complete new sewerage 
system in this town. 

Stamford. — .A. sewerage system is to be built, 
by vote of the residents of this town. 

Kingston. — The sum of $20,000 has been settled 
upon for the proposed new system of sewers. 

Schenectady.— De Witt D.Smith has completed 
plans and specifications for a sewerage system for 
this village, the estimated cost of the work being 



:ii 



RECENT PATENTS. 



In this department >ve shall print from time to time brief descriptive notes of 
recent patented inyentions relating to roads, streets, drainage, bridges and wheeled 
vehicles. 




j^%._. 



ROAD-SCRAPER. J.\mes M. Holland, Patentee, Mount 
Pleasant, Iowa, A.s.si<iuoi' to the Mount Pleasant Road 
Grader Company, same place. In a road-scraper, ttie com- 
bination, witii the frame-work couiprisiiiK the opposite side 
beams, opposite short shafts mouuti d on the beams and 
adapted for rotation, beveled gears nit united on the shafts, 
rock-arms extending from the ends of the shafts, rear 
transverse shafts, hand-wheels mounted thereon, beveled 
gears mounted at the sides of the hand-wheels, intermediate 
longitudinal shafts, and gears onthe ends of the same, en- 
gaging those gears of the front and rear short shafts, of a 
scraper-blade, means for locking tlie same, and connections 
between the Ijlade and the rock-arms. 




ARTIFICIAL BLOCK FOR PAVEMENTS. David P. Sand- 
Eiis, Patentee, Williamsport, Pa. A paviug-block composed 
of an upper wearing-surface of artificial stone, which is in- 
terlocked with a lower body portion composed of hard- 
burned clay, having intermixed therein stone which is 
ground to a small size, and provided, also, with tongue and 
groove upon its sides adapted to interlock with adjacent 
similar blocks. 




ROAD-SCRAPER. .lOHN S. Palmer, Patentee, West 
Dultith, Minn. A road-scraper comprising the main sup- 
porting-wheels and axle, the rigid diagonal beam secured 
at one end to the main axle, its opposite end having a wheel- 
support and connected with said main axle, a series of 
scraper-arms independently hinged at their front ends on 
the axle, their rear ends extended beyond the rigid beam 
and provided with scraper-tilades, and the lifting-lever 
mechanism connected with the scraper-arms. 




STREF.T-SWKEPIN'C MACHINE. Maktin V. B. Eth- 
KincE, Puteutee, E\erett, Assignor to the Boston Street 
Sweeping JIachine Company, Lynn, Vii<s. In a street- 
sweeping machine, the combination, with a brush and an 
apron upon which dirt is swept by the brush, of a trunk 
arranged at the rear of said aiiron and provided with a 
movable door arranged to permit the transference of a 
charge of material from the apron to the trunk, and an air- 
forcing apparatus connected with said trunk. 

S6 



RECENT PATENTS. 

In this department we shall print from time to time brief descriptive notes of 
recent patented inventions relating to roads, streets, drainage, bridges and wheeled 
vehicles. 




TRACTION'-ENGrN'E. James A. Stoit, Patentee, Belle- 
ville, ni.. Assignor to the Harri>^on Machine Works, s inie 
place. A traciion engine pro\i(iedwitlulirterential driving 
pulleys adapted to connect with the traction gearing to 
impart either a slow or a high speed to the en<iine, the 
larger pinion being recessed lo fit over and inclose the 
smaller pinion. 




SPRTXKLTNG-MACHTNB. Walter A. Collins, Patentee, 
Tnllytown, Pa. A disiriljuter for sprinkling macliines con- 
sisting ot a re volul ile truncated cone shaped ciising, an axis, 
a water-deflecting disk secured to said CMSing at or near 
the discharge end disposed at a S'il)stanti illy right angle to 
the line of the axis, a water nozzle di<cliarging within said 
casing and means for revolving said cising. 




BRICK. JoHV L. Steyevson, Patentee, Chicago, UL, 
Assignor of one-half to James E. York, same place, A 
brick provided on each side with two lateral pro.iections 
arranged at riiilit angles to the body I'f the brick at pointa 
midway between the middle and the ends of the same. 




SPRINKLING DEVICE. IlENKY I. SciiANCK, Patentee, 
Iloinidol, and Charles B. Ellis, Freehold, N. J. In » 
sprinkling apparatus, the combinai ion with a main frame, 
an axle journakd in the frame and traction wheels rigidly 
secured ou said axle, of a liquid holder supported on th« 
frame, a rocking frame supported below the liquid holder, 
gearing on the axle and rocking frame that is meshed or 
detached by a vibratile lever, a shaft rotatable fiom said 
gearing and projecting rearward, a spraying head on said 
shaft, a tubular conduit extending from the holder oppo- 
sitely of the spraying head, and a stop valve on th« 
conduit. 







^ 



m^ 




oHtract Motes 



We invite the attention of con- 
tractors and ottiers using^ road and 
street machinery to the advertise- 
ments of machines, both new and 
second-hand, contained in our ad- 
'vertisin^ pages. 

ROADS AND STREETS. 

DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA.— Washington.— 
3,250,000 vitrified brick are to be supplied, and bids 
■will be received by the district commissioners for 
the work. 

GEORGIA. — Atlanta. — It has been decided 
to expend about $20,000 for street paving. 

INDIAN A.— Indianapolis. — It has been resolved 
to pave three streets with asphalt. Specifications, 
etc., are being prepared for brick paving. 

Alexandria. — During the coming Summer sev- 
eral miles of streets will be macadamized. Con- 
crete will also be laid and paving with brick. 

MUNCIE. — Three streets are to be paved with 
Trinidad Tyake asphalt, and bids will be received 
by the city clerk until May i. 

WISCONSIN.— Whitefish Bay.— Day Avenue 
is to be improved and bids will be received until 
May 1, by the village board, for the work. 

OHIO.— Toledo. — Paving is to be done in several 
streets for which bids will be asked until April 17, 
by the city clerk. 

Clyde. — Main Street is to be paved and a new 
Bcwer laid. Plans have been ordered to be pre- 
pared and are now under way. 

Norwood. — Bids will be advertised for shortly 
for the work of improvements in three streets. 

NEW YORK.— New York. — Seven contracts 
■will be let for paving with asphalt on the present 
stone block pavement. Bids will be received by 
the Commissioner of Public Works during the first 
two weeks of April. 

Albany. — Estimates are being prepared for the 
•work of paving nine streets with granite blocks, 
and one with asphalt. Further information may 
■fee obtained of the city engineer. 

IOWA. — Muscatine. — It is proposed in the near 
future to pave the streets of this town with brick, 
the Commercial Club having set the movement 
going. 

ILLINOIS.— Matoon.— Until April 21, bids will 
be received by the city clerk for about 40,000 square 
yards of brick paving. 

"VIRGINIA. — South Boston.— The Mayor is re- 
ceiving bids for the work of paving and curbing. 

TENNESSEE.— Knoxville.— Brick paving is to 
be begun and bids will be advertised for by the 
Board of Public Works. 

SEWERS. 
KEW YORK.— IRVINGTON.— It is proposed to 
IkKlld a system of sewers and the board of sewer 






F 




V 



coramissioners will receive bids for the work until 
April 22. 

Jamestown. — Bids will be advertised for the 
work of constructing the remainder of the sewerage 
system. Further information may be obtained of 
the board of public works. 

UTAH.— Salt Lake City. — The sum of $300,000 
has been appropriated for the proposed gravity 
sewer, and bids will be advertised for by the 
board of public works and city engineer. 

ILLINOIS.— Ottawa.— A system of sewers is to- 
be completed in South Ottawa, the proposed cost 
of which is $25,000. Plans and estimates have been 
prepared. 

Bloomington. — Two sewers are to be built^ 
namely, a 12-inch vitrified pipe sewer 250 feet long, 
and a 15-inch vitrified pipe sewer 250 feet long. 
Bids will soon be awarded for the work. 

VIRGINIA. — Charlottesville. — Plans have 
been ordered to be prepared by Rudolph Hering, 
of New York, for a system of sewers. 

MASSACHUSETTS.— Malden.— It has been re- 
quested by the street commissioners that the sum. 
of $150,000 be set apart as soon as possible for ne^v 
sewers. 

Brockton. — Sealed proposals will be received 
until April 2^, for laying about 16,500 feet of 24-inch 
cast iron force rcain. Bids vsrill be received by the 
sewerage commissioners. 

Cambridge. — Bids are being received for 300,000 
sewer brick. 

MICHIGAN.— Iron Mountain.— Bids are being 
received for the work of laying one and one-half 
miles of 8 to is-inch pipe sewers. 

PENNSYLVANIA.— PHILADELPHIA. — Bids will 
soon be asked for sewers in thi ty-one streets. 

NEW JERSEY.— Kearney.- Bids will be adver- 
tised for work on five sewers, t te cost of the whole 
system being about $100,000 or over. 

CALIFORNIA— Salinas. —A sewerage system 
is to be built at an estimated cost of $30,000. Plans 
have been prepared for the work. 

CONNECTICUT.— Caldwell.— Plans have beea 
prepared for a system of sewers in this place. 



BRIDGES. 

CONNECTICUT.— Bridgeport.— Sealed propo- 
sals will be received until April 21, by the Board 
of Public Works for the furnishing of all material 
and labor required in the construction of masonry 
for a new bridge, as follow: 793 cubic yards first- 
classcoursed ashlar masonry, 5i7cubic yards second 
class coursed masonry, 400 cubic yards rubble re- 
taining wall. Specifications, etc., may be seen and 
further information obtained at the oflfice of the 
city engineer. 

MISSOURI.— St. Louis.— A bill has been intro- 
duced in congress for the construction of a bridge 
across the river at this city. 



RECENT PATENTS. 




rOMlUXATTON ROAD-EOLLER. Robekt C. RitthveN, 
Patentee, T.uif.ilo, N. Y., AssiKHor to tlie Barber Asphalt 
Paving Coiiiiiauy, New York, N.Y. The coiiibination of a 
steam-roller, an advance roller, a counecting-reaeh, suitable 
steam connections between the steam-roller and the in- 
terior of the advance-roller, steering-gear for steering the 
advance-roller arlajited to lie operated from the steam-roller, 
and means for connecting and disconnecting the rollers. 







^'^~\ 






w 




■»p '. 








TRACK - SWEEPER. William H. Leigh, Patentee, 
reaver Falls, Pa. In coinliiiiaticm with a re.irwanlly- 
divcrgent plrmgli, the rearwanllv-cdnverjic nt rot,ii\ brushi's 
arranged approximately at ritilit angles to the Mdt s of tlie 
plough and projecting at their front ends beyond the Siime. 




STREET-CLEANING MACIirNE. ROBEBT W. Fubnas 
Patentee, Indianapolis, liid. In a street-cleaning machine 
a coiled ingnieelianisni, a furnace, and a conveyer leading 
from ihe eollectlng nieehanism to the combustion chamber 
of such furnace, where the dirt and refuse collected are 
consumed, the whole mounted upon a movable framework. 




STREI:T-CLEAN1NG machine. Robert "W. Firnas, 
Patentee, Indianapolis, Ind. In a street-sweeping machine, 
means for collecting and taking the dirt from the pavement, 
a fan and connections f(rr delivering the dirt to a dirt- 
receptacle, an engine for actuating the dirt-collecting 
means and the fan, a dlrt-recejitaclc connected to the 
macliinc, and an exhaust-pipe leading from the engine- 
cylinder into the dirt-receptacle for spraying the material 
deposited therein. 




NO CAUSE FOR ALARM. 

Wif e-^The cat is in the pantry p.ating the 
cold steak. Come and drive her out. 

Husband — Is that the steak 3'ou cooked 
for dinner? 

Wife — Yes. 

Husband — -Then, I reckon, the cat's gone 
already. 



Miss Smilax — There comes that Mr. 
Wooden again ; he torments me almost to 
death with his attentions. 

Sharpe — I know; he never did have any 
sense. 



A Minneapolis landlady has been fined 
ten dollars for slapping her hired girl. We 
will make one of ten to pay that woman's 
fine. 



" What's in a name?" Ah, William, you 
didn't know everything, that's certain. Salt 
can be bought for a few cents a bag, but 
call it chloride of sodium and the chemists 
will mulct you to the tune of a dollar for 
one poor scruple. 



I MADE an awful bad "break" the other 
day, for which I shall be sorry as long as 
Mrs. H lives. I called at their resi- 
dence. She showed me a handsome pair of 
riding boots she had just bought, and asked 
what I thought of them. 

"Oh, they are immense!" said I, inno- 
cently. — Louis Goddic- in The Rider and 
Driver. 



When Charles Dickens was in Washing- 
ton, he met, one morning on the steps of 
the Capitol, a young Congressman from 
Tennessee, whom 'the great novelist had 
offended by his boorishness. That morn- 
ing Dickens was in great good humor and 
full of talk. 

"I have," said he, "found an almost 
exajt counterpart of Little Nell." 

" Little Nell who," queried the Tennes- 
seean. Dickens looked him over from head 
to foot and from foot to head before he 
snorted out : 

"My Little Nell." 

" Oh," said the Tennesseean, "I didn't 
know you had your daughter with you." 

' ' I am speaking of the Little Nell of my 
fiction, sir," retorted Dickens, flushing. 

"Oh," said the imperturbable Tennes- 
seean, "you write novels, do you? Don't 
you consider that a rather trifling occupa- 
tion for a grown up man?" Dickens snorted 
like a quarter-horse and hurried down the 
avenue. — A rgoti a ui. 



SCARSDKUe 

HOME FOR CHRONIC DISEASES. 

40 Minutes out; Harlem R. R. 

ifATURE— REST— CURE. Home treatment for j 

few selected cases the year round. Terms, 

$25.00 per week and upward. 

Address, Dr. GKO. D- CLIKT, 

9 ti 12 A. M. "Tha Florence," 109 East 18th Street. New Yorii 



jmwEs c. wopERs, Qjyii Enoineep, 

BELLEFONTAINE, O. ■«**" j-.x*jji**wwi , 

Highways and Municipal Work, Plans, Estimates, 
Specifications, Superintendence. Correspondenc* 
invited. 



P. A. DUNHAA\i Civil Epgip^^r 

AND Expert in Road and Street Improvements. 

Engineer in Charge of the following Works : 
The Famous Union Co., N. J., Road System ; Street 
Improvements, Hasbrouck Heights, N. J.; Street 
Paving and Sewerage, Sewickley, Pa.; Street, 
Improvements, Olean, N. Y. Is City Engineer of 
Plainfield, N. J,, and Dunkirk, N. Y. Correspondence 
Solicited. Main Office, No. 7 Parl< Ave., Plainfield, N. J. 



Construction and Improvement of 

ROADS AND PAVEMENTS 

A SPECIAIiTT. 

A. T. BYRNK, 

Civil Engineer and. Surveyor, 
at4 JAY STREET. . • BROOKLYN, N. Y. 



Good Roads 



Vol. 3. 



February, 1893. 



No. 2. 



■-^■f 






ROAD IMPROVEMENT IN NEW YORK. 

BY HUN. ROSWELL P. FLOWER, GOVERNOR OF NEW YORK. 










f 



'he great obstacle to road im- 
provement in New York State 
has been the continuance of 
the antiquated "working-" 
system, whereby highway 
taxes are "worked out" by days' 
labor. I know nobody who now seri- 
ously defends this system ; yet it is im- 
bedded in custom and in the law, and 
only persistent agitation will efface it. 
The results of this system are 
just a little better than no attempt at improvement at all ; the 
cost is great enough to pay for substantial stone roads. It 



62 



ROAD IMPROVEMENT IN NEW YORK. 



seems strange that this condition of things should go on un- 
changed, yet it still prevails in most towns of the state and a 
revolution toward a better system can only be accomplished 
after many efforts and much public discussion. 

It has always seemed to me that if the people of the state 
could have forced home to them two facts: first, that good 
macadam or gravel roads are in the long run the cheapest, as 
regards both construction and maintenance; and, second, that 
they are inestimably more profitable, both in lessening the cost 
of transportation and in improving the value of property, it 
would not be long before our present wretched and dilapidated 




I r 





" IT SEEMS STR\N^rTE TH \T THIS CONniTION OF THINGS SHOUI.D GO ON, UNCHANGED." 
VIEW OF COUNIRY KO\D AT EN I RANGE OF MARKET TOWN, SHOWING DEEP MUD 
WHICH MAKES 1 HE ROAD IMPASSABLE FOR LOADED FARM WAGONS. (FROM PHOTO- 
GRAPH TAKEN APRIL, i8q2.) 

dirt roads would be replaced by a fine system of substantial high- 
ways. With a view to emphasizing this question of cost, I some- 
time ago sent circular letters to the nine hundred and odd town 
clerks of the state, asking them to furnish me information as 
to the number of days' work assessed and performed upon the 
highways of their town during the last year for which statistics 
were available, and also, in addition, the amount of moneys 
raised and expended for the same purpose. I have received 
replies from only about half of the towns, but using these replies 
as a basis for making conservative estimates, I find, counting 
each day's work as valued at one dollar, that the money cost of 



ROAD I IMPROVEMENT IN NEW YORK. 



63 



our present efforts to maintain our hig-hways outside of cities 
and villages, is over $3,000,000 a year, or an average cost of 
something over $50,000 for each county 

Now the question which every taxpayer must ask himself 
when he is urged to consider the question of road improvement 
is whether this enormous expenditure is producing any commen- 
surate results, and the general admission, I venture to say, 
will be that it is not. The next question which presents itself 
therefore is how this same amount of money and effort can be 
expended so as to produce commensurate results, and here is 
opportunity for difference of opinion as to which methods are 
most practicable and the wisest. 




"WHETHFK THIS IXORMOUS EXrrxmi URE IS PROnUCIN'O AN\" Cn^r^IE^'SURATE RE- 
bULTb." VIEW OF COUNTRY DIRT ROAD AT ITS BEST, SHOWING THE LOOSE, HEAVV 
SURFACE WHICH MAKES TEAMING EXPENSIVE. (FROM PHOTOGRAPH TAKEN IN 
ONEIDA COUNTY, N. Y., IN JULY, i8g2.) 

In the discussion of the subject of good roads four plans of 
improvement have been suggested : 

1. National roads — laid out through states and territories at 
national expense and under supervision of a national govern- 
mental bureau. 

2. State roads — laid out through the counties of a state at 
state expense and under state supervision, 

3. County roads — laid out in each county, connecting the 
various towns in the county, built at county expense and under 
the supervision of the board of supervisors. 

4. Town roads — laid out through each town, at town expense 
and under supervision of town authorities. 



64 ROAD IMPROVEMENT IN NEW YORK. 



To the first plan I am tinalterably opposed, I can see no 
reason why the general government should undertake such a 
work. In these days of improved railroad and water communi- 
cation, national highways can serve no purely national purpose. 
They are needed neither for inter-state commerce nor for trans- 
portation of troops and military supplies. They could be 




"I HAVE RECOMMENDED WHAT IS KNOWN AS THE COUNTY ROAD SYSTEM." VIEW OF 
IMPROVED (MACADAM) ROAD IN UNION COUNTY, N. J., CONSTRUCTED UNDER THE 
RECENT NEW JERSEY LAW WHICH PROVIDES FOR CONSTRUCTION AN D MAINTENANCE 
OF ROADS UNDER COUNTY DIRECTION. SIXTY MILES OF SPLENDID ROADS HAVE 
BEEN BUILT IN UNION COUNTY UNDER THIS LAW AND OTHER COUNTIES ARE MOV- 
ING VIGOROUSLY IN THE SAME DIRECTION. 

built now on any comprehensive scale only under the broadest 

construction of the general welfare clause of the constitution. 

To the second plan I am also opposed. I do not think, in 

the first place, that it is a feasible method, for it would not 



ROAD IMPROVEMENT IN NEW YORK. 65 

commend itself sufficiently to public confidence. However 
honest the impulse behind it and however economically such a 
policy was carried out, it would always be criticized as a political 
scheme, designed to serve the purposes of the party in power. 
The failure of the so-called Richardson bill in the New York Leg- 
islature during the past three 5"ears is a sufficient indication of 
the popular temper on this method. In practice the plan of a 
system of state roads would probably lead to extravagance in 
cost and favoritism in the location of the public highways. 

In my recent annual message to the legislature I rec- 
ommended the third method — what is known as the county 
road system — giving the two following reasons for the unsatis- 
factory character of the present town "working" system: 

" First. The tendency in each little district is to make roads 
only for its own inhabitants and not for the inhabitants of other 
districts. The character of each leading market road through- 
out its entire length thus tends to keep down to that of the 
worst road in any one of the little districts into which it is subdi- 
vided. The load the farmer can carry to market is determined 
by the worst point in the entire road he must traverse. The 
people of each district naturally say, ' if the other districts will 
not make good roads for us, they do not deserve that we should 
make good roads for them, and there is but little advantage in 
our making such short strips of good road for ourselves. ' Under 
such a system there can be no concerted action for a tmiformly 
good market road, and the inevitable result is a uniformly bad 
road. 

"Second, The smaller the area of taxation the more eco- 
nomical will be the taxpayers, whether the tax be paid in labor 
or money. The county road district is the smallest area of tax- 
ation in the state, and by the inevitable tendency of human 
nature the country roads receive the stingiest treatment of 
any of the public works. Each locality is extravagant enough 
in its demands for local improvements at the state expense, for 
each inhabitant of the locality thinks that the rest of the state 
pays the entire tax. But each inhabitant of a road district 
naturally seems to think that he is paying all the expense of 
any improvement in his local road." 

Between these two extremes of extravagance in state ex- 
penditures and stinginess in local expenditures I suggested the 
county road system as the golden mean. "At least the lead- 
ing market road in each county should be maintained by 
cotmty taxation, expended imder the supervision of a compe- 
tent county engineer, subject to the general direction of the 
board of supervisors. It is suggested that the legislature 
should pass a general law prescribing certain kinds of im- 
proved roads, outlining the methods of raising and expending 
the necessary moneys, and authorizing any county, upon the 



66 



ROAD IMPROVEMENT IN NEW YORK. 



vote of the board of supervisors, to avail themselves of the pro- 
visions of the statute." 

I am prepared to go farther than this, however, and 
authorize any town to take advantage of analogous provisions 
if its taxpayers so vote. 

Such legislation should be permissive, not mandatory. 
While it is to the interest of the state that the highways of 
each county should be in good condition, the movement for im- 
provement should originate with the people of the county upon 
whom the cost must fall and who share the largest measure of 
advantaofe. Whether the various counties would avail them- 




" WE HAVE 250.000 FARMERS IN THE STATE WHOSE CROPS MUST BE TRANSPORTED BY 
HORSE POWER FROM THE FARMS TO THE MARKETS. WHO WILL ESTIMATE THE AD- 
DITIONAL COST TO THESE 250,000 BY THE WEAR AND TEAR ON WAGONS AND HOKSLS 
WHICH BAD ROADS IMPOSE?" ROAD SCENE AT ENTRANCE OF NEW YORK VILLAGE, 
SHOWING CONDITION OF IMPORTANT FARM COUNTRY ROAD IN MAY, 1892. (FROM 
PHOTOGRAPH.) 

selves of the provisions of such a general statute as I have 
outlined, is of course an open question. I have confidence that 
they would. But any substantial reform requires agitation, and 
such excellent work as the publication Good Roads is doing 
will accomplish much toward stimulating popular interest and 
inducing local action. 

The $3,000,000 now annually spent in work and money on 
the roads of this state would build five hundred miles of good 
macadam road. It would pay the interest and contribute 



ROAD IMPROVEMENT IN NEW YORK. 67 

toward the sinkings fund on a bonded indebtedness sufficient to 
build 10,000 miles of good substantial highways. 

As citizens of "the richest and most powerful state in the 
Union we cannot afford to be backward in this national move- 
ment for better roads. We have more at stake in this regard 
than most states. We have a beautiful and picturesque rural 
territory which attracts hundreds of thousands of visitors from 
other states every summer and whose value and attractiveness 
might be immeasurably enhanced by an earnest and intelligent 
effort to improve its highways. We have thousands of square 
miles of agricultural land which would be vastly increased in 
value by better means of highway communication. We have 
250,000 farmers in the state whose crops must be transported 
by horse power from the farms to the markets; — who will esti- 
mate the additional cost to these 250,000 by the wear and tear 
on wagons and horses which bad roads impose? 

These material advantages have but to be pressed home to 
our farmers and to our other taxpayers and soon there will dis- 
appear any vestige of opposition to road reform. 



The total sum raised by taxes for all purposes in the State 
of New York, in the year 1891, was about $60,000,000, of which 
the town and county tax amounted to about 90 per cent, and 
the state taxes (proper) less than 2^ per cent. The smallest 
total of assessed valuation in any county was about $2,000,000, 
being the Hamilton County assessment. 



The State of New York has never expended a single dollar 
for the permanent improvement of her roads nor for the collec- 
tion or distribution of information which might add to the 
knowledge of her people in the construction and maintenance 
of the common hisrhwavs. 



During the last twenty years thousands of appliances and 
conveniences designed to quicken the travel, to simplify and 
cheapen the business transactions and to enhance the social 
condition of the people, have been introduced among the popu- 
lous cities and villages, which, almost without exception, have 
enlarged in population, wealth and commercial importance. 
Meanwhile the farmer has been denied the advantages of these 
improvements, and is travelling at the same rate and doing 
business in miuch the same way that was followed by his father 
and his grandfather. Result : Out of sixty counties within the 
State of New York, the census shows actual decrease in 
population in twenty-one counties, all agricultural, within the 
last ten years. 



LEAGUE WORK IN DIVISIONS. 



'\By Charles H. Liiscomb, Chief Consul, New York Division, 

L ^. W. 

THE influence that League officials and members could bring- 
to bear upon the work of road improvement, if system- 
atically exerted, shows the necessity for active Division 
attention. 

The real results come only in the enactment of laws by the 
legislature, and the end of all education and agitation is when 

the representative in the As- 
sembly or the Senate knows 
that he must follow the demands 
of those who put him in office. 
The "voice of the people," 
so called, is a rhetorical ex- 
pression of much force. It has 
a fullness and roundness of 
tone, and an unknown depth 
of meaning, which carries won- 
derful weight. But the "voice 
of the people," practically, is 
the dicta of a few leaders who 
think and talk, and who are 
followed by the great majority 
who talk without thinking and 
act as they see others act. 

The wheelmen of the country 
are, in intelligence, much above 
the average citizen. Let them, 
as they are qualified, be of those 
who think and talk and not of those who follow. 

There are arguments, plenty and imanswerable, ready at 
hand, which the wheelman should use and be heard in using, 
wherever the opportunity occurs, and where it does not present 
itself, he should make it. 

The constant presentation of something so true that man can- 
not dispute it, makes advocates and believers, because they rec- 
ognize the truth and accept it mechanically, if not reasonably. 
The single wheelman who rises in a meeting, a party, or an 
assemblage of any kind, and says, " This road is in a miserable 
condition; it should be repaired and kept in good repair; it 
should be rebuilt as a good road," impresses a fact upon the 
minds of many within hearing. As they pass that road from 
time to time, they, too, will say, mentally perhaps, "This road 




CHARLES H. LUSCOMB. 



LEAGUE WORK IN DIVISIONS, 



69 



should be repaired." It becomes a fixed fact in their minds 
that it should be repaired, and from the acceptance of the ne- 
cessity the transition to the acceptance of the essential require- 
ments to accomplish it is easy. 

Let the wheelman take the roads in his immediate vicinity, 
make them the subject of his constant remark in the presence 
of others. Lead their minds upon that line of thinking and the 
sentiment will grow, spread and increase. 

He is constituting himself a leader, an exponent of "the 
voice of the people." Let him then go to his Assemblyman or 




"THF =;i\GI r WHEFIMV^ Wild KI--r-- 1\ \ MF.KTIXG AXU ^WS. 'IHIS l-:i'AI) IS IN A 
MlbrRAIIlE cnxDITIDN,' IMPRPssLS \ FVlT UPON THE MINDS OF MANY WITHIN 
HEARING." VIEW OF IMPORTANT COUNTRY ROAD LEADING INTO LARGE MARKET 
TOWN. (FROM PHOTOGRAPH TAKEN JUNE, 1892.) 

Senator, and say, " Our highway laws arc inadequate ; we must 
have better roads, and we want legislation to accomplish it, 
and you must do it for us. " 

Representatives elected by popular vote are tender toward 
their constituents. They don't want to be left home, next time, 
on an unsatisfactory record, either of things omitted or things 
committed. 

They want to know what will keep their fences in good con- 
dition, and where they can find a good popular measure to 
tie up to. 

They may inquire ainong their neighbors whether a road 
law would be desired, and in the course of this inquiry they 




\hrinaii 

FOR GOOD ROADS. 
Prominent Wheelmen of the State of New York. 




t^«\-\";.^'' 



FOR GOOD ROADS. 
Prominent Wheelmen of the State of New York. 



yo LEAGUE WORK IN DIVISIONS. 

would be quite likely to run across the man whose mind had 
been turned upon the bad road over which he was compelled to 
pass, and which "should be repaired." 

So they strike popular opinion, and become alive to the fact 
that the wheelman was voicing a public sentiment to which they 
might wisely give heed. 

Neither should the wheelman suffer himself to refrain from 
the full, free and frequent expression of opinion on this 
subject, whatever be the size or portentous character of the 
title of him in whose presence he happens to be. 

It is well to remember that there is nothing either divine or 
to be approached with humility in public office. A man becomes 
neither larger nor possessed of superhuman attributes because 
he holds an office or is adorned with a title. Therefore let no 
reluctance or fear to intrude deter the earnest wheelman from 
a manly statement of the requirements of his community or 
neighborhood to the man who is put in office to represent the 
people of that place. 

This suggestion is made because it is an undeniable fact, 
that office doth at times seek to hedge itself about with false 
divinity and strut with conscious pride of person begotten of 
an undue conception of official importance. 

Not that it is recommended that the fur of any particular 
victim of popular choice be unceremoniously ruffled, but that 
the wheelman be not fearful of the dignity of office, or doubtful 
of his right as a citizen to demand of his representative a rec- 
ognition and attention to existing wants. 

Representatives and consuls are particularly charged with 
duties of the kind above discussed. They should attend all 
public meetings, all political caucuses of whatever party and be 
heard. 

The issue is a true one, the premises are sound, and the 
conclusion inevitable. 

The power and ability of the League of American Wheel- 
men to bring the question to an early solution is undeniable. 
Persistent attention and constant action must be maintained. 



New York has nearly four hundred incorporated cities and 
villages within her fifty thousand square miles of territory. 
She stands first among the states in commerce and wealth, and 
third in the value of her agricultural products, being exceeded 
in this by only the two states of Illinois and Iowa, either of 
which has a greater area than New York by about ten thousand 
square miles. 

The assessed valuation of real and personal property within 
the State of New York is nearly four thousand millions of 
dollars. 



GOOD ROADS AND SCHOOL ATTENDANCE. 



Bv Francis J. Cheney, A. M., Ph. D., of Cortland, N. Y., Prin- 
cipal of State Normal School. 

THE agitation for improved highways has acquired such 
momentum that it would be difficult now for their most 
bitter opponent to resist it successfully. AVhen the 
question was first presented to the public it met with little sym- 
pathy; but, like the idea of civil service reform, it has grown 

in public estimation until we 

find that the favor with which 

/^ ■ '^'\ it is received is all that its most 

ardent advocates could wish. 
^ It command the services of 

the readiest pens to such an ex- 
tent that it is creating a litera- 
ture of its own. Communities 
have been aroused so that they 
are taking the matter in hand 
and are improving' their own 
highways. Some states, through 
their legislatures, have already 
taken action, governors have 
included it among the projects 
recommended in their mes- 
sages and the Executive of our 
own state is one of its intelli- 
gent promoters. 
FRANCIS J. CHENEY, A M., PH. 0. j^^ advocatcs havc rcinforccd 

their arguments by showing the positive benefits resulting to 
civilization from good roads and the mass of iniquities we have 
to endure from poor roads. It is unnecessary to enumerate 
either the benefits claimed or the iniquities condemned. These 
have all been given to the public in newspaper and magazine 
articles, as well as public addresses, in so forcible a manner as 
to make this one of the live qtiestions of the day. Naturally 
the agricultural interests of the state have had a large place in 
the discussion. The condition of our highways at certain sea- 
sons of the year has rendered it practically impossible for the 
farmer to get his produce to market. This interest alone has 
so impressed those who have thus far given attention to the 
subject that they wonder wdiy immediate action is not taken, 
especially when the astonishing fact recently stated by Gov. 
Flower, in his annual message to the legislature, is remem- 
bered. By careful investigation he found that our present 




72 GOOD ROADS AND SCHOOL ATTENDANCE. 



apology for highways costs each county annually an average 
of $54,000. No one will disagree with him when he says that 
"with no greater expenditure but under a different system each 
county might be covered with fine macadam roads, with all the 
resulting advantages, in appreciation of property and economy 
of transportation. " This alone leaves the Empire State with- 
out defense if she does not very soon, through her legislature, 
put forth an earnest and systematic effort for better roads. 

An equally important reason for good roads, however, I do 
not remember to have seen emphasized very much in the pub- 
lic prints, and that is a larger and more regular attendance in 
our public schools, especially in country districts. The latest 




"MUCH OFTIIK IRRKi;ri.AKri V I'F SCIldiil \I 11 M)\\Ll MA\ l:K ACCOUNTED FOR BY 
THE DISGRACEFUL CONDITION OF OUR HIGH\VAYt>." ROAD SCENE IN COUNTRY 
TOWN, SHOWING DEEP MUD AND DIFFICULT TRAVEL. (FROM PHOTOGRAPH TAKEN 
IN MAY, 1892.) 

statistics at hand show that in 1892 nearly 42 per cent, of the 
children of school age in this state were not in the public 
schools, although these schools were carried on at an expense 
of over $21,100,000. Some of these children, to be sure, were 
in private or parochial schools; but many were not in any 
school 

The report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction 
shows that in 1891 there were 1,054,044 pupils under instruc- 
tion in the public schools of the state. Adding to this number 
the pupils of school age instructed at the same time in private 
schools, normal schools, colleges, law and medical schools, we 



GOOD ROADS AND SCHOOL ATTENDANCE. 73 



find the total to be but 70.3 per cent, of all the children of 
school age in the state. The average daily attendance of pupils 
in the public schools during the same time was 650,017, or but 
53 per cent, of the whole number in attendance at any time 
during the year. Of this number 344,609, or a little more than 
27 per cent, were from the cities, and 305,408, or a little more 
than 24 per cent., were from the towns; yet the total registra- 
tion was more than 5 per cent, greater in the towns than in the 
cities. 

Of course it is difficult to determine how much this irregu- 
larity of attendance, whether in city or town, is due to poor 




"UNLESS THE HIGHWAY IS MADE PASSABLE AT ALL SEASONS OF THE YEAR THE DISPAR- 
ITY BETWEEN REGISTRATION AND ATTENDANCE WILL CONTINUE TO GROW." VIEW 
ON IMPORTANT COUNTRY ROAD, SHOWING CONDITION IN SPRING OF i8q2. (FROM 
PHOTOGRAPH.) 

roads, as no reliable data are at hand ; that it should be greater 
in town than city need surprise no one who has had experience 
with country schools and the average country road. It may be 
safely affirmed that much of this irregularity of attendance may 
be acco.unted for by the disgraceful condition of our highways 
during large portions of the year. 

The difficulty, as far as country schools are concerned, is not 
likely to grow less. It is of frequent occurrence now, that, 
owing to the decrea.se in the school population of our country 
districts, the boundaries of many of these districts are so 
changed that the districts are "set in " with that of the nearest 
village, thus increasing the distance between the country pupil 



74 GOOD ROADS AND SCHOOL ATTENDANCE. 

and the school. It is easy to see that tmless the highway is 
made passable in all seasons of the year, this will result in such 
serious inconvenience to the children that the disparity between 
the registration and the actual attendance will continue to 
grow. My own experience and observation of seventeen years 
as a teacher in the public schools of the state lead me to this 
conclusion. 

The state is demanding more attractive school rooms, higher 
qualifications for the teaching service, and better methods of 
instruction. For this work it is more and more enlisting the 
talent of those who hold it in high estimate, and shall it not 
take this other step, which will aid greatly in increasing the 
sch9ol registration and decreasing irregularity of attendance? 
A just estimate of the responsibility of the state, as well as of 
that which promotes its well being, demands that the facilities 
of well organized and well conducted schools shall be as accessi- 
ble as possible to the child who dwells in the remotest corner 
of the district. That this should be so is of greater concern to 
the state than even the pecuniary advantage arising from 
improved highways. May this agitation continue until New 
York shall have a system of public roads so well made and kept 
that all its interests, material and immaterial, shall no longer 
suffer from unimproved highways. 



Last year the price of baled hay in the large cities in the 
State of New York increased in price about thirty-five cents per 
hundred pounds, owing to a scarcity of supply caused by the 
mud blockade which prevented the farmers from connecting 
with the hay market. Immense sums of money were paid by 
city residents to make up this advance in price. The spec- 
ulators and middlemen reaped the entire profit ; the farmers 
gained nothing and the consumer suffered. This incident 
supplies a pertinent lesson to those persons who argue that the 
cities have no interest in the improvement of the country roads. 



The farmers of the State of New York have about seven 
hundred thousand horses and mules of the age of two years and 
upwards on their farms, and these animals have a value of 
about seventy millions of dollars. At the low estimate of 
twenty-five cents each, it costs these farmers one hundred and 
seventy-five thousand dollars per day to feed and care for these 
animals and this amount is practically lost each day when the 
deep mud requires them to stand in the stable. Besides this, 
the interest on the value of these animals at six per cent, is 
about eleven thousand five hundred and sixty-seven dollars 
per day. These are facts for the farmer, and for the statesman 
who claims to represent him. 



STATE SHOULD LEAD AND COUNTIES FOLLOW. 




Bv Hon. Mar fill ScJu'iui;, State Engineer and Snrveyor. 

FEW subjects of public interest are receiving at this time 
more attention than the existing condition of the com- 
mon roads of our state, and certainly few, if any, are 
deserving of more consideration. It is unnecessary here to re- 
peat the time-worn phrase, ' ' Our coiumon roads are a disgrace 

to our boasted civilization," 
since nearly all persons are 
more or less familiar with ex- 
isting conditions and are clam- 
oring for relief. No other con- 
ditions can possibly exist with 
the present system of road con- 
struction and maintenance, and 
no relief will be had imtil such 
time as skilled road makers shall 
assume control where an almost 
absolute want of skill, and in 
many cases want of common 
sense, now exists. It would be 
impossible within the limits of 
this brief paper to enter at any 
length into the subject of road 
making, but a few hints maybe 
given as to what roads ought 
to be. ^ 

One of the frequent errors 
of the present road maker is in the matter of alignment ; grade 
quite often being sacrificed for straightness, and many instances 
might be cited where roads are run over hills with the worst of 
grades when easy grades could have been had with a shorter 
distance by passing around them. The existing methods of 
preparing and maintaining the road bed is a matter familiar to 
most of your readers, and certainly nothing shows a greater 
lack of common sense or business principles, and the only way 
out of this "slough of despond " is a radical change inroad 
management. 

The writer of these lines is a firm believer in the cardinal 
principle that control of local matters should be largely vested 
in the local authorities, and is of the opinion that those in au- 
thority in the several counties of our state are fully able to cope 
with the problem of good roads, both as to their construction 
and maintenance if the necessary legislation could be had. The 



HON. MARTIN SCHENCK. 



^d STATE SHOULD LEAD AND COUNTLES FOLLOW. 



legislation proposed by ex-Governor Hill, in his annual mes- 
sages of 1890 and 1 89 1, would appear to cover all the ground 
necessary, viz. : that the state construct, under the direction of 
skilled engineers, certain roads in each of the several counties 
of our state as examples of what roads should be, and thereafter 
the counties themselves shall assume the duties of road con- 
struction and maintenance under the care of a county engineer 
or superintendent. This idea was embodied in the bills intro- 
duced in the last three legislatures by Senator Richardson, and 
it is very much to be desired that the same, or a similar bill, 
shall this year be enacted into law and an impetus in the direc- 




"NOTIIIMG SHOWS A GREATER LACK OF COMMON SENSE OR OF BUSINESS PRINCI- 
PLES, AND THE ONLY WAY OUT OF THIS 'SLOUGH OF DESPOND' IS A RADICAL 
CHANGE IN ROAD MANAGEMENT." SCENE ON IMPORTANT COUNTRY ROAD IN 
JUNE, 1892. (FROM PHOTOGRAPH.) 

tion of road improvement be given. Some of the legislation 
proposed at the last session of the legislature, requiring the use 
of prison labor in road construction, was so very crude and im- 
practicable that no time or space will be given here to its criti- 
cism. 

While it is probably true that some portion of the labor of 
road construction and maintenance may and will be performed 
hereafter by prison labor, the great bulk of it must continue to 
be done by persons other than inmates of our prisons. 

Excepting a few localities like Long Island, where good 
roads can be constructed by simply forming a road bed of the 



STATE SHOULD LEAD AND COUNTIES FOLLOW. 77 

sandy soil and finishing with a few inches of loam, or in a few 
favored portions of our state where the prevailing soil is a gravel 
of good quality, such as will furnish not only road material, but 
natural drainage as well, our good road of the future will be 
without doubt some form of the broken stone road. The stone 
crusher run by steam or water power will be a more familiar 
object than the chain gang, and one quite as pleasing from 
every point of view. The requirements for a good macadam 
or telford road may be stated in a very few words, viz. : easy 
grades, good foundation, drainage as perfect as possible, both on 
the surface and underneath, good road metal, and last, but not 
least by any means, maintenance under intelligent supervision. 

The cost of construction per mile will, of course, be some- 
what greater than that of the haphazard style of road as now 
built, but once having gotten on the right road (the good road) 
the cost of maintenance will be lessened to that extent that 
many miles of improved highways may be constructed out of 
the saving in this item alone. 

Much of the present agitation for road improvement is due 
to the use of the " wheel," and if, as now seems highly proba- 
ble, the " wheel " shall be the cause of bringing about this great 
desideratum, it may be well said that its inventor " builded far 
better than he knew," for he shall have given i:s not only a 
practical vehicle, but that greatest of boons, good roads. 



$TOO ill gold offered for prize photographs of good and bad roads. 
Now is the time to compete. Send for full circular information and 
blanks to Good Roads, Potter Building., N'eta York City. 



If you are a New York reader of Good Roads, send this 
copy to your town supervisor or to some prominent officer of 
your county, or to your road commissioner and request him to 
read it. If your friend has a copy ask him to send it to the 
editor of your local paper and ask him to review and com- 
mend it. 



Several bills for the improvement of roads are pending in 
the New York legislature. All are directed in the line of improve- 
ment but some are crude and not fairly calculated to meet the 
conditions of the Empire State. Nothing short of the most 
careful study and deliberation will warrant the approval of any 
measure that is calculated to operate generally throughout the 
sixty counties of the state. 



" You are doing a grand work in your magazine and writings 
in behalf of this important public question. " — Dr. George D. Clift, 
New York City. 



WHEEL-TIRES AND AXLES. 



HOW THHY CAN BE MADE TO KEEP THE ROAD SMOOTH. 

"Bv William A. Siveet, President, New York State Roads Improve- 
ment Association. 

To expend a large amount of money on the roads of this 
state, and to so continue to expend money yearly, will be 
a good investment, no doubt, for the farmers and, in 
fact, for all; but every practical observer knows that when the 
macadam is down, and well down, it takes but six days of ordi- 
nary farm teaining, in the draw- 
ing of their crops, to produce 
narrow ruts in the best macadam 
road that has ever been put 
down in this coimtry. 

Now, small ruts hold a little 
water; water softens all stones 
found in this state except the 
granites and gneiss, and I am 
not sure but that it softens these 
to some extent. The roads of 
England are only kept as they 
are by the wagons themselves; 
there is no special width for the 
tracking of the wheels, and the 
hind wheels are universally 
wider apart (and often wider 
apart than the width of tire) than 
the fore wheels, so that the front 
and rear wheels never track. 
This is the secret: The tires 
are universally one-third to one-half broader on the face than 
those used by our own farmers, so that, while a loaded farm 
wagon of 5,000 pounds in this country would, as it passes along, 
cover but a width on the ground equal to two tracks of 1 ^ 
inches each, cutting into an'ordinary road, the Enghsh wagon, 
having three to four-inch tires (and having hind wheels 
eight inches wider apart than the fore wheels), would cover a 
width of four tracks of three to four inches each, or twelve to 
sixteen inches on the ground, thus rolling down the road instead 
of cutting it up. 

We should have a bill drafted, and enact a law embodying 
this feature, and I am convinced that the roads of this state, 

78 




WHEEL-TIRES AND AXLES. 



79 



with the present system of caring for them, would then, in one 
year, be our p,ride instead of our disgrace. 

Let me suggest a schedule of tire widths and axle lengths 
for various kinds of vehicles : 



Kind of Vehicle. 



Three-quarter light Buggy. . 

Full top Buggy 

Two-seat Surrey 

Three-seat Surrey 

Three-seat Carriage 

Hack 

Single-horse Business 

Two-horse " 

Farm Wagon 

City Team Wagon 

Small Bar 

Heavy Bar 

Omnibus (12-seat) 

Omnibus (i6-seat) 

Heavy Teaming 

Four-horse Truck 

Six-horse Truck 



Tire Width. 



m. 



I m. 

I 1-16 in. 

I ^s 
I .'4 
I i/i 

1 y. 

3 
4 

2 I,; 

4 
3 
4 
5 
6 

7 



Fore Wheels 
Length of Axle. 



4 ft. 

4 " 

4 ft. 

4 " 

4 " 

4 " 

4 " 

4 " 

4 " 

4 " 

4 " 

4 " 

4 " 

4 " 

4 " 

4 " 

4 " 



centre. 



m. cent 



Hind Wheels 
Length of Axle. 



4 ft. 
4 " 
4 " 
4 " 
4 " 
4 " 
4 " 

4 " 

5 " 
5 " 

4 " 

5 " 

4 " 

5 " 

6 " 
6 " 
6 " 



3 m. 

4 " 

5 " 

6 " 

8 " 

9 " 
9 " 



cent. 




THE EFFECT OF N.\RROW WHEEL TIRES ON .\ DIRT ROAD. (FROM PHOTOGRAPH 
TAKEN IN THE SUMMER OF 1892.) 

Now if this line of wagons should pass over a common dirt 
road, each having a load to its full capacity, we should find the 
road rolled down smooth with a track on each side of eighteen 
inches instead of, as now, one not exceeding four inches, and 
this four-inch track cut all depths, according to the quality of 
the road. This would enable other teams, as they come along, 



8o WHEEL-TIRES AND AXLES. 

to drive on any portion of the road, and tracking would be im- 
possible, because the turning out would have nearly covered 
the whole road and smoothed it down. 

I am sometimes met with the argument, "This won't do, 
for the wagons won't track. " My answer is that tracking is just 
what we are seeking to avoid, for if wagon wheels do not track, 
they will not cut the road. As an example, go into the country 
and you will find the road smooth around every corner ; on a 
turn of say forty-five degrees the wheels do not track for the 
people cannot drive true enough to track, and consequently the 
road is smooth. 

I am aware that this change is radical; so was this Republi- 
can Government a radical change, and had its opponents at the 
time of its formation ; and there are, in foreign countries, those 
who think it a failure now ; but it is a glorious failure. 

Make this a law, and when fully in force, follow it up by a 
system of engineering, help to aid our system of road making 
and the benefits that will accrue will be one thousand fold the 
cost. 



" I WISH you success in your good work, and wish I had 
something besides words to show my good intentions. I am a 
L. A. W. member, number 1016, and expect to stay with the 
organization to the end. The city fathers here are talking of 
paving, and should you send a copy of your magazine to Judge 
Dee, chairman street committee, or to Mayor Turner, I have 
no doubt it would be seed well sown. I read your book with 
interest, and hand it around as you suggest." — 5. /. Griffin, 
Odgen, Utah. 



" Through a friend I have procured a copy of Good Roads 
for May, and I must say I regard it as a friend of humanity in 
the fullest sense. Anything that can be done or said that will 
end in the improvement of the common roads of the country is 
philanthropic in the extreme. " — /. N. Rhodes, Mount Pleasant, 
Iowa. 



" Your circulars, etc., received and distributed among the 
road engineers of my consular district. Your work is a grand 
one, and I am pleased to do even a little for you."— (9. F. 
Williams, U. S. Consul, Havre, Frajice. 



If you do not reside in Neiv York and would like to help the cause 
in that state, send this copy of Good Roads to Charles H. Luscomb, 
Chief Consul, 280 Broadway, New York City. 




HE PLAIN FACTS OF THE CASE. 

"By IV. S. Bull, of Buffalo, 
Ex-Chief Consul, New York '^Division, L. A. W. 



The richest state of the richest countiy in the world is 
guilty of an injustice. She has developed all forms of 
industrial and commercial wealth, but her development 
has been one-sided andunsymmetrical. The people of the cities 
and towns have been supplied with all the improvements and 
appliances which add to the coinfort and convenience of town 
life, and quicken the business operations of the city merchant 
and the manufacturer; but these improvements have been 
added, not by the state, but by investment of private capital, 

and they have sought a market 
in the cities and towns solely 
because these populous centres 
offer greater promise of pecuni- 
ary gain. And so the cities 
and villages have grown apace, 
while the country has in some 
cases stood still and in others 
gone backward in the line of 
progress. 

Within the last ten years we 
have lost population in twenty- 
one of our sixty counties, and for 
many generations not a dollar 
of state money has been appro- 
priated to shorten the farmer's 
journey to market, or to con- 
nect hiin more closely with the 
busy avenues of trade. 

These facts have been so ful- 
ly exploited that they have be- 
come part of the stock of knowledge common to well-informed 
people, and by these people at least the need of good roads 
among the farming districts is more than conceded. It is not 




82 



THE PLAIN FACTS OF THE CASE. 



my purpose, therefore, to argue that good roads are needed, 
but rather to state plainly a few pertinent facts which ought to 
be observed in the framing of a law for better roads in the 
Empire State, 

There is some diversity of opinion as to the best method of 
going to work. Some of our friends urge national roads, others 
contend for state roads, and still others believe that the county 
system is the best. In spite of what may be said in favor of a 
movement on the part of the National Government for the con- 
struction of roads within the country, I venture the prediction 
that no person now living will witness the day when the United 




"LOCAL METHODS PARTAKE OF LOCAL PECULIARITIES." VIEW OF ROAD IN RENSEL- 
LAER CO., NEW YOKK, RUNNING FROM BLOOMINGROVE AND SAND LAKE TO AL- 
BANY AND GREENBUSH BRIDGE (THE ONLY TEAM BRIDGE CONNECTING ALBANY 
WITH THE EAST SHORE OF THE HUDSON.) MUCH USED BY FARMERS. DRAWN 
FROM PHOTOGRAPH TAKEN BY GEO. C. VAN TUYL, JR. 

States Government will undertake the construction of even the 
most important roads within the several states. Popular senti- 
ment is not strongly in that direction, and, on the contrary, the 
legislation now pending in the several states tends to show that 
the public attention is not favorable to the national scheme. 

It is necessary, however, in our state, that some guiding and 
overseeing director should maintainuniformity of system among 
the several counties, and keep them in touch with each other, and 
for this reason I am in favor of a general state supervision of 
the main roads. I say it is necessary that this direction should 
be provided, because the experience of other countries has 



THE PLAIN FACTS OF THE CASE. 83 

proved this necessity so often as to place it beyond contradic- 
tion. An examination of the road system and road laws of 
thirty odd countries of the old world shows that without excep- 
tion the quality of the public roads improves just in proportion 
as the schemes for repair and maintenance are welded together 
under one general system and cared for under an intelligent 
and official head. Local methods partake of local peculiarities. 
A stingy and ignorant community bestow^s its labor in a penu- 
rious and prejudiced way, and the public suffers accordingly. 

The roads in a given county do not belong to the people of 
that county but to the people of the whole country. There is no 
right paramount to the right of travel, and no reason exists 
why the farmers of Sullivan County should be permitted to 
perform labor on the highways of their own neighborhood 
rather than in the distant county of St. Lawrence, except the 
sole reason provided by the rules of convenience. To state it 
briefly these roads belong to the people, and to all the people 
should be committed the duty of making and of keeping them 
in proper condition. If nothing better can be done there 
should be at least a state department at Albany from which 
practical information of the art of road-making may be sent 
forth to the separate counties, and a general reservoir of knowl- 
edge established from which all counties may draw and to 
which all may contribute. 

Such a department, properly equipped, and required by law 
to make an annual report to the people through their legisla- 
ture, would bring more system and greater benefit to the people 
at large than has any industrial commission holding office with- 
in the history of the state. 

I believe that the state should build and oversee the main 
roads running in various directions through the state, and thus 
provide, not only object lessons, but important arteries of traffic 
which, in their benefit to the state at large, would far exceed 
their aggregate of cost. That the state will never have a com- 
plete and systematic method of road construction by any legis- 
lation short of that which provides for state supervision, I firmly 
believe. 

"I hand 'you my check for eighty cents for the first five 
numbers of Good Roads, commencing with January, 1892, in 
order to have a complete file. The magazine is most beauti- 
fully printed and ably edited, and you have my sincerest wish 
that you may succeed in bringing about the much needed re- 
form in our streets and roads, through the medium of your 
excellent journal. Aside from my ' League ' connection, I 
think the subject is worthy of the attention of every progressive 
American citizen, and I shall be glad to use my small influence 
in that direction." — R. V. Page, Jr., Philadelphia, Pa. 



THE STATE AND THE FARiMER. 



Bv Hon. W^aiiain P. R/i/mrdso/i, Senator. TJiirteentli District. 

THE subject of improved roads supersedes all others in the 
minds of many people at the present time, and has led 
to the presentation of different plans to bring about the 
much to be desired result. 

Personally, I prefer the state road system, as embodied in 
the bill which I introduced in the Senate early in January last, 

believing- that anything short 
of it will fail to accomplish the 
purpose so earnestly longed 
for by the friends of road im- 
provement. 

Having been roadmaster in 
my school district for many 
years and being deeply inter- 
ested in the subject, I have 
made a careful investigation 
of the workings of the systems 
now in practice. The conclu- 
sions arrived at include these : 
First, that the method of 
working out the taxes on the 
road is the most unsatisfactory 
and costly ever devised, be- 
cause it gives us absolutely 
nothing in the way of perma- 
nent improvement. 

Second, the plan of paying 
the road tax-money to be used by the roadmaster is not much 
better, owing to the difficulty in selecting a competent person 
and to the fact that after he has ma^e the necessary "repairs," 
there is little or no money left for permanent work. 

The next suggestion, to give the towns of the state an op- 
portunity to make their own road improvement, has been tried 
under a town option law passed in 1873. I am reliably informed 
that under this act, which has been operative twenty years, not 
one town in a hundred has taken advantage of it. 

Another plan, called the county option plan, will, in my 
judgment, fail just as the town option idea has failed, for the 
reason that the strictly agricultural counties, owing to the 
depressed condition of the farming interests, are wholly unable 
to bear the burden of building a proper system of roads. This 
I know, not only from the fact that I am a resident of one of 




HON. WM. P. RICHARDSON. 



84 



THE STATE AXD THE FARMER. 



8S 



these counties, but from a personal investigation of the subject 
among the tax-payers of other and similar counties. 

Ail must admit that a plan of road improvement which 
excludes the agricultural coimties is not what we want, and 
must necessarily fail. I think the friends of the idea will see, 
upon reflection, that they have put the cart before the horse, and 




"A PLAN OF ROAD IMPROVEMEN'T WHICH LEAVES OUT THE AGRICULTURAL COUNTIES IS 
NOT W1L\T WE WANT." SCENE ON ROAD BETWEEN DELMAR, UNIONVILLE, ETC. 
(RUNNING TO DELAWARE AVENUE, ALBANY CO., N. Y.) ALWAYS ROUGH AND UNFIT 
FOR USE IN WET WEATHF.R. IF KEPT IN PASSABLE CONDITION IT WOULD SHORTEN 
THE TRAVEL FROM SLINGERLAND'S, DEI MAR AND UNIONVILLE ABOUT TWO MILES. 
(FRO.M PHOTOGRAPH BY GEO. C. VAN TUYL, JR.) 

this I will now explain. What we want first is a state system 
of continuous road making, making it possible to drive from 
one end of the state to the other over a line of highways that 
we shall have no reason to be ashamed of. These roads would 
then become not only an object lesson in every county, but a 
standard as well. After this has been accomplished it would 
be wisely in order to pass a county option bill, enabling the 
counties to build connecting or adjacent roads of the same kind. 
This they w^ould be more inclinecl to do from the fact that the 
state had already built a portion of these roads for them and 
proven how necessary and valuable they were. 

I make my appeal in behalf of the scheme for state roads 
not only because it accords with the judgment of many thought- 
ful men in public life who are studying the interests of the 
states, but because its success has been many times proven by 



86 THE STATE AND THE FARMER. 

the systems adopted in France, Switzerland, Germany and other 
European countries, where each local community gives its care 
to the local highways only in such way as to carry out the 
details of a machine-like system, which finds its instructing and 
directing head in the state itself. 

It is a system which suggests possibilities for the profitable 
employment of thousands of malefactors who are now confined 
in our state and county penal institutions, which have always 
shown a large balance on the wrong side of the account, and 
where hundreds of lazy tramps seek annual seclusion with the 
certainty of being warmed and fed at the expense of the public. 
In the county seat of my own county (Orange), a considerable 
number of these petty criminals are now confined and kept in 
practical idleness at the expense of the county, and I need 
scarcely assert that the same conditions prevail in all other 
parts of the state. 

Now, in conclusion, a word in regard to my state road bill. 
This bill is absolutely in the interest of the farmer, because the 
roads for which it provides will be built entirely outside of 
cities and incorporated villages, and will give to the farmer a 
gold dollar's worth of good roads for ten cents, from the fact 
that the farming lands of the state pay only about ten per cent, 
of the state taxes. Further, I find by careful computation that 
the proportion of the state tax which a hundred acre farm 
assessed at forty dollars per acre would pay per year under the 
bill would not exceed fifty cents. This does not equal the 
amount lost by the farmer in a single day in wear and tear of 
horses and wagons in hauling his produce over bad roads. 

When we consider these facts and the manifold advantages 
which good roads will bring to all who use them, in the saving 
of labor to man and horse, in the social and commercial im- 
provement of our country and suburban communities, in the 
enhancement of values and the betterment of facilities for at- 
tendance at school and church, it seems impossible to realize 
that the farmers of the State of New York should be willing to 
waste their personal labor to the value of hundreds of thousands 
of dollars in a kind of shiftless and temporary tinkering with 
the public roads that produces no substantial value and answers 
no substantial purpose. 

The State of New York has means and facilities for making 
the best roads in the world at a minimum of cost. She is out 
of debt and is blessed with endless resources for the improve- 
ment of her internal commerce. For a hundred years her 
patient farmers have helped to carry the burden of state gov- 
ernment, and in the construction of our great canals and rail- 
roads have contributed to the cost without regard to the fact 
that many thousands of them have reaped no benefit. It is 
due to the farmer that the same broad views which demanded 



THE STATE AND THE FARMER. 87 

his support of schemes for state improvement in former years, 
should now prevail for the intelligent, systematic and perma- 
nent improvement of the country roads. 

I believe that the state road bill now pending in the Senate 
offers greater advantages and greater gains for the state at 
large than any other scheme of legislation thus far pro- 
posed. 

" I READ your magazine each month with pleasure, buying 
my copy through the news company with which our firm deals. 
This subject has interested me for years, for I love my country 
and lament its decay. " — Horatio Grain, Key IVest, Fla. 



"I HAVE just received my first copy of Good Roads, and it 
is needless for me to add, as many have told you, of the grand 
good this publication and the agitation of the road improvement 
question is accomplishing. I enclose a list of names and 
addresses. — W. H. Dick, Da?isville, JV. Y. 



" Would you be kind enough to mail me Nos. i to 5, Vol. i, 
of Good Roads? As far as I know it is the best magazine of its 
kind that I have yet seen. I am deeply interested in it." — 
Harry W. Settan, Chicago, III. 



" I FOUND a copy of Good Roads on a news-stand here and 
have read it carefully. I am very much pleased to see this 
intelligent movement in the direction of better roads. There is 
great need for improvement, and it is only by this discussion 
that we may expect the people to be moved to plan for the bet- 
terment of the poor roads now in use. I send you a list of 
names as suggested." — James P. Watson, C. E., Lincoln, Neb. 



Good Roads is a monthly devoted to the important cause 
indicated by its title — the improvement of our highways and 
byways. It is backed by adequate capital and by public-spirited 
gentlemen who have taken up this good work in earnest, and 
none too soon. The policy, or lack of policy, generally pursued 
in America as to our roads, is in painful contrast with that of 
other countries, and is of the cheap sort that is most expensive 
in the long run. We wish all success to Good Roads. — Lippin- 
cott's Monthly Magazine. 



"I BELIEVE the work you are doing is one of the most im- 
portant that any journal has undertaken this century, and hope 
and trust you may succeed in your great work and get due credit 
therefor." — Charles A, Willis, Editorial Department, ^^ The Horse- 
man," Chicago, HI. 



THE MERGING OF TWO SYSTEMS. 



By T)/'. Charles S. "Bi/fler, of Buffalo, Ex-Cba/niian, National 
Comniittee on Improvement of Highways, L. A. W. 

THAT the present system of road construction and repair is 
grossly inadequate to meet the demands of our internal 
commerce and trade, is everywhere apparent, and the 
great question which should first engage our attention is 

not whether this systetn or that 
system should be adopted, but 
whether any system which shall 
be simple, inexpensive and 
easily understood, and at the 
same time adequate to meet 
the needs of the people should 
not be entered upon without 
further delay. 

In the serious concerns of 
life, change is never desired 
for its own sake ; habit becomes 
second nature, and it is only by 
the positive pressure of evil 
that we are driven to any re- 
form. 

Unjust and absurd taxation, 
for instance, to which the 
people are accustomed, is often 
borne far more willingly than 
the most reasonable impost that 
is new. An old system must ever have two advantages over a 
new ; it is established and is understood. We ought not therefore 
to be over anxious to encourage a change of doubtful improve- 
ment; but in endeavoring to bring about a change for the 
better in the condition of the public highways of our country, 
we are seeking that which will confer upon all our citizens bene- 
fits which cannot be estimated. 

That a number of years must yet elapse before a system of 
macadam construction extending beyond the suburbs of our 
largest cities will be introduced at best, is a probability that 
should be well understood at once ; nor do we believe this sys- 
tem essential to the accomplishment of all that may be obtained 
in the direction of improved highways. 

The great evil of the present system of highway construc- 
tion and repair is unquestionably the labor tax, and no one thing 




DR. C. S. BUTLER. 



THE MERGING OE TWO SYSTEMS. 89 

would do more to advance the cause of road improvement than 
its abolition, and yet it is just this that those likely to be the 
most benefitted by the reform cling to with the greatest tenac- 
ity. By many of our citizens it is regarded almost as a divine 
right, coming down to them from the early days of feudal vas- 
salage, and any measure looking towards its repeal is likely, for 
a time, at least, to receive serious and widespread opposition — a 
condition which should be avoided, if possible, and I believe it 
to be possible. 

By the appointment, in each county of the State of New 
York, of a competent civil engineer, with an assistant engineer 




"BV THE IMPROVEMENT OF THE PUBLIC ROADS EVERY BRANCH OF OUR ITJDUSTRIES 
\VILL BE MATERIALLY BENEFITTED." SCENE ON ROAD IN SUBURBS OF ALBANY, 
N. Y., BEING THE ROAD CONNECTING THE "SLINGERLANDS ROAD" AND THE ASPHALT 
PAVEMENT. ALMOST IMPASSABLE IN WET WEATHER. (DRAWN FROM PHOTOGRAPH 
TAKEN BY GEO. C. VAN TUYL, JR., DECEMBER, 1892.) 

in each township or highway district, W'hose duty shall be the 
supervision of all alterations and repairs in and upon the high- 
ways, to construct culverts and bridges, straighten out needless 
deflections, establish grades, etc., etc., even this most vicious 
element of the old system may be made to contribute in a 
remarkable degree to the advancement of the whole scheme of 
reform. 

Let the people fully understand that by the improvement of 
the public highways, every branch of our agricultural, commer- 
cial and manufacturing industries will be materially benefitted, 
and those who have hitherto been opposed to the reform will 



90 THE MERGING OF TWO SYSTEMS. 

become its most zealous advocates ; for,'\vith a fair appreciation 
of the value of good roads and the comparative cheapness of 
maintaining- them, the demand for their construction will 
become popular. 

But like all great social and political reforms this matter of 
highway improvement is of a slow growth. England was some- 
thing more than a century in evolving anything like a satisfac- 
tory and permanent system, and that, too, at a time when the 
common roads were the only medium of communication. In 
1775 a- general Act was passed by Parliament placing the con- 
struction and repair of roads under the control of the state, and 
before the close of the century she was enabled to so perfect 
her highways that commerce was no longer repressed by diffi- 
culty of transportation and a vast expansion of traffic was the 
immediate result. To-day England is crossed and recrossed 
by fifty thousand or more miles of macadam roadways, and it is 
easy of demonstration that nothing — except, perhaps, the repeal 
of her corn laws — has added so much to the intellectual and 
material prosperity of her citizens during the past century, as 
her enliglatened policy of highway construction and repair. 

The results in England should be easy of accomplishment in 
America, for with the advanced intelligence of our people and 
the superior facilities for carrying on the reform, some adequate 
system should be speedily adopted. 



"I BELONG to the L. A. \7. and have done hustling in the 
way of new members and renewals. I have loaned my copies 
of Good Roads, and the copies of several other league members 
here, to people in this city and county, and pretty soon I intend 
to get out and hustle for subscribers. * * * A merchants' 
meeting is to be held here and I believe a fund is to be raised 
to start the construction of a mile or two of first-class road as a 
sample. Roads here have been nearly impassable for over four 
months. One merchant had found a mudhole in his property 
which measured three and one-half feet deep. Farmers have 
to go twice as far as usual to get to town and they go a long 
distance out of their way to miss a particularly good piece of 
road." — J. C. Pasqueth, Mexico^ Wis. 



"We have had a rousmg convention. I enclose a little re- 
port which is at your command. If you use it please let it be 
in an impersonal way as to the writer. Your Good Roads were 
put into the hands of Mr. W. A. Rale, of Perry, la. , who was 
introduced from the platform and took a large number of sub- 
scriptions, I think. Your matter was all distributed carefully. 
We appreciate the wheelmen in all their efforts. We shall give 
them all the help we can." — O. L. F. Browne, Des Moines ^ la. 



TO THE WHEELMEN OF AMERICA. 



"ByTtr. D. IV. Bar/ier, of "Brooklyn. 

IN nearly all enterprises of a reformatory character, the simile 
of the farmer's ox team is applicable ; the nigh ox was will- 
ing to do all the pulling and the off ox was willing he should. 
The great mass of interested people are willing that a small 
number of energetic workers shall perform most of the labor, 

while they are content to reap 
, ;-r- -. ^ the benefits ; many others are 

willing to work if some one will 
' tell them what to do ; they are 

not fertile of resources or can- 
not adapt themselves to condi- 
tions and need to be shown the 
way. The movement for the 
improvement of the public 
highways is of such universal 
benefit that the humblest citi- 
zen is interested therein, and 
therefore each one should do 
what he can, be it little or 
much, to help. 

The question presents itself 
to the mind of every wheel- 
man, "What can I do?" be- 
cause, as Mr. Elliot says, 
' ' when a man begins to ride a 
DR. 1). w. BARKER. whccl hc bcglus to study the 

face of the earth." Taking it 
for granted that he has already united himself with the national 
organization of wheelmen, thereby identifying himself with the 
most powerful agency of improvement and giving his personal 
and financial aid to it and thereby keeping himself in touch 
with all the forces that work toward progress ; there are yet 
many small things of a local nature that he as an individual 
may do, which in the aggregate would amount to great control- 
ling forces. A few of these will be considered, merely indicat- 
ing the direction that such efforts may take. 

The campaign in which we are enlisted is necessarily an 
educational one and much can be done by the judicious drstri- 
bution of the various publications issued by the League Road 
Improvement Bureau, always bearing in mind that the man 
who is most bitterly opposed to reform is the very man whom 
we most desire to win over. It is obviously a waste of the 




92 



TO THE WHEELMEN OF AMERICA. 



material to place such literature permanently in the hands of our 
friends who acknowledge the need for improvement and are 
willing to vote for it; it is "our friends the enemy" whom we 
most desire to reach. What do you do with your copy of Good 
Roads after you have read it? Well, here is one way of put- 
ting it where it will do the most good. At the beginning of 
the 5-ear make out a list of twelve names and each month send 
your copy of the magazine to one of those names. If every 




"MUD BATHS." STREET SCENE IN AN IMPORTANT EASTERN TOWN. 
GRArU EY G. J. LOOMIS.) 



(FROM PHOTO- 



wheelman should do this, just think how many other people 
the magazine would go to! People who perhaps would in no 
other way read, or know, or think about road improvement, and 
after all, that is what we want most to do, to make the people 
think. When a people have been roused to the point where 
they will think about a proposed reform, the battle is half won. 



TO THE WHEELMEN OF AMERICA. 93 

If there is a bad bit of road in your neighborhood and the 
authorities neglect it, call their attention to it and request that 
the needed repairs be made. If the request be unheeded get 
up a petition and get a number of tax-payers to sign it and pre- 
sent it to the proper authorities ; if this fails then take up a sub- 
scription among your fellow wheelmen and others and make the 
repairs yourself, if the cost be not too great. 

An indignant and disgusted citizen of a town not far from New 
York, despairing of any relief from the town authorities, recently 
published the following unique advertisement in the local paper: 

MUD BATHS. 



People who are tbiiiKing of going to Arkansas to 
try mud baths for medicinal treatment will find 
they can save money and get all the mud baths 
they want by going in the street alongside of my 
house, at the corner of Front street and the ScufHe- 
town road. Call early and avoid the rush. 

M. F. COKNWELL,. 

{^Concluded next inojiih. ) 



"An excellent Illinois number. The Herald devoted the 
other day, a two-column article to 3'our Illinois number, re- 
producing several of the illustrations. Both the news and 
editorial (and pictorial, also) departments of our press evidence 
the increasing interest of the public in the cause. " — Edwin J. 
Eelsenthal, Chicago, III. 



"Your Illinois number of Good Roads is superb. Give us 
a AVisconsin boom if 3*011 can." — L. B. Ring, Editor Neillsville 
( Wisconsin^ Times. 



" Allow me to thank you for and congratulate you on the 
Illinois edition of Good Roads." — Hon. Jolin M. Stahl, Editor 
Farmer s Call., Qiiincy, HI. 



"The League of American Wheelmen has taken the agita- 
tion for good roads up with the earnestness that must bear 
fruit. It has circulated tons of literature among the farmers. 
It has sent lecturers with glib tongues and flashing stereop- 
ticons to show them the wickedness of mud. It has had bills 
drafted and introduced in state legislatures and in Congress, 
and in several instances has had them passed. It has started a 
neat and well-edited magazine called Good Roads, devoted to 
the subject which its title indicates. It has spent thousands 
upon thousands of dollars for which it is willing to let the future 
thank it, for the present doesn't know enough to be grateful 
now." — New York Press. 



STATEN ISLAND HIGHWAYS. 



RICHMOND County, N, Y. , comprising what is better known 
as Staten Island, claims and enjoys the distinction of 
being the first coiinty in the state to institute a system of 
road construction and maintenance. 

The Board of Supervisors of that county have been two years 

at work building some thirty 
miles of roads, at a total cost 
of $300,000, and have thirty- 
seven more miles on their list 
clamoring for improvement. 
The result of the supervisors' 
good management and skillful 
road work, has stimulated the 
public confidence to such an 
extent that any additional sums 
of money wanted, however 
great, would be forthcoming 
for the asking. 

The movement originated, 
as such movements generally 
do, with an earnest body of 
citizens who used their influence 
to rescue the county from a de- 
plorable plight. The rapid transit 
system had already been work- 
ing successfully for about three 
years, but as it only skirted 
the shores of the island, its 
benefits, though marked, were limited. The beautiful interior 
still remained inaccessible and undeveloped. The only means 
of reaching it was by the common roads, and these were exe- 
crable. They were not much better than cow paths with hope- 
less road beds and impossible grades. It cannot be doubted that 
the probability, at the time, of annexation as a part of the 
"Greater Metropolis" lent an impetus to the movement that 
culminated in the passage of the County Roads Act of 1890. 
Governor Hill signed the bill in June, and early in July Mr. 
William S. Bacot, C. E., member of the American Society of 
Civil Engineers, was appointed county engineer. Preliminary 
work commenced at once, and in a few weeks the actual con- 
struction of the roads was well under way. Twenty-seven 
miles out of the thirty under contract are now completed ; the 
remaining three miles will be finished before July i, 1893. 94 




WM. s. );aci 



Chief Engineer, Richmond County Roads. 




Richmond -^ 
•\f>ounTY « 

•]895 






WtA S. Bacot, Chp: CtfCW. . 



^T.P. OtL . 



MAP SHOWING NEW ROADS IN RICHMOND COUNTY (STATEN ISLAND). gS 



96 



ST A TEN ISLAXD HIGHWAYS. 



The main essentials that Mr. Bacot has endeavored to infuse 
into his woi'lc have been thoroughness of construction and sys- 
tematic maintenance. The provisions of the bill were very 
explicit in this regard. Particular stress was laid upon the lat- 
ter, in order that the roads might never lapse into a condition 
of disrepair from neglect. The success of both of ]\Ir. Bacot's 
aims were substantially realized after the first few miles of 




STAFEN ISLAND HIGHWAYS. SCENE ON NEW ROAD AFTER COftll'LETIGN. 
(FROM PHOTOGRAPH.) 

principal roads had been completed. Business began to wear 
a brighter aspect; householders set to work repairing their 
stores, sidewalks and fences; tradesmen put in new show 
windows, new concrete walks, painted their fronts and bought 
new wagons. Spring glided into summer and, in spite of the 
cholera scare, a new sight gladdened the eyes of the bewildered 
citizens. New traps of all kinds began to multiply and thronged 
the beautiful shore road from Fort Wads worth to the Kills; 



ST A TEN ISLAND HTGHWAYS. 97 

scores of fashionable turnouts, drags, tandems, dog-carts, T 
carts, victorias, flys and what not, with their yellow wheels, 
made a very chrysanthemum show every bright afternoon; 
property values took a jump in consequence, and though the 
voice of the croaker was occasionally heard through the land, 
those who looked for cheap bargains needed a search light, for 
there were none to be had. At the same time the smooth, 
cleanly and inviting appearance of the various new drives 
caught the eye of many a visitor, who returned to purchase and 
reside on the island, nor have any been found who regretted 
the step, for the splendid care that has been taken of the ne\y 
roads and their excellent wearing qualities have kept them 
always the same, always a delight to those who use thein most 
and know them best. 

And all this is due to the institution of, first, a good method 
of construction, and, second, to the effective system of main- 
tenance that followed it. 

Mr. Bacot's ideas on road building coincide in the main with 
those of the advanced school that laid the great continental sys- 
tems of the old world. These ideas are quite old over there, 
but new in this country ; they are also totally at variance with 
the prevailing practice in the United States. Leaving the 
arguments that divided the respective champions of the Mac- 
adam and Telford theories to be judged on economic grounds, 
Mr. Bacot holds that thoroughness and skillful workmanship 
would do much to heal their differences, and that this position 
has been substantially proven by him in practice on Staten 
Island. Repudiating the idea that a thin road (by that meaning 
anything less than six inches in depth of stone) can be last- 
ing except under the most favorable conditions, he claims that 
those extremists who so stoutly uphold the Telford theory 
would save money if they put less materials and better work- 
manship into their roads; and on the other hand that the Mac- 
adam enthusiasts lose sight of some common inechanical prin- 
ciples when they put down a class of work that no amount of 
skill or good workmanship can justify or save from early ruin. 

A species of bigotry too commonly found in the profession 
sees no virtue in any practice that does not devote itself exclu- 
sively to one or the other of these methods. Those who pro- 
mulgate such^natrow ideas dodge real issues and seek to vindi- 
cate the pet theories rather than meet actual conditions. 

The natural and prevailing conditions on Staten Island and 
the liberal practice that has successfully coped with them are 
an efficient contradiction to such superficial judgment. 

{To be Continued.^ 



MACADAM AND TELFORD ROADS. 

"By Isaac "B. "Potter. 

{Continued from November Number.^ 

II. 



WHY MACADAM AND TELFORD ROADS ARE SUPERIOR TO DIRT 
ROADS "tractive" QUALITIES DEFINED MACADAM CON- 
STRUCTION NOT DIFFICULT MAY BE LEARNED BY ANY IN- 
TELLIGENT CITIZEN IMPORTANCE OF A MODERATE GRADE 

STAKING OUT WORK BEST WIDTH OF ROADWAY EXCAVA- 
TION — drainage; its importance — wet and dry soils; 

THEIR structure, APPEARANCE AND LOCATION DRAINAGE 

WATER AND "CAPILLARY" WATER; HOW THEY ARE HELD IN 
THE SOIL AND HOW REMOVED. 

Why Superior to Dirt Roads. — Before proceeding to treat of the 
construction and maintenance of macadam and of telford roads, 
it will be well to consider briefly their advantages, and to state 
such facts as time and experience have put in evidence in their 
favor. 

And first, as to tractive qualities. This term " tractive " is 

a technical one, and though 
so frequently used by writers 
treating of this subject as to 
be almost an every day word, 
a line or two of explanation 
will make its use and mean- 
ing clearer to the common 
reader. When we speak of 
the "tractive" quality of a 
road surface we refer, to put 
it plainly, to its degree of 
smoothness and hardness, and 
to the resistance w^hich its 
surface and grade may offer 
to the movement of a vehicle 
drawn over it. If we say that the force required to haul a car 
of one ton along the level rails of a railroad is ten pounds, we 
abbreviate our explanation by simply saying that ten pounds is 
"tractive " force necessary to haul a ton on that railroad; and 
in a similar way we ascertain the " tractive " qualities of a com- 
mon road by determining the horizontal force required to haul 
a loaded vehicle over its surface. It is a common belief among 




FIG. 7. SHOWING HEAVY WHEEL SUSTAINED 
AT SINGLE POINT OF CONTACT ON SMOOTH, 
HARD, MACADAM SURFACE. 



MACADAM AND TELFORD ROADS. 



99 




the farmers, and indeed among people of all classes, that a good 
dirt road, when rolled into passable smoothness by the wheels 
of many wagons, and dried by the sun and air of the warm sea- 
sons, presents a good road surface and one that offers little 
chance for im.provement ; but when we ascertain by actual ex- 
periment that a horse can haul only one-half the load over a 
dirt road in its best and smoothest condition that he would be 
able to haul over a macadam surface, the comparative value of 
the dirt road becomes questionable, if not insignificant. 

This fact may not be wholly clear to one who has used 
nothing but dirt roads ; but it 
has been proven by actual test 
so many times as to be beyond 
question. The reason and the 
fact may both be explained by 
reference to Figs. 7 and 8. If 
a loaded wagon be drawn over 
a smooth, hard macadam sur- 
face, as shown in Fig. 7, it is 
clear that no great force will 
be required to move the load, 
and this force will depend fig.s. showing heavy wheel resting 
laro-elv UDon theweig-ht of the '^ concave depression caused by 

Idlj^ciy upuii LUC WClglll, UJ. Llll- WEIGHT OF LOAD ON DIRT SURFACE. ITS 

wasfon and load. But if the forward movement is retarded by 

^ 1 1 -J -11-, THE SIDE OF THE DEPRESSED EARTH. 

same loaded wagon be hauled 

over the surface of an ordinary dirt road in the direction indicated 
by the arrow in Fig. 8, the weight of the load and wagon will 
cause a concave depression of the surface beneath each wheel,, 
and that side of the depression toward which the wheel is mov- 
ing (as at N^) will form a continuous obstruction to the forward 
movement of the wheel and greatly add to the power required 
to draw the wagon. It is sometimes contended that an elastic 
soil tends to overcome this objection, but this theory is an er- 
roneous one ; for no soil is elastic enough to rise and give back 
to the passing wheel (as at M^ in Fig. 8) the same retarding 
force which the soil exerts against the forward movement of 
the wheel. 

Going a little further in our contrast between the relative 
values of the dirt and the macadam surfaces, it will be noted 
that the great margin of advantage just stated exists in favor 
of the macadam or telford surf ace over the dirt road, even when 
the latter is at its best ; but when it is remembered that these 
conditions exist only during few brief, uncertain weeks in 
each year, and that during the wet seasons when the dirt road 
becomes so softened by rain and melting snows as to be almost 
impassable, the macadam and telford surfaces practically retain 
the smoothness and tmyielding "crust" upon which vehicles 
roll as smoothly and easily as in dry weather, the contrast 



loo MACADAM AND TELFORD ROADS. 

widens, and with all confidence, it may then be said that the 
horse exerting his usual force upon the macadam road will often 
haul ten and even twenty times the load that would make his 
progress impossible among the ruts and mire of the common 
dirt highway. 

It is my intention, in this brief treatise, to write solely upon 
methods of construction and repair of macadam and telford 
roads, as laid down upon the lines of existing country high- 
ways; for, as must be evident to every reader who aims to 
keep abreast of the times, the great demand and need of the 
American tax payer is not for the construction of new lines of 
roadways, but rather for the improvement of those already in 
use. 

The Construction of a Macadam Road not Difficult. — The con- 
struction of a macadam road is as simple as sawing wood. 
There is nothing complicated, difficult or mysterious about it. 
To be sure it involves some practical knowledge of materials 
and methods, but, as compared with many of the operations of 
the farmer and the mechanic, the making of a good road upon 
either the macadam or the telford plan is simplicity itself. 




jfoi/eo 



V 




FIG. c. TOP MLW AND SECTIOX OF MACADAM ROADWAY ON DRY E \.RTII tOUND4TION, 
WITH SIDE DITCHES TO CARRY OFF SURFACE WATER. 

I make this statement with the full knowledge that it will 
invite criticism and that many excellent and intelligent road 
maker will contend to the contrary ; but it must be remem- 
bered that while the extended skill and knowledge of the en- 
gineer are always useful, yet, in the making of thousands of miles 
of macadam roads such as will eventually be laid upon the 
line of our important country highways, the work of the 
road maker will be largely confined to simple routine work, in 
which the common-sense application of materials and methods 
will prevail over abstract theories, and the higher technical 
training of the engineer will be demanded only in those cases 
where problems of drainage and construction are too complex 
for the mind of the layman. In short, so far as the making of 
a macadam roadway is concerned, there are thousands of prac- 
tical and clear-headed men in every state who can so quickly ac- 
quire a knowledge of materials and methods as to fit them for 
the management of ordinary construction work. It might be 
said that a knowledge of chemistry and geology are often 
called into play to determine the qualities of materials which 
a road maker may propose to use, and that the best roadway 



MACADAM AND TELFORD ROADS, loi 

cannot be insured without a knowledge of these sciences ; but 
the fact remains that the best roadway is rarely built in any 
locality; for in most cases it is difficult to find more than a 
single convenient quarry, and while a better stone might be 
found than that which this quarry supplies, the cost of trans- 
portation makes its use impracticable. 

It may therefore, be safely said that while the services of 
an engineer are always to be desired, there is nothing about the 
making of a common macadain roadway which may not, in 
most cases, be learned by any intelligent citizen, and if he will 
acquaint himself with the knowledge of soils which will enable 
him to know the difference between a wet soil and a dry one, 
a porous soil and a retentive one ; and if he will come to dis- 
tinguish the difference in stones, between hard and soft, be- 
tween tough and friable, and add to this a knowledge of the 
principles and practice of consolidating the subsoil and the 




Pig. io. showing effect of loose, undrained soil beneath macadam road- 
way. THIS KIND OF DESTRUCTION CAN BE SAVED BY DUE ATTENTION TO DRAIN- 
AGE AND THE PROPER ROLLING OF THE EARTH AND THE MACADAM LAYERS. 

macadam crust and the drainage of both, he Avill have mastered 
the chief points upon which rest a knowledge of scientific road- 
making. And this knowledge is easily acquired, and, to the 
patient man, easily taught. 

Grades, their Importance. — How, then, should a macadam road 
be made? First, in order of work, and among the first in import- 
ance, is the question of grades; for no amount of improvement in 
the hardening and smoothing of the surface will enable a horse 
to perform to the best advantage, if a single stretch of long, steep 
grade is left in the line of the roadway to discourage his efforts 
and reduce the size of the load which he might easily draw 
were the grade modified to reasonable limits. I have discussed 
this matter of grades somewhat at length in another place,* 
and only mention it here because of the endless tax imposed 
by heavy grades upon all the traffic which passes over them. 
Perhaps the importance of a moderate grade cannot be better 
impressed upon the mind of the reader than by an examina- 
tion of the following table. If we assume that a single horse 

*See " Dirt Roads and Gravel Roads," in Vol. I. of Good Roads. 



MACADAM AND TELFORD ROADS. 



can pull, on a level road surface of given quality, a load weigfh- 
ing i,ooo pounds, then — 

On a grade rising i foot in loo, the same horse can pull. . . goo lbs. 

" " " 50, " " "... .Sio 

" 44- " " " 750 

" " " " " 40, " " " . . .720 

" " " " "30, " " " .... 640 

" 26, " " " ....540 

" " " " " 24, " " " ....500 

" " " " " 20, " " " ... .400 

" " " " "10, " " " .... 250 

It thus appears that on a grade of i in 24, a horse can draw 
only half as much, and on a grade of i in 10, only one-quarter 
as much as the same horse can draw on level ground. 

Siakins; Out JVork. — The centre line of the roadway should 
first be determined. For this it is unsafe to rely upon the 
fence lines and still less upon the wheel tracks which mark the 
line of the old road. A description of the highway fiom the 
original survey will generally be found in the office of the 
county clerk, and sometimes in the office of the clerk of the 
town in which the old road is located. In most cases a quick 
survey will be sufficient to run out the centre line of the road and 
this should be indicated by a line of stakes or by iron bolts 
driven in the ground, which can be easily found from reference 
points fixed at the sides of the road, and from these bolts 
wooden stakes may be set up as the work progresses, to guide 
the workmen in their duties. Having determined the centre 
line, the side lines, which limit the width of the macadam, may 
next be laid out by measuring at right angles from the centre 
line of the road. For most purposes a width of sixteen feet 
will be sufficient for the macadam where the traffic is to be 
mainly confined to country trade, while a width of ten to 
twelve feet is often sufficient on branch roads where close 
ecomony is necessary and traffic moderately light. In the im- 
mediate vicinity of large towns a width of twenty feet may be 
required, but where the traffic is so great as to require a 
greater width than twenty feet, it is generally so great as to 
demand the use of a stronger and more durable pavement than 
can be supplied by the use of ordinary macadam. 

Excavation. — In some cases a loose, gritty, porous soil will 
be found from which the water readily escapes to some near by 
channel, and in such cases provision for subdrainage is rarely 
necessary. When this condition is met with, the only excava- 
tion needed will be that for the macadam material and the side 
ditches, which latter should always be so made and located as 
to receive and carry off the surface water from the roadway 
and from adjacent lands on either side. The side ditches 
should have broad, flaring sides, with slopes not steeper than 
1/4 :i, which means, in other words, that for every foot of 



MACADAM AND TELFORD ROADS. 103 

rise, the side of the ditch must extend outward in a horizontal 
direction a distance of one and a half feet. 

An excellent form of side ditch is shown in Fig. 9, in which 
the space occupied by the macadam layer is about sixteen feet 
in width and the sodded strip on each side occupies a space of 
about three feet between the roadway and the ditch. The bot- 
tom of the ditch is narrow, being only about the width of an 
ordinary ditching spade, and the sides are given a broad slope 
to prevent caving in and to preserve the form and capacity of 
the waterway. 

Wet and Dry Soils; the Importance of Drainage. — But many 
soils are not porous, do not drain quickly or naturally, and 
some are positively wet, being saturated by springs and by the 
absorption of water from heavy showers and from adjacent 
soils. Again we have the "retentive" kind, which absorbs 
water more or less quickly and holds it indefinitely, being slow 
to drain and easily worked upon and displaced when in a wet 
condition 




FIG. II. A SATURATED ROADWA,Y FOUNDATION. PARTIAL TOP VIEW AND SECTION OF 
EARTH EXCAVATION FORMED TO RECEIVE MACADAM ROADWAY. THE ROAD 
BEING SURCHARGED WITH WATER IS WHOLLY UNFIT TO SUSTAIN THE HEAVY 
ANGULAR STONES AND THE WEIGHT OF PASSING VEHICLES. DRAINAGE IS THE 
FIRST SUBJECT FOR CONSIDERATION. 

These wet and retentive soils, when found in the line of the 
roadway, should always be supplied with ample means for 
drainage ; for, when once wet, the angular stones of the mac- 
adam roadway are pressed into the soil either by their own 
weight or by the weight of passing wagons, and the structure 
of the roadway is ruptured and finally destroyed. This effect 
is shown in Fig. 10. It is always hastened by a loose, moist 
soil at the bottom of the angular stone and may be confidently 
expected where the subsoil is left in a loose, unrolled condition 
and the macadam material put on so loosely as to invite the 
passage of water through the sieve-like layers of the roadway. 

This subject of drainage is therfore of highest importance. 
If a piece of soil be examined under a powerful microscope it 
will generally be found to contain a large number of minute 



I04 



MACADAM AND l^ELFORD ROADS. 



channels and cells, which invite the introduction of water 
whenever that fluid is brought in contact with the earth, and in 
many cases hold it within the cells and veins for a long- time. 
These veins are all connected together, very much in the same 
manner that the veins in the human body belong to the same 







FIG. 12. A DRAINED ROADWAY FOUNDATION. PARTIAL TOP VIEW AND SECTION OF 
EARTH ROADWAY EXCAVATION. THE DRAINAGE WATER HAS BEEN REMOVED AND 
THE ONLY MOISTURE REMAINING IN THE SOIL IS DUE TO "CAPILLARY WATER,'' 
WHICH QUICKLY DISAPPEARS BY EVAPORATION. 

general system of circulation. When they are very small they 
hold water by capillary attraction, just as water is sometimes 
held within an upright, small glass tube, though open at both 
ends. This capillary water escapes from the soil mainly by 
evaporation, and by being taken up by the roots of plants. It 
serves to moisten the soil, but is rarely sufficient to saturate it, 
and to the road maker this moisture is luiimportant as compared 
with that of the heavy, wet soils that are soaked by springs and 
by heavy showers from which they receive and hold the water. 
It is this "drainage " w^ater with which the road maker has 
chiefly to deal in providing for drainage. It has only an 
indirect relation to the capillary water which merely moistens 
the soil. It is this drainage water which percolates through 
the soil and between its various particles, being drawn down by 
the force of gravity till it reaches an impervious sub-stratum of 
clay or similar material. If this sub-stratum is near the surface 
and no ready outlet is found for the drainage water, the soil 
may often become saturated for several feet above the imper- 
vious stratum and may even reach the surface where the land 
dips below its ordinary level, as is frequently seen in newly 
ploughed fields where the water stands in the furrows for days at 
a time. Among drainage experts the top line of the saturated 
earth is called the "water table. " It is the line which separates 
the soaked or saturated soil (which lies immediately at the top 
of the impervious sub-stratum) from that portion of the earth 
above it which is thoroughly drained, or which is merely 



MACADAM AND TELFORD ROADS. 



fo5 



moistened by the capillary water contained within its minute 
particles. 

To more fully explain this subject of drainage, the writer 
has attempted, in Fig. ii, to show a partial top view and sec- 
tion of a roadway excavation before the macadam material is 
put on. This is a saturated or undrained roadway, the heavy 
veinous lines showing- the presence of water within the soil, 
which might readily be drained if the water table could be 
lowered by ditching or other similar means, and this water per- 
mitted to percolate downward to a lower level. 

In Fig. 12 may be seen the same view and section as it 
appears after the drainage water is removed and the earth 
freed from moisture, except the slight dampness due to capil- 
lary water within the minute cells. In Fig. 13 is again shown 




Fig. 13. A DRV ROADWAY FOUNDATION. PARTIAL TOP VIEW AND SECTION OF EARTH 
ROADWAY EXCAVATION, SHOWING APPEARANCE AFTER REMOVAL OF DRAINAGE 
WATER BY ARTIFICIAL DRAINS AND CAPILLARY MOISTURE BY EVAPORATION. 

the same view and section from which, by drainage and evap- 
oration, all water has been practically removed. 

It must now be clear that the drainage of a roadway founda- 
tion is not only important, but in many cases, absolutely neces- 
sary to the maintenance of a permanent structure ; for if an 
undue amount of moisture be permitted to remain in the soil, 
it not only invites the sinking and disintegration of the 
macadam layers during the wet seasons, but it makes certain 
the introduction of frost during the Winter months, and the 
consequent heaving and breaking of the stone superstructure. 

" I SHOULD be pleased to receive copies of your excellent pub- 
lication to distribute among some of those using roads and inter- 
ested in their improvement, especially business men who have 
considerable teaming done over dirt and gravel roads. The 
June number was especially good, and useful to country towns. " 
— Geo. B. FrencJi^ Holbrooke Mass. 



THE PROPOSED ROAD DEPARTMENT AT WASHINGTON. 

WE take pleasure in printing the following communica- 
tion lately received from Col. Albert A. Pope, of 
Boston : 
To the Edit 01' of Good Roads: 

The petition for a national road department at Washing- 
ton has been signed by thousands of prominent citizens through- 
out the United States. Among the more distinguished names 
may be mentioned : Gov. McKinley of Ohio ; Gov. Russell of 
Massachusetts; Gov. Fifer of Illinois; Gov. Toole of Mon- 
tana; Gov. Humphrey of Kansas; Gov, Colcord of Nevada; 
Gov. Smith of New Hampshire ; Gov. McKinney of Virginia, 
and Gov. Millette of South Dakota. It has been endorsed by 
chambers of commerce and boards of trade, by trade unions 
and labor organizations, by banks and large corporations, and 
by all sorts and conditions of men. 

As over 100,000 petitions were sent out, I am of the opinion 
that a very large number of them still remain in the hands of 
persons who have neglected or forgotten to return them. Will 
you not, in the columns of your magazine, remind your read- 
ers that all the signed petitions should be mailed to meat once? 

It has been asserted by some that the creation of the road 
department would place the roads of the country under the 
control of the general government, thus taking away all state 
supervision. Gov. Flower of New York, in his annual mes- 
sage says: "While having no sympathy whatever with that 
phase of this movement which seeks the establishment of a na- 
tional bureau of roads and the consequent building of national 
roads through the country, I am thoroughly convinced that the 
prosperity of our own state, and especially the interests of its 
agricultural sections, demand prompt and effective efforts to 
improve the condition of our highways." 

Now the petition does not ask for anythingmore than " that 
there be founded in the City of Washington, in the District of 
Columbia, a road department, similar to the agricultural de- 
partment, for the purpose of promoting knowledge in the art 
of constructing and maintaining roads ; and we ask that in such 
department provision be made for teaching students so that 
they may become skilled road engineers. 

"In connection with this road department we request that 
there be established a permanent exhibit in which shall be 
shown sections of roads, ilk;strating the various methods of con- 
Btruction and also the best road materials and machinery. ^^ 



THE PROPOSED ROAD DEPARTMEXT. 107 

" We further petition that Congress appropriate funds suffi- 
cient to erect a building at the World's Columbian Exposition 
for the purpose of a comprehensive road exhibit." 

The object of the agricultural department is to promote 
knowledge in relation to agriculture, and the object of the road 
department would be simply to promote knowledge in relation 
to roads, and I hope that you will endeavor in the editorial col- 
umns of Good Roads to call the attention of your readers to the 
fact that its object is simply educational, and in no way does it 
ask for a single dollar to be spent by the national government for 
the purpose of constructing national roads. 

There is one thing more I would urge upon j^ou, and that is 
that you call upon your readers to write to the members of 
Congress from their districts, requesting them to aid the pass- 
age of the bill which will accompany this petition. It is only by 
the co-operation of individual .efforts that great results can be 
obtained, and I hope that you will impress upon the public that 
this great movement for good roads is of incalculable importance 
to every city, town and state throughout the country. 

Very truly yours, 

Albert A. Pope. 
Boston, Mass. (P. O. Box B.), January 18, 1893. 



" It may not be out of place to say that we are very much 
pleased with your magazine, and think it an excellent means of 
accomplishing a much needed end. We shall be glad to co-oper- 
ate with you in ways you may suggest and will send you in a short 
time a complete list of the county supervisors and highway com- 
missioners for Lake County, 111. This firm has the construction 
and improvements of between twenty-five and thirty miles of 
roadway at South Waukegan in Lake County, near a number 
of great factories which have been recently established there. 
These roads will mostly become in time village roads, but for 
some years probably a large number of them will have to re- 
main dirt roads. The public officers who have charge of the 
highways are in about the usual state of ignorance on the sub- 
ject, and we shall endeavor to so construct our roads as to serve 
as an object lesson for the country about us." — Calvin Dickey, 
Chicago, III. 

"The publication of those pictures is having a very good 
effect here in that it has increased the agitation by our promi- 
nent citizens of the street improvement question which has been 
up for some time, and there is now a fair prospect for paved 
streets for Defiance this Summer." — E. J. Pro/iso/i, Defiance, 
Ohio. 

"Your last number at hand and it is simply excellent." 
— Af. T. Stradford, Birmingham, Ala. 



!^""=^ 




s=T!r' ^ivnr:: 




P1T0R§1AB1^ 




WILLIAM H. DEGRAAF. 

As WE go to press the sad news is received 
of the sudden death of Secretary-Treasurer 
WiUiam H. DeGraaf, of the New York State 
Division, L. A. W. We have no particulars 
beyond the information that he died of 
pneumonia after a brief illness, on Sunday, 
the I2th inst. Mr. DeGraaf was not only 
personally popular among members of the 
League in his own state, but was well 
known as one of the prominent wheelmen of 
the country, among whom he had gained a 
place by his strong individuality and genial 
qualities. Mr. DeGraaf's death will be felt 
with peculiar sadness by his many friends 
in the cities of New York and Brooklyn, 
where he was always popular, and by the 
members of his State Division, who have 
always known him as one possessing and 
exercising the true fraternal spirit. 



Governor Flower, like a practical busi- 
ness man who believes that the business of 
the statesman is to take care of state affairs 
in a business-like way, fortifies his reasons 
for urging the improvement of the public 
roads, by setting forth in his annual message 
to the legislature an array of figures col- 
lected by him during the last year and show- 
ing the profligate misapplication of public 
money under the slovenly and slipshod road 
system now in vogue. The Governor as- 
serts that returns from fifty counties in the 
state show an expenditure in cash and labor 
of about $2,700,000 annually for road main- 
,tenance, or an average of about $54,000 for 
each county. Referring to this exhibit the 
Governor says; "I venture the assertion 
' ' which I think will be generally corro- 
" borated by those who have seen the 
" methods of work now employed on country 
"roads, that a large proportion of this ex- 
"penditureis practically wasted. AVith no 
" greater expenditure, but under a different 



"system, each county might be covered 
"with fine macadam roads with all the 
"resulting advantages in appreciation of 
"property and in economy of transporta- 
" tion." 

Every thoughtful citizen will yield full 
concurrence to all that Governor Flower has 
said on this subject, and even the farmers 
who at first opposed any change from the 
old system are now emphasizmg the general 
demand for better roads and better methods 
of making and caring for them. Indeed, 
the great need is not now so much to con- 
vince the people of the good to be attained 
by these reforms, but rather to solve the best 
method of bringing them about. The 
people desire facts, information and practi- 
cal instruction, and even our civil engineers 
are in many cases meagerly informed of the 
science of road making. One of the first 
things to be desired is the development of a 
bureau or directing head, from which in- 
formation may be obtained by the several 
counties, on all subjects relating to roads, 
road laws and road machinery and materi- 
als. Another, and perhaps even more im- 
portant step might be taken in the con- 
struction of main roads running through 
important sections of the state under the 
direction of state officers and at state ex- 
pense. This work would at once put at rest 
all question regarding the benefits of good 
roads in the quickening of trade between 
town and market and the enhancement of 
propert)^ values, and at the same time sup- 
ply a practical standard of excellence in road 
construction which the counties might 
. follow in all future work designed to supple- 
ment the general system. In short it will 
be idle to expect that any uncertain or 
desultory method of road improvement 
which the legislature may prescribe will 
bring about that general and uniform im- 
provement which the present condition of 
the country roads demands. We may as 
well face the music at once and conclude 
that a desperate case needs heroic treatment. 

J08 



THE EDITOR'S TABLE. 



109 



The Minnesota Road Improvement Con- 
vention, held at the State House in St. 
Paul on January 25 and 26 last, demon- 
strated two things : I. That the farmer and 
the wheelman of the west are often one and 
the same person and that instead of the 
antagonism that is supposed, to exist be- 
tween the cyclist and the soil-tiller, the 
utmost harmony is apparent in their mutual 
endeavors for better roads. 2. That a well 
organized state division of wheelmen can 
not only successfully inaugurate a general 
movement for good roads within its own 
state, but it can gain the co-operation of all 
classes of citi ns by an exhibit of the manly 
and dignified material which each division 
contains. The St. Paul Convention was or- 
ganized and conducted from the outset by 
the ^Minnesota Division of the League, and 
to Chief Consul Choate is due a world of 
credit tor having brought about a most suc- 
cessful and enthusiastic meeting. That Mr. 
Choate's efforts were well received is shown 
by his election to the Presidency of the per- 
manent State Association. The Minnesota 
Journal of January 26 endorses his work 
in a strong editorial and declares the paper 
read by Mr. Choate at the convention to be 
"by far the most pertinent and practical 
paper of the session." 



is well founded, Mr. Bowen maybe induced 
to reconsider his action and to remain in a 
position where he has labored with unselfish 
zeal and with so much honor to himself and 
to the organization. No member of the 
League has given more persistent and in- 
telligent attention to his official duties than 
has Mr. Bowen, and to none is due a greater 
share of that honor which comes with the 
dawn of successful results. 



In this number of Good Roads appears a 
most important page which bears the con- 
spicuous heading, "A Need and an Appeal." 
The work of road improvement agitation 
has assumed stupendous proportions within 
the last year, and the demand for literature 
coming to the Bureau from each of the 
several states has far exceeded the limits of 
our supply. The League has spent 3'ears 
and many thousands of dollars in this work, 
and the time and the opportunity have 
come for the public at large, as well as for 
individual League members, to contribute 
to the cause. A dollar each from all the 
readers of Good Roads will give the League 
a fund that will double its capacity and its 
work. Read the page and send in your 
contribution. 



There is an inclination "out West" to 
treat the road question with the dignity and 
consideration to which its importance gives 
it title. Hundreds of letters coming every 
week into the editorial office of Good Roads 
give evidence of an increase in the move- 
ment among the prairie states that betokens 
a certainty of success. Sometimes it seems 
as though our western friends had inherited 
the courage of their pioneer ancestors and 
imbibed the energy of a prairie cyclone. 
But it all counts for success and Good 
Roads is glad to encourage it. 



It is announced, half offlciall}-, that Mr. 
W. M. P. Bowen, of Providence, R. I., has 
determined to retire from active service in 
the Roads Improvement Branch of League 
work, and has tendered his resignation as a 
member of the National Committee on Im- 
provement of the Highways. It is to be 
earnestly hop'ed that if this announcement 



The man who writes a letter to the pub- 
lic press condemning the scheme for the 
improvement of roads under the belief that 
such improvement would cost from ten to 
twenty thousand dollars per mile is airing 
his personal ignorance. There is no state 
in the Union that does not supply in one 
part or an other an excellent quality of road 
material. Transportation was never so 
cheap nor so well provided for ; the breaking 
of stone by large crusher plants can be done 
at a ridiculously low figure and most of our 
great railroads will gladly undertake to co- 
operate with the state in the freighting 
of broken stone to points where needed. 
Thus, with the rapid and thorough work ac- 
complished by improved rollers and ease 
with which the material is spread and con- 
solidated, the question of cost is less than 
ever before an objection to the proposed 
work. Good macadam roads can be built 
better, more cheaply and more quickly than 
at any time in the history of the world. 



Now approaches the season of deep imid 
and difficult travel. We have offered 
■$ioo til gold for pictures of good roads 
and bad ones. See our advertising pages 
for full particulars, or send to the office 
of Good Roads for circular annou;.'cc/nent. 



If you are a New York reader of Good 
Roads setjd this copy to your local news- 
paper and ask the editor to review and to 
commend it. Tell him that we are in busi- 
ness, not to make fnoney, but to do a good 
work, and invite his co-operation. 



New York sets apart about 5,000,000 
acres for the production of her hay crop, and 
raises each year from 5,000,000 to 6,000,000 
tons, having a home value of from $60,000,- 
000 to $80,000,000. 

In her production of potatoes she exceeds 
all other states, and raises about one-sixth 
the entire potato crop of the Union. Her 
yearly crop often exceeds 30, 000, 000 bushels, 
and the value runs from $12,000,000 to 
$18,000,000. 



A BILL has been introduced in the West 
Virginia Legislature by Delegate Edwards 
of the Kanawka district providing for the 
employment of convicts on the public roads. 
It directs the appointment of five state com- 
missioners of highways, who are to lay out 
principal lines of highways connecting the 
leading cities and towns of the state, and 
when completed to turn them over to the 
county authorities for future maintenance. 
The sheriff of each county is authorized to 
employ the labor of all petty offenders in 
the maintenance of these roads and the 
Superintendent of the Penitentiary is re- 
quired, upon notice from the Commissioners, 
to detail not less than two-thirds of the male 
prisoners in his custody to perform similar 
labor. Convicts not directly employed 
upon the roads are to be set at work making 
tools and clothing for the road makers. 



State Auditor Siebert, of Missouri, re- 
ports that during the years iSgoandiSgi 
that state expended nearly six millions of 
dollars for roads and bridges, of which more 
than four million dollars was spent for roads 



alone, or an average of more than two 
million dollars per year. Commenting on 
this report the St. Louis Republic says: 

" Two million do lars a year for road pur- 
poses ought to be sufficient to secure many 
miles of good road. The extreme length of 
the state, north and south, is 282 miles, and 
it has been estimated that a substantial mac- 
adamized highway ca.i be constructed at an 
average cost of $7,000 per mile ; so that with 
the money raised in 1S91 for road purposes 
alone the people could have built a mac- 
adamized 'highway from Iowa to Arkansas 
and had $107,698 left. Taking the expend- 
itures of 1890 and i8gi together on county 
roads, and the average width df the state 
at 235 miles, a macadamized road could have 
been constructed the entire length and also 
the entire breadth of this state, leaving a 
surplusage of more than $400,000 of the 
money actually collected, either in labor or 
cash, for road purposes. This is not theory, 
it is fact." 

The Albany Railway Company (control- 
ing the toll road between Troy and Albany) 
has lately expended between twenty-five 
and thirty thousand dollars in the improve- 
ment of its highway, and has decided to 
reduce the rates of toll one-half on all vehi- 
cles havng tires four inches and upwards 
in width. 



A. Preston Dunlap, of Washington, D. C, 
writes tis that he has been circulating 
Colonel Pope's petition with great success 
in Washington, Georgetown and vicinity 
and has obtained about 25,000 signatures, 
including those of many prominent citizens 
of the district and some of national reputa- 
tion. 



Douglass County, Xee. , voted one 
hundred and fifty thousand dullars last 
Summer for road and sireeL improvements^ 
and it is now decided to expend a substantial 
portion of this sum in putting into good con- 
dition some of the suburban roads leading 
into the city of Omaha. ,10 



J^£n\S AND COMMENT. 



Ill 



Governor Chase, of Indiana, in his recent 
message to the legislature of that state, 
strikes the key-note of the roads question 
in the following language : 

" It is gratifying to notice the interest now 
being taken in the discussion as to whether 
Indiana shall become a leading state in the 
betterment of public roads. The press al- 
most unanimously is advocating a better 
law. The late convention held in this city 
for the purpose of inaking recommendations 
to the legislature was one of the most 
intelligent ever convened here. No law 
contemplated by this honorable body can 
compare with one that shall give the farmer 
an open market all the year round so far as 
material prosperity is concerned. 

"Let there be no mistake as to the makeup 
of the committee who shall have so much re- 
sponsibility placed upon it as this one, as he 
who supports legislation with this object in 
view can subserve the best interests of his 
constituents in no other way so thoroughly. 
I doubt if further taxation is necessary for 
the redemption of our highways. The 
revenue now used is enormous when we 
consider the results obtained. The trouble 
is our system is wrong. We need more 
brains and less muscle in the cause, and 
until this is brought about we shall remain 
in the slough of despondency. There is no 
comparison between our roads and those of 
foreign countries, nor of those in our many 
sister states. We are wofuUy behind them 
in all this matter. The railroads that cross 
our own state like a network have greatly 
enhanced the value of property, but with 
first-class public highways the increase in 
our material wealth will be difficult to 
estimate. The farmer will be the greatest 
beneficiary in this matter and yet good roads 
concern directly every citizen. For several 
months in each year the farmer is unable to 
do anything because of impassable roads. 
His teams are idle, and the profits of the 
months he has toiled are used up in doing 
nothing. This condition of business 
economy must be changed, and no matter 
will require your thoughtful attention more 
than legislation for the improvement of our 
highways." 

The one phrase in the governor's message 
that has a world of meaning is " We need 
more brains and less muscle." 



The new State of Washington has turned 
its attention to the question of better roads 
and the state legislature will consider 
measures for their immediate improvement. 
The Tacoma Ledger of recent date says: 

"Attention has been directed to the 
matter by President N. B. Coff:man, of the 
First National Bank of Chehalis, who has 
sent out letters to all the property owners 
in the count}', and who has already received 
300 replies. Other answers are coming in 
at the rate of fifty per day. This in itself 
shows that interest in the matter is very 
easily aroused. The people know their 
needs, but they do not know exactly how 
they can be supplied. 

It is indeed a complicated question, but 
Mr. Coffman, who has given the matter a 
good deal of attention, apparently, has made 
some suggestions which are worthy of very 
careful attention. His suggestions are: 

First — The cost should be borne in pro- 
portion to the benefits. 

Second — Construction should be from the 
towns out and without intermission. 

Third — The roadbed should be of such a 
nature as to permit of heavy freighting and 
rapid travel the year round. It should have 
as direct a course as possible and avoid 
steep grades. 

Fourth — Work should be done only by 
contract, excepting minor repairs. 

Fifth — Primary supervision and construc- 
tion should be with county officials. 



We have received by the kindness of Mr. 
Edgar S. Barnes, Chairman of the Highway 
Improvement Committee of the Missouri 
Division, L. A. W., a complete list of the 
road officers of the state of Missouri, with 
post office addresses, and a similar list of 
prominent citizens of that state. This list 
has been prepared at the cost of much labor 
by F. L. Gillette, of Mt. Vernon, Mo., and 
on its recent completion was copied for 
Good Roads by Chairman Barnes. It is 
this kind of work that enables the National 
and State Committees to join hands and to 
work as a unit for the production of good 
results. Missouri leads; who follows? 



Chief Consul GEROULDasks us to express 
his thanks to the many loyal members of 
the League who aided him in the distribu- 
tion of the Illinois edition of Good Roads by 
sending their copies to him. 



MONEY NEEDED FOR THE WORK OF 1893— WHAT THE 
WHEELMEN HAVE DONE AND WHAT THEY PROPOSE TO 
^ DO IN THE COMING MONTHS— THE WONDERFUL GROWTH 

OF THE MOVEMENT REQUIRE S AN ENLARGEMENT OF 
RESOURCES AND BETTER EQUIPMENT— WHO WILL HELP? 

FOR nearly ten years the wheelmen of America have been carrying on a 
crusade against the bad roads and inadequate road systems found within 
the United States. They have spent thousands of dollars in money and 
have toiled zealously amid many discouragements for the attainment of a pub- 
lic reform in which every citizen has an interest and through which thousands 
of citizens in every state will reap pecuniary gain. 

A little more than a year ago, the League of American Wheelmen estab- 
lished in the City of New York a Bureau from which tons of literature have 
been sent each month to all parts. of the country, and this Eureau has come to 
be a recognized fountain head of information on the subject of roads im- 
provement. 

During the year 1893, the Bureau (in addition to Good Roads magazine 
and the pamphlets already in print) proposes to send to all parts of the country 
hundreds of thousands of small pamphlet and leaflet instructions, clearly illus- 
trated and plainly written, and containing instructions for the making and 
maintaining of covmtry roads according to the best known methods, giving 
attention also to the ordinary dirt roads which must yet be largely used for 
many years in all the states. These pamphlets will be placed in the hands of" 
every road officer in the country and given publicity through the press in 
every county. 

Money is needed for this work^ and we can iise to splendid advantage a fund of 
$^0,000 during t/ie present year. Let us begin at once to raise this amount. The 
splendid contributions of Colonel Pope ($4,000), and President Overman 
($6,000), and The George R. Bidwell Cycle Co. ($1,000), show that a few 
broad-minded citizens are appreciat^'ve of the League's work and are willing 
and anxious to aid it. 

Every manufacturer of or dealer in bicycles and carriages, every 

FARMER and MERCHANT, EVERY WHEELMAN AND EVERY CITIZEN WHO USES THE 
PUBLIC HIGHWAYS SHOULD CONTRIBUTE TO THIS FUND. 

Next month we shall begin the publication of a list giving the names of 
every person rendering pecuniary aid to this movement and the amount of his 
contribution. This list will be continued from month to month. All contri- 
butions will be acknowledged by personal communication, as well as in the 
pages of Good Roads. 

Send all contributions by check. New York draft or Post-office money 
order to 

ISAAC B. POTTER, chairman 

POTTER BUILDING, NEW YORK CITY 



"Arkell, "(Chicago, 111.); "F."W.,"(Cohoes, 
N. Y.); "S. Sinclair," (Middletown, N. Y.); 
"Ed., "(Akron, Ohio) ;"Interested,"(Philadel- 
phia, Pa. ) ; " Mort, "(Sioux City , Iowa. )^These 
correspondents write complaining letters 
because our story from Cooper's famous novel 
of Indian adventure was abruptly stopped 
with the November number, and though 
promised "To be concluded next month," the 
rinishing chapter has not yet appeared. It is 
true that we left poor Deerslayer tied to a 
tree, while the merciless Hurons were clip- 
ping his locks with their tomahawks and 
scalping knives from a distance of forty 
paces, more or less, and a humane ambition 
would have prompted us to complete the 
story which relates his adventures in so in- 
teresting a way. 

That this was not done is due to our wish 
to avoid contract complications between the 
L. A. W. and the " Wheelman Company " 
a Massachusetts corporation, being the 
owners and publishers of the Bicycling- 
World. A contract exists between this 
corporation and the L. A. W. , by which the 
Boston corporation, in exchange for certain 
concessions on the part of the League, 
undertakes to — well, to make a long story 
short, the League was forbidden, by a letter 
from the Wheelman Company, to publish 
any matters not relatmg strictly to the im- 
provement of roads. Of course, we have 
carefully avoided any encroachment upon 
the ground to which the Bicycling World 
has directed itself with such unexampled 
brilliancy, and did not suppose that the in- 
nocent story of the Deerslayer would give 
offense; j^et, to avoid all question, we deem 
best to suspend the publication of the 
balance of that sketch. 

Be of good courage, friends. Good Roads 
for 1893 will be brighter, more interesting 
and more successful than ever. 



dirt roads. Your town "path masters" 
will be able to do a hundred per cent, more, 
and infinitely better work by using one of 
these machines than by the old-time way of 
handling dirt by means of plough and shovel. 
There may be some differences in point of 
efficiency between the different road mach- 
ines in the market ; but we never saw one 
which was not infinitely better than the 
plough and shove!. You had better send to 
some of the manufacturers for descriptive 
catalogues and correspond with them. 
Their catalogues and letters will be to you 
a liberal education on the question of hand- 
ling dirt roads. 



" W. B. Greenleaf" (Charlottsville, Va.) — 
Your request for " method of laying, prob- 
able cost here, and wearing qualities (of 
brick pavement), as compared with mac- 
adam," calls for a more extended reply 
than our time and space will permit. Speci- 
fications for brick pavements have been 
contained in this magazine from time to 
time, and may be obtained from city engi- 
neers in any of the various towns where this 
kind of pavement has been laid. The cost 
at Charlottsville will depend upon method 
of laying; whether with or without concrete 
foundation ; whether laid with one course of 
bricks or two, etc. A modern fire-brick 
pavement has proved its excellent wearing 
qualities in manj^ places, and is greatly 
superior to macadam as a roadway pave- 
ment, the latter being unsuited to heavy 
traffic. 



"Citizen" (Toledo, Ohio.) — We have in hand 
an article explaining the Contra-Costa ten- 
block system of numbering and describing 
country roads, as adopted in California, and 
will publish it during the present year. 



"C. C. D." (Camden, N.J.) — Road machines 
or road graders are the best labor-saving 
machines in the construction and repair of 



"Sargeant" (Hudson, N. Y.) — i. It seems to 
be fairly established that a given load can 
be hauled more easily on large wheels than 
on wheels of less diameter, and that the 



114 



QUERIES AND ANSWERS. 



larger wheels also exert less wearing force 
upon the road surface. Experiments made 
at the Royal Agricultural Show, England, in 
1874, demonstrate that a force of one pound 
was necessary to move 5S. 7 pounds on wheels 
five feet in diameter, while the same force 
could only draw 35.1 pounds on wheels three 
feet five inches in diameter. Other experi- 
ments have given similar results, and al- 
though authors do not agree as to the relative 
advantages offered by large and small 
wheels, they are unanimous in the general 
conclusion that larger loads can be hauled 
on larger wheels, with the same expenditure 
of force. 2. Our knowledge of the amount 
of street traffic in your town forbids our 
recommending the use of macadam or any 
other form of broken stone pavement in its 
principal streets, though such a roadway 
might answer w^ell for your suburban roads 
and for streets that are not much used for 
business. The macadam and macadam- 
telford forms are well suited for country 
roads, where the heavy traffic is not con- 
tinuous, but its use is deservedly con- 
demned in the streets of large cities and 
towns where the grinding and wearing- 
effect of traffic soon tends to destroy it, and 
renders a system of continuous repair in- 
adequate and impossible. 



It is the result of actual tests, verified on 
different occasions, and always with sub- 
stantially the same results. 



"Tyro" (Meadville, Pa.) — There is a wide 
difference between limestones and the dif- 
ferent kind of trap rock. The latter is gen- 
erally regarded as superior for the purposes 
of the road maker. Limestones or " cal- 
cites " are variable in quality, some being 
harder than others, and while limestones 
are often used with good success in mac- 
adam roads, they are not generally to be 
depended upon. An expert can easily dis- 
tinguish between broken limestone and 
broken "trap," but if you are not familiar 
with both, it is best to subject each speci- 
men to a test. Of course, you know lime- 
stones, when burned, will produce quick- 
lime; but a more simple test is to subject 
the specimen to contact with diluted muri- 
atic acid, which will produce effervescence 
if the specimen is limestone. 



" Gesler " (Geneva, N. Y.) — Dig a trench 
about four feet deep in the centre of your 
roadway, maintaining a uniform grade, if 
possible, and carrying the outlet to a neigh- 
boring waterway, or cross drain. Lay, in 
the bottom of the trench, a line of four-inch 
round drain-tile, packing rubble and field- 
stone carefully at the sides and above the 
pipe, taking care not to disturb or crack 
the different lengths, fill your ditch with 
loose stones and porous gravel, and wait 
results. You will probably find that the 
soil will be entirely relieved of its saturated 
condition, and that frost will not form 
quickly nor produce half as much trouble 
as formerly. We do not oppose your sug- 
gestion that a six-inch pipe might be used. 
The larger the pipe, the better, as a rule, 
for the large pipe not only gives ample 
channel for drainage water, but invites the 
entrance of warm air in Spring, and helps 
to thaw the frost from beneath. A six-inch 
pipe is, however, larger than necessary for 
the drainage of an ordinary dirt roadway, 
and the item of cost forbids our recommend- 
ing it in your case. 



" Short Hills " (New Jersey.) — There is a 
wide difference between the three varieties 
of asphalt which you name, and we regard 
the Trinidad as unqualifiedly the best for 
roadway purposes. It is less slippery, less 
brittle and more durable than the others and 
its success as a street pavement is established 
beyond question. 



"Fletcher" (Savannah, Ga.) — There is 
an association of southern carriage builders, 
and we believe it is called •" The Southern 
Carriage Builders' Association." The Presi- 
dent is Mr. J. W. Weitzell, of Atlanta, Ga., 
and the Secretary is Mr. J. W. Jones, of 
Cartersville, Ga. Either of these gentlemen 
will give you the information you ask for. 



"S. S. V." (Lynchburg, Va.)— The tables 
you refer to were not made by mathemati- 
cal calculation, nor by any theoretical rule. 



"Cowen" (Wilkesbarre, Pa.) — You can 
obtain a copy of the New Jersey Road Law 
by writing to the Secretary, State Board of 
Agriculture, Trenton, N. J., or by sending 
your full name and address to this office. 



RECENT PATENTS. 

In this department we shall print from time to time brief descriptiye notes of 
recent patented inventions relating to roads, streets, drainage, bridges and wheeled 
vehicles. 




TRACK-RAIL. John T. Hill and TSeknaud Meirino, 
Patentees, Cleveland, Ohio. The combination, with a rail 
having a l>ase, web, and head, of a reniovaltle tread titted 
to the head, this tread having a groove formed approxi- 
mately over the web, and securing-bolt hooked over the 
edge of the tread and extending through the web of the 
rail. 




PAVEMENT. Benjamin F. Pprv, Patentee, Dcs Moines, 
Iowa. An improved pavement composed of solid pieces 
liaving grooves in their side faces and separately set on edge 
on a road bed to extend transversely to the loa'd anil jtaral- 
ROAD-SPRAPER. SAMfEL B. Jamtesox, Patentee, Mara- lei to each other, and solid blocks ciirrcspond ma in length 
thou, N. V. The combination, with the rear axle, of !i with the width of the said jiaraliel pieces, and having rTbs 
|ilaif(irmfianie rigidly attached to said axle, the main on their side faces a(l;ii)ti'il Im enter the groo\i's in the said 
ffaiiie III! united movable laterally on said plat form-frame, parallel pieces, and a cdinpusile tilling material in tlieinter- 
aiid locking devices confining said main frame in its I slices or vacant spaces between said blocks and said paral- 
adlusted position on the platforhi. lei pieces. nq 




DRniNC MECHANISM FOR ROAD-ENGINES. Calvin 
F. CHRISTOPHER, Patentee, Spartanlinrg, S. C, Assignor of 
one-half to David R. Duncan and Thomas C. Duncan, same 
place. The combination, with tlie crank-shaft of a traction- 
engine, a gear monoted thereon, the drive-axle, and a gear 
mounted thereon, of an intermediate worm-gear mounted 
on the lower end of the sliat't and meshing witli the gear of 
the axle, a toothed gear loi:se|y niomiti-d on the u]iper end 
of the shaft and cngajiing with' tlie gear of the crank-shaft 
and having a toothed Inili, and a toothed clutch mounted 
for sliding and non-mtataiily on the shaft and provided with 
a lever for operating the same, so as to engage the toothed 
hub of said gear. 




/- 


/ 


1 1 ■' 1 


^ 


^^m^ifAima. 




m m ii 


i 


^ 


m 



I 



ii6 



RECENT PA TENTS. 



BRIDGE. LewisBarnes, Philadelphia, Assignor to Will- 
iam A. Nichols, Wayne, Pa. An approach for a portable 
bridge or ditch-covering, consisting of the sills, stringers, 
and brace-pieces, forming wings adapted to be secured to 
the end of the bridge. 




ROAD-Rrr CTTTER. Orris Cflter, Patentee, Grand 
Rapids, Minn. In a road-rut ruttiT, Ihi' comliinationof tli ■ 
runners having forwardly extending ends, curved rut cut- 
ting knives secured to and prnji'cthiu' l)eyond the front 
ends of said runners, advance cufiinji' knives secnnMl to tlic 
outer sides of tlie forwardly extending emls in advance of 
said rut cutting knives, nuild hoards secured at an angle to 
the outer faces of the rnnners in rear of the front ends 
thereof, and ad.1ustai)le t::ui;jre runners located directly in 
front of the rut cutting knives at one side of the advance 
knives. 




STEAM ROAD-ROLLER. Harry W. Laster, Chicago. 
The couiljination, with a steam-roller having tlie driving- 
sliaft (J and the steering-screw K, of a shaft M, geared to the 
driving-shaft and bearing two loose gears n' n2, a gear k, 
connected with the screw K and engaging with both of the 
Erears w' w2, and a friction device adapted to engage either 
of the gears n' n'~, with the shaft K. 




PAVING-BRICK. Lesme C. Tukley, Portsmouth, Ohio. 
A paving-brick hiving its top, liottom, s^des, and ends in 
the form of a right-anjiled paraHelosrani, the opposite laces 
thereof being parallel and equal to each other and having 
plane surfaces, except two opposite sides, one of which is 
lirovided with a longitudinal recess extending the length of 
the brick and the other with a corresponding longitudinal 
riii adapted to loosely engage said recess, one of said sides 
liaving a series of welts in relief thereon. 




BORDER FOR WALKS, ETC. J \MES E. CJHAPMAN.Paten- 

te;% San Jose, Cal. As a new article of manufacture, border 
tili'scoiisisiinff of vertical curb sections with exterior and 
interior vertical corrugations and a base, the bottom of 
w hiih extends outwardly at right angles with the vertical 
portion, the upiicr surface meeting the outer vertical face 
at an angle greater ihin a right angle, and having corruga- 
tions formed th'U'ein in continuation with the corrugations 
in the exterior face o£ the vertical portion. 




.Jh.-^- 



Iilii 




oHtract If otes 



ROADS AND STREETS. 



^^N^- 



I 



OHIO. —Cincinnati.— The work of two contracts 
for curbing, flagging, macadamizing and grading 
is to be begun in this city shortly, for which the 
Board of Administration will receive bids until 
February 27. 

Cleveland. — It is proposed to spend in the 
neighborhood of $1,200,000 for paving and grading 
next season. The City Engineer has the work in 
charge. 

NiLES. — A new street is proposed to be opened, 
and bonds to the amount of $20,000 or $25,000 will 
likelj- be issued. 

Springfield. — Estimates have been presented 
by the City Engineer for paving two streets with 
brick, at an estimated cost of $t6,ooo. 

Berea. — Front street is to be graded, curbed 
and drained and proposals are asked by the Village 
Clerk until ]\Iarch 6th. Paving is also to be done. 

PENNSYLVANIA.— Jacksonville.— It has not 
yet been agreed whether vitrified brick, granite 
blocks, asphalt or cypress blocks will be used in 
repaving Bay Street of this place. Further partic- 
ulars will be known in a short time. 

MARYLAND.— Cumberland.— Fire brick is to 
be largely used in paving some of the streets of 
this town. 

ILLINOIS.— ALTON.— In the Spring bids will be 
asked for the work of brick paving about a mile of 
one of the sections of this place, Geo. Dickson, 
City Engineer. 

Streator.— Six miles of brick paving will be 
commenced here in a short time, for which bids 
will be asked on April 3 and July 3. Further par- 
ticulars may be had of the City Council. 

Pekin.— A large contract for paving will be 
awarded soon. It is proposed that 14,400 square 
yards are to be paved, and bids will be asked for 
in a short time. 

Canton. — About 53,000 square yards of paving 
with brick is to be begun here, also excavating, 
etc. Bids are being received. 

INDIANA. — Goshen. — During the year 1893 
about 1,500,000 brick will be used for paving pur- 
poses. Chas. L. Kinney, City Engineer. 

Brazil. — Meridian Street will be paved with 
vitrified brick this coming Spring. For further 
particulars address F. W. Sisson, City Engineer. 

WISCONSIN. — Ashland. — Dispositions will 
probably be made in the Spring of this year for 
the work of paving one and one-half miles of 
Second Street with cedar blocks. D. G. Sampson, 
City Engineer. 

OSHKOSH. — Six streets are to be graded and 
paved with cedar blocks, and bids will be received 
by the Board of Public Works until February 20. 

IOWA.— Dubuque.— Plans will be prepared by 
the City Engineer for the work of paving with 
brick several streets of this city. 



"^^ 



Des Moines.— Fifteen streets are to be paved 
with brick, concrete, cedar blocks, granite blocks 
or asphalt, and also three with macadam. Bids 
will probably be asked for. 

Marshalltown.— It is proposed to pave with 
brick, this season, about 20,000 or 25,000 square yards 
of street in this place. Bids will be asked for. 

MISSOURI.- Sedalia.— Bids will be asked for 
in the Spring for the work of paving East Third, 
East Seventh, and West Fifth Streets. Further 
particulars may be had of C. H. Zoll, City En- 
gineer. 

Marshall. — Proposals will be asked for macad- 
amizing and paving about three-quarters of a mile 
of road in this place. 

MOBERL'i'.— About 8,666 square yards of brick 
paving will be laid this Summer in addition to an- 
other large contract for 1,867 square yards of the 
same kind of work. 

TEXAS Galveston.— Bids are being received 

for 35,479 cubic yards of street filling. Address 
City Clerk. 

MASSACHUSETTS.— HOLYOKE.— It is estima- 
ted that about 10,000 feet of curbing will be used 
during the coming year, and bids will be asked for 
the completion of the work. 

NEW YORK.— New York.— Five contracts will 
soon be awarded for constructing cross-walks and 
paving, bids for which are being received by the 
Commissioner of Street Improvements of Wards 
23 and 24. 

BRIDGES. 

MASSACHUSETTS. — HoLYOKE. —Watson 
Whittlesy, of New York, has petitioned for the 
construction of a new bridge across the river from 
the foot of Mosher Street. 

Falmouth. — A bridge without a draw is what 
the selectmen of this place wish to build over 
Joseph Gifford's river. They recently petitioned 
the Legislature for the right. 

NEW YORK.— Oswego.— Ellery Colby of the 
Oswego Bridge Co., has drawn plans of the pro- 
posed new iron bridge, with elevated approach 
over the D. L. & W, railroad tracks at the South 
end. These are on exhibition at th. ,ffice of the 
Adams Express Co., and Mr. Colby is preparing 
a statement of the estimated cost of the structure. 

PENNSYLVANIA. — Harrisburg. — A survey 
was made on January 20, for the proposed new 
bridge connectiong Fairview and Harrisburg. 
The actual measurement between these two cities 
is 4,213 feet, which will call for 28 spans, each 150 
feet in length, with 27 piers and two abutments. 

ILLINOIS.— Aurora.— By agreement, the Chi- 
cago, Burlington & Quincy R. R. Co., will con- 
struct a viaduct over Spring Street before July i. 

NEBRASKA.— Lincoln.— An iron and steel via- 
duct is to be built on O Street, the estimated cost 



ii8 



CONTRACT NOTES. 



of which is about ^130,000. Bids will be received 
until February 27th, by L. E. Hicks, Chairman of 
the Board of Public Works. 



SEWERS. 

MEW YORK.— Rome.— The Stanwix Engineering 
Company has presented plans to the common coun- 
cil for a sewer system for this place, the estimated 
cost of which is §22^,700. 

Albany. — Senator Nichols introduced a bill in 
the Senate on January 18, asking for $12,000 with 
which to construct a new sewer for the Syracuse 
Institution for feeble minded children. 

Medina. — Bids will probably be asked for in a 
short time for constructing a brick sewer, the esti- 
mated cost of which is $23,000. 

HOOSICK Falls.— Until February 7, proposals 
will be received by the Sewer Commissioners for 
constructing a sewerage system. Plans and speci- 
fications have been prepared and are on file. 

New York. — Proposals are asked for two con- 
tracts of sewer work. Address the Commissioner 
of Public Work.s. 

CALIFORNIA.— Oakland.— The cost of the pro- 
posed new sewer in this city is about $45,000 and 
bids will be asked for very soon. 

MICHIGAN.— Red Jacket.— 26,216 feet of 8 to 
42-inch pipe and brick sewers are to be laid, and 
bids will be received until March i. 

Adri.an. — It is proposed soon to construct about 
3,000 feet of tile and brick sewers. Bids will prob- 
ably be asked for at an early date. 

WISCONSIN,— OSHKOSH.— Plans are being pre- 
pared for one and one-half or two miles of new 
sewers. H. G. Finch, City Engineer. 

MINNESOTA.— Hastlngs.— Bids will be received 
till March 14, for the work of constructing a sewer 
from the jail to the Mississippi river. 

Minneapolis. — Bids will be asked for 1,000,000 
sewer bricks, by the Committee on Sewers. 

COLORADO.— Denver.— Plans will be prepared 
by the City Engineer for a .sewerage system to cost 
$125,000. Next season it is proposed to lay over 
twenty miles of new sewers. 

OHIO. — Marietta. — Plans were prepared last 
Fall for a separate system of sewers, and it is hoped 
that one district may be constructed this season. 
Bids will probably be asked for. 

Cleveland. — Bids will be received by the 
Director of Public Works for two sewers. One of 
{ lese is to be laid in Detroit Street and the other 
in Michigan Street. 

MISSOURI.— ST. Charles.— This city is con- 
sidering the question of a complete system of 
sewers. 

IDAHO.— Boise City.— It is proposed to build 
a system of sewers for the State Penitentiary, the 
outlet being into the Boise River. 

ILLINOIS.— Turney— It is under discussion by 
the city authorities to build a new system of 
sewerage. Appropriations will doubtless be made 
and bids asked for, if the work is decided to be 
begun. 

Austin. — A sewer is to be laid in ?Iovvard Ave- 
nue and Adams Street for which bids will be asked 
in a short time. Edward S. Austin, County Clerk. 

East St. Louis. — Chas. L. Weber, City Engineer, 



is now in Chicago, looking into the sewerage sys- 
tem of that city, and he is also preparing plans for 
a system of sewers in East St. Louis. 

Harlem. — Plans are being prepared for a system 
of sewers to be constructed in this place. 

COLORADO.— Boulder.— It is proposed to lay 
six miles of new sewers at an estimated cost of 
about $36,000. Plans, etc , have been prepared by 
H. J. Reid, City Engineer, Colorado Springs. 

Glenwood Springs. — A sewerage system is to 
be constructed and the cost will probably estimate 
about $13,000. 

TEXAS.— Galveston.— W. Kiersted, Engineer 
for the Galveston Sewer Company, has submitted 
plans, etc., to the City Council for a system of 
sewers, the estimated cost of which is $895,347. 

Denison. — Proposals will shortly be asked for 
the work of constructing three miles of sewers 
through the principal streets of this city. W. J. 
Scott, Secretary. 

Houston. — A sewerage system is to be built in 
two districts and bids will be received by the 
Council. 

GEORGIA.— Brunswick.— It is being urged in 
this place to construct a system of sewers, at an 
estimated cost of about $60,000. 

SOUTH DAKOTA.— Sioux Falls.— Bids are 
being received by J. M. James, Assistant Auditor, 
for constructing sewers in this place. $150,000 is 
the estimated cost of the work. 

PENNSYLVANIA. — PITTSBURGH.— Bids will 
■probably be asked for in the Spring for twenty 
miles of new sewers. 

Reading. — It is proposed to lay a system of 
sewers in this city, the cost of which averages, 
about $37s,ooo. The citizens are highly in favor of 
this plan and have recommended its adoption. 

PENNSYLVANIA.— Reading.— A demand has 
been made by the Committee on Sewers for 
$156,000 to be appropriated for sewers this season. 

Berwick. — Plans and specifications have been 
prepared for a sewer system consisting of eight 
miles of pipe sewer. The probable cost of this 
work is $45,000. 

]Meadville. — A sewerage system is to be con- 
structed and bids will be asked for by the City 
Council. 

DISTRICT OF COLUMBI.A.— Washington.— A 

general renovating of the sewerage system in this 
city will be a great improvement, and a committee 
has been formed to investigate into the matter. 

WEST VIRGINIA.— Wheeling.— Next year a 
complete sewerage system will be put in. Bids 
will probably be asked for. 

INDIANA.— Fort Wayne. — The new sewer to 
be built in the early Spring on Third Street is to 
be about 5,400 feet in length, and the estimated 
cost will be $38,000. 

West Indianapolis.— The question of a new 
system of sewers is being discussed by the Town 
Board, and estimates for sewers in five streets 
are being prepared. 

NEBRASKA.— Seward.— Until November 22, 
proposals will be received for 5,395 feet of sewer- 
age. Further information may be had from County 
Clerk August Rickman. 

UTAH.— Ogden.— Bids will soon be asked for 
sewers m several streets. 




'^ifW'''^^ 



ROWED 



LETTERS TO THE EDITOR. 

"I send \'ou here an article that's bound to make 

a hit." 
" Inclosed please find a joke or two to spice your 

page with wit." 
"I send a little poem which will please beyond a 

doubt; 
Please mail me twenty copies of the paper when 

it's out." 
" I liked your editorial on ' Times are Growing 

Better,' 
And so I have endorsed it in a fifteen-column 

letter." 
" Inclosed please find subscriptions in two (Con- 
federate) bills." 
" What made you print my poem under Johnson's 

liver pills?'' 
"My wife's been dead a month, and though my 

paper's going on, 
You've never said one word, and folks can't tell 

which way she's gone ! " 
" I've been in business half a year (your due bills 

I return you) ; 
And yet you've never wrote me up — so stop my 

paper, durn you ! " 

— Atlanta Constitution. 



She — I never loved any one until I met 
you. 

He — And I never kissed a girl before in 
my life. 

And little Johnnie, who had been behind 
the portiere, tripped softly away whistling, 
" I am something of a liar myself." 



Jasper — The " L " roads are a great bless- 
ing to New York. 

Jumpuppe — Yes; they enable us to travel 
along the streets despite the mud. — New 
York Herald. 



"You warrant that horse gentle ?" 

" Gentle as a lamb, sir. If that horse 

were a man he'd be a dude." — Harpei-' s 

Bazar. 



A MANHATTAN MAIDEN'S REQUEST. 
Call me pet names, darling. 

Sweetest e'er heard ; 
Call me a starling, 

Call me a bird ! 
Call me a blossom, 

A beautiful bud — 
But, as I've been out shopping. 

My name is Mud ! 

—New York Recorder. 




Every man should always write as plainly 
as he can. Once upon a time a young man 
wrote to a girl : 

" Your loveliness has inspired me to ask 
you to become my wife." 

She read it " loneliness," and got so ever- 
lastingly mad that she refused him by 
return mail. 



He — I beg your pardon, I forgot my- 
self. 

She — That's all right. People are liable 
to forget the trivial and unimportant things 

of life. 

SIGNS OF SPRING. 
We kinder think it's coming ; there's a softness in 

the breeze, 
An' the green is almost peepin' from the winter- 
withered trees ; 
An' where the river's streamin', or the lake like 

silver shines. 
The village boys are dreamin' of their hooks an' 

fishin' lines. 
We kinder think it's comin', for there's somethin' 

in the air 
That makes you think that violets are gettin' 

mighty near ; 
An' the farmer's sent his children to the blue-back 

speller school. 
An' he's sittin' in the cotton-field a-cussin' of his 

mule ! —Atlanta Constitution. 



Road Reformer — But good roads, my 
friend, will benefit you a thousand times 
more than they will anybody else. 

Stubborn Old Farmer — They'll cost too 
blamed much. 

"Statistics show that it will not cost as 
much to build and maintain good roads as 
you people are throwing away in trying to 
improve your worthless old roads." 

" H'mph I " 

"And I'll bind myself to pay all your 
taxes for building them if you'll agree to 
pay me what they save you in hauling your 
stuff to market in early Spring. How does 
that strike you ?" 

"H'mph !" 

"What's your objection to good roads 
anyhow ? " 

"You're tryin' to force 'em on me, by 
dang. — Chicago Tribune. ug 



BORROWED WIT. 



Mick Adam was a generous and public 
spirited man to whom the traveling world 
is indebted for his commendable system of 
solid, everlasting and smooth roadbeds. 
Very unlike the American offspring of his 
cousin Doan Kayer Adam. "It was good 
enough for father, why not for son?" — 
Cycling Yoittig America. 



HIS WAS A FEEBLE STEP. 

Boggs to Coggs (scene Fulton Street) — Can 
it be that Mayor Lightstep has become so 
feeble ? My, how he totters on that cross- 
ing! 

Coggs — Your inquiry is excusable only on 
one ground. I perceive you are not ac- 
quainted with the treacherous qualities of 
Brooklyn mud. — Brooklyn Eagle. 



Mrs. Newspaper (proudly) — The landlord 
was here to-day. I gave him $15 and 
showed him the baby. Mr. Newspaper (who 
was kept awake last night)— It would have 
been much better if you'd given him the 
baby and showed him the $15. 



A CRUEL SON-IN-LAW. 

His mother-in-law was moving across the 
parlor floor when she uttered a cry of 
affright. A clock had become unhooked 
and had fallen just in the spot she was 
about to pass. The son-in-law calmly re- 
marked: "I always said that clock was 
behindhand." 



A DEMURRER. 

Judge — George Washington Peters, you 
are charged with chicken stealing. Have 
you a lawyer? 

G. W. P.— No, sah. 

Judge — Do you wish the Court to assign 
you a lawyer ? 

G. W. P.— No, sah; no, sah! 

Judge — W^hat do you wish to do about it ? 

G. W. P.— Well, Jedge, if it's all de same 
to you, I'd jess as leave dismiss de case. 



AN INSPIRING SUBJECT. 

"Whistler is going to paint a picture 
specially for the Chicago Fair." 

"What will it be — a Nocturne of Chicago 
mud?" — Truth. 



A HUSTLER. 

Stuttering old gentleman (entering den- 
tist's office) — I wu-wu-would like a tut-tut — 

Young Dentist — Quite right! (Seizes vis- 
itor, shoves him into operating-chair and 
grabs forceps) — Which is — Ah, I see ! Out 
she comes! (Pulls tooth.) One dollar, 
please ! 

Old gentleman — But, cuc-cuc-confound 
you, sir, I dud-dud — I dud-didn't want a 
tut-tut-tooth pulled ! 

Dentist — "Well, what did j^ou want, then ? 

Old Gentleman — I am Mum-Mum-Miss 
Brisk's fuf-fuf — I'm her father, just re- 
tut-tut-returned from abroad. Sh-sh-she 
has tut-told me abub-bub-bout your pup- 
proposal of mum-mum-marriage, and I came 
up to liuh-have a tut-tut — a ten mmutes 
chat with 5'ou about it. 

Dentist (regretfully) — Then, I suppose this 
settles it. I love her, but can hardly expect 
you to give your consent after 

Old Gentleman — Wu-wm-well, I don't 
know about that. It was pup-pup — it was 
pup-pretty rough on me. But I gug-gug- 
guess you'll be able to su-su-support her in 
gug-good style. You are a hu-hu-hustler. 
Take her, mum-mum-my boy! — Puck. 



The fierce animosity some ardent house- 
keepers exhibit toward dust seems amus- 
ingly exaggerated to quieter souls. 

An enthusiast of this sort one evening, 
with a tragic air, requested her husband to 
accompany her to an upper chamber. The 
tired lawyer was impressed by her solemn 
manner, and heavily climbed the necessarj^ 
stairs. The lady led him into a room and 
pointed sternly to a table. 

"Look at that," she said indignantly. 
' ' Three times this week I have told Mary to 
dust it. I believe she neglects it purposely. 
I am completely disheartened." The law- 
yer looked at the table and sighed. 

"My dear," he replied, "to-day I have 
had to deal with a murderer and two burg- | 
lars. I have also examined two wife beat- l 
ers and one child stealer, but anything like 
the moral depravity of ]\Iary I confess I 
never saw before — never! " 

And the lady triumphantly led the pro- 
cession down the stairs. — Harper s Ba::ar. 



It is more blessed to give $10 than to 
receive ten davs. — Puck. 



Good Roads. 



Vol. 3. 



marcli, 1893. 



No. 3. 



CONVICT LABOR ON PUBLIC ROADS. 
T3y Rev. Louis A. Pope. 

THE discussion concerning the necessity of a radical reform 
in American highway construction has been practically 
one-sided. There is no such unanimity, however, as to 
the Avays and means. Very emphatic opinions concerning the 
obligation of the authorities to employ the convict army to 

smooth the ways for the soldiers 
of industry, have been met by 
equally emphatic assertions 
that the whole scheme is ill- 
advised and totally impracti- 
cable. The truth, as usual, 
probably lies between the two 
extremes and nearest to the 
calmest opinions. The attempt 
here made is to set forth the 
probabilities as they have been 
deterinined largely from a con- 
siderable number of opinions 
of the foremost prison super- 
intendents of the country. 

The cry for good roads which 
only a few years ago was hardly 
more than the voice of one 
crying in the wilderness has 
come to be as multitudinous as 
the sound of many waters. To 
the response of the vaster multitude of constitutional objectors 
that no universal panacea for the road evil was available on 
account of the want of funds and the stubborn opposition to 
further taxation, four great statements have been emphatically 
made, and from them deduced the captivating proclamation, 
" Let the bad build the roads for the good." 

The four great facts are, first, that there are in the United 
States above a million miles of narrow strips of land surface 
called, by courtesy, roads, which are utterly lacking in the 
normal intent of a road, that of furnishing a surface over which, 
safely, rapidly and economically, goods and persons may be 
conveyed. These roads impose a tax on the people of this 
country averaging $20 per horse, or mule, per year, /. e., 
280,000,000 dojlars, which is equivalent to a four per cent, 
interest on the incredible sum of seven thousand million dollars. 




RE\". LOUIS A. POI'E. 



123 



CONVICT LABOR ON PUBLIC ROADS. 



The second fact is that there are annually served in this 
country 600,000 terms of imprisonment ranging from a full 
year down to thirty days. 

Third, that this vast army of men is in very large part 
entirely idle, and fourth that a large fraction of the others " are 
employed," to use the words of the Hon. Clem Studebaker, "in 
making barrels, chairs, boots, shoes and many other articles in 
common use at a lower aggregate cost than the same can be 
produced by free labor, the result having its worst feature in 
the demoralization of prices, sensibly and injuriously felt by 
all engaged in the production of these articles by free labor." 




THERE ARE, IN THE UNITED STATES, ABOVE A MILLION MILES OF NARROW STRIPS 
OF LAND CALLED, BY COURTESY, "ROADS." SCExNE ON CLIFTON AVENUE, DES 
MOINES, IOWA, JUNE 14, 1892. 

The sight of an army of 600,000 men armed with inoffensive 
picks and shovels, mattocks and stone hammers advancing on 
ten thousand lines of approach to conquer the road wilderness 
in the interests of the general welfare, might well cheer the 
most discouraged road reformer in the land, and has, in vision, 
already appeared to many as a greater bonanza to the country 
than the gold mines of California. But is the vision a photo- 
graph or a dream? How far is it possible, feasible, right to use 
convict labor in the removal of this tremendous obstacle to 
national welfare? The highest expectations concerning the 
availability of the whole body of public prisoners is certainly 
very far from realization. 



CONVICT LABOR ON PUBLIC IWAD.^. \i% 

Of the 600,000 men under prison restraint, a surprisingly 
small number are as vigorous in body as the average out-door 
workman. No small part of them are debauched by vice and 
the vast majority are enfeebled by drink. They are actually 
unable to endure severe toil. Consumption and fevers find 
them an easy prey. Hopelessness, stubbornness, lack of 
interest in doing good work for its own sake react in their cases 
upon physical stamina and constitutes them as demoralized a 
force as any army in winter quarters on short rations. In a 
few reformatory institutions, whose inmates are nearly all young 
men, the percentage of the physically inefficient is small, but in 
the state prisons it is not infrequently as high as fifty per cent. 
We must consistently number with these weak men a very con- 
siderable number of men so desperate and ugly that their very 
physical strength is weakness. It is within bounds to assert 
that 200,000 of the 600,000 prisoners are not to be considered 
as fit, from the physical point of view, to do on the public high- 
ways the manual labor required. 

The problem of what to do with criminals even in later 
stages of criminality has reached among high-minded men an 
importance so great as to make it take precedence of the ques- 
tions how to reduce the expense of taking care of them while 
in public custody. The reduction of the number of criminals, 
the dissuading them from commending a criminal manner of 
life after they have once been discharged, the opening of 
avenues to self-support to those who may have learned the 
folly of a mischievous life, are objects of such immense im- 
portance to the whole nation as to make them secondary not 
even to the possible opportunity of securing by prison labor 
the construction of vast reaches of highway. ' ' Once a crim- 
inal always a criminal, even if not always in jail," was the old 
decree of society and the well-nigh universal expectation of 
society to-day. But a new policy is bearing better fruit, more 
properly suited to this progressive age, a policy of reformation, 
of re-enforcement for weak wills, of occupation for previously 
idle hands, of ambition for aimless minds, of manlmess for the 
aforetime brutal. 

And this policy, though it has been addressed to the most 
unpromising material and has failed in thousands of instances 
to produce permanent results, has brought hundreds of men to 
sobriety, honesty and thrift, turned them back into society to 
bear its burdens, not to become burdens. It has done this by 
providing them with skill in handicraft and by inspiring them 
with confidence produced from an acceptance in the public 
market of the goods which they have made in prison. 

To abruptly terminate these methods of curing criminality 
and reduce the whole body of criminals to highway laborers 
and of necessity in most cases to an inferior order of mere 








4% 







CONVICT LABOR ON PUBLIC ROADS. 



125 



grubbers and shovelers, would be to do more harm to the 
community than to the criminals and would largely associate 
the honorable occupation of road making with the convict idea. 
From fifty thousand to one hundred thousand of the prisoners 
are, or might be, in some sort of reformatory institution with 
a reasonable expectation that a great many could eventually 
take their place in society without being cursed with a bad 
name. Which ones of this great number would prove worthy 
could only be ascertained by experiment. To arbitrarily 
relegate all of them to road making would be, if road making- 
were universally a criminal occupation, to indelibly stamp on 
them the nam.e criminal. If the country does not wish to 
recede from the reformatory plan with at least the younger 
criminals, the assumed army of six hundred thousand road- 
building convicts will be shorn of probably another one hmi- 
dred thousand. 

Those who have expected the convict multitude to be 
utilized in highway construction, unquestionably looked toward 
trunk lines, long stretches of thoroughfare reaching from one 
county seat to another, or from the capital to each county 
seat. Any extensive improvement of our road system must 
certainly include such far-reaching highways. The transporta- 
tion question, therefore, at once assumes decided prominence if 
convict labor is to be employed in this work. So long as the 
work to be done is not situated more than an hour's walk or 
ride from the prison, it is not only practicable, but in many 
cases proper and even profitable to employ prison hands in 
road building. 

The report of the Providence (R. I.) County Jail, for 1891, 
says: "Thirty of the short-term men were hired by the town 
of Cranston to work under an officer of the institution upon the 
highway at no great distance from the jail, and the sum of 
$470.43 was earned by them in this way, the town also paying 
for the services of the officer $158.40." This is not anew or an 
isolated instance. The custom is quite general wherever the 
location of the prisons favor it, and very much good work in 
the immediate neighborhood has been done with profit to the 
health of the prisoners and to the treasuries of the in- 
stitutions. 

But a majority of all prisoners are confined in or near large 
cities where road building is already in the hands of a per- 
manent free force, so that the only recourse for the prisoners 
engaged in road building would be daily journeys to and from 
a point so remote as to seriously impair the profit of the under- 
taking. In the South and Southwest this difficulty is met by 
the chain-gang plan. Of this it may be sufficient to say that it 
is not a nineteenth century idea, and cannot survive any more 
than the lingering remnant of chattel slavery. To discuss this 



CONVICT LABOR ON PUBLIC ROADS. 127 

plan with the intimation that it ought to be looked upon as even 
feasible, is to take a mediaeval position and to forget that we 
are in an age steadily moving away from barbarism. To build 
good roads and at the same time in the process of building to 
return to the barbarism which is fitly wedded to execrable 
roads, is absurd. What this chaining of prisoners means may 
be imagined from the explanation of one of the most humane 
gentleman, the chief engineer of a very important Southern 
railroad, concerning 125 convicts hired from the public. He 
says: "In order to secure the convicts we have a shackle 
riveted around one ankle of each convict. This remains all the 
time. We then have a three-sixteenth inch chain, five feet 
long, to loop into each shackle, and this chain is fastened to a 
one- quarter inch chain which is at the foot of the bunks. This 
enables us to release them all by loosening one chain in case of 
fire." This is the upper world, the heaven of chain-gang 
laborers, for this gang is well fed, attended by a physician, 
housed in quite comfortable bunks, and there is reason to 
believe, not excessively worked. 

But there is a nether world, a hell for chain-gang laborers, 
a glimpse of which has recently been given in the daily press. 
On December 12, no convicts were set to work at Helena, 
Ark., on a railway. "They worked for a week ankle-deep 
in the mud. Impure water, improper food, miserable sanita- 
tion and bad weather " produced such sickness that on the 
eighth day four of them were dead and twelve fatally sick. 

If convicts are to be worked in large gangs far away from 
"secure prison buildings, the chaining is a necessity unless so 
much is to be paid for extra guards that the profit of the under- 
taking vanishes. There seems to be no other alternative. 
Either chain many together and save the expense of guards, or 
house them securely at night in prison. In the one case there 
is barbarism. In the other an expense not to be thought of. 

There is a sentimental difficulty in the way of extensive 
employment of convict labor on the highways, even if a large 
number could be made available. The sight of criminals used 
to be thought wholesome. The reverse was the case. It 
deterred few from crime. It allured more. The prevailing 
view is that moral deformities no less than physical deform- 
ities should be banished from the public gaze. But if the 
chain and the prison garb were abolished, stern surveillance, 
observable even by a child, would have to be maintained. 
There is enough of force to merit sober consideration in the 
affirmation that human sympathies are invariably scanty, and 
indifference to human life invariably pronounced in those por- 
tions of the old world where criminality is obtruded by law 
on the public gaze. The claim is not wildly made that the 
banishment of criminals from sight has materially tended to 



128 CONVICT LABOR ON PUBLIC ROADS. 




" THE BUSI>fES3 OF* SCRAPING MUD FROM THE ROAD SIDES AND THROWING IT INTO THE 
CENTRE IS AS FAR FROM REAL ROAD BUILDING As DIGGING bWD HOUSES ON THE 
BEACH IS FROM MAKING SUBSTANTIAL DWELLINGS." SCENE ON COUNTRY VILLAGE 
STREET DURING WET SEASON, SHOWING DEEP MUD IN UNDRAINED DIRT ROADWAY. 
(FROM PHOTOGRAPH.) 

decrease the number of criminals. Even criminals enduring 
hardships have an indefinable power of winning- allies. 

The advocates of the wholesome use of convicts in making 
and repairing highways must reckon with the admitted neces- 
sity for prison discipline. This is a primary matter. The 
states will not tolerate insurrections or insubordinations. The 
wardens have to endure now a severer criticism than almost 
any body of civil servants. They ought not to be subjected to 
more. Seventy-five per cent, of such officials as have been 
consulted have written over their own signatures that they 
believe the employment of the men under their charge in road 
making would not help them as disciplinarians, in spite of the 
improved health of the men, while working in the open air. 
Many of them believe that it would powerfully stimulate dis- 
content, lead to constant attempts to escape, stir up their 
friends to render them assistance to this end, produce endless 
grumbling on account of heat or cold or rain or mud, and ren- 
der them far harder to manage through all the year, as well as 
that part in which they labor out of doors. While these fears 
may be exaggerated, they are certainly not the fears of men 
afraid of carrying responsibilities or of men indifferent to the 
public welfare. 

One man writes that it is practically inconceivable to one 
who has not observed it, how tremendous is the indisposition to 



CONVICT LABOR ON PUBLIC ROADS. 129 

labor on the part of those prisoners whom it is most urgently 
proposed to put to work on the highways, or how they make it 
their constant and painstaking thought to resist the law of the 
institution. They are the bad boys of the school multiplied by 
ten. If road making were a sort of thanksgiving holiday to 
the prisoners their discipline would improve on the highway. 
But this requires that they be lovers of labor. Of such a trait 
in them no warden has yet to boast. 

A yet more dithcult question to deal with in settling the 
problem of a wholesale use of prisoners on the highways is 
"what effect would this course produce in stirring up the jeal- 
ousy, or possibly the justifiable opposition of the free laborer?" 
If the million miles of public highways stretching from the capi- 
tals to the county seats and between the large towns are to be 
substantially built before 1920, there will be required the labor 
of at least a million men working eight months in the year. 
The number of years' labor of eight months' duration available 
from public prisons could not, by the wildest advocate, be 
placed at more than 50,000, an entirely inadequate resource for 
our imperative needs but abundantly large to disturb the labor 
market, to depress wages, to give agitators apparent justifica- 
tion for their demagoguery. Road building is coming to be 
properly regarded as honorable an employment as the construc- 
tion of public defences and worthy of being named with service 
in the army or the fire department. How would men in these 
branches of the public service enjoy being associated with men 
under civil censure ? Would they not have justification for 
strong protest ? 

The business of scraping mud from the road sides and throw- 
ing it into the centre is as far from real road building as dig- 
ging sand-houses on the beach is from making substantial 
dwellings. Moreover, road building is becoming increasingly 
an enterprise for the more intelligent and worthy laborers. It 
is a science. It cannot be kept at the bottom of occupations, 
and is therefore more and more properly coveted by honest, 
free laborers as a freeman's prize. " 

Setting aside, as certain to be publicly disavowed, the cruel 
plan of working men on the roads chained in large gangs, we 
have to consider the question, would convict labor be profit- 
able ? It evidently does pay under the chain-gang plan — in 
dollars. Convicts are leased to the railroad corporations and to 
contractors or are employed by the county in nearly all of the 
Southern and Southwestern states. But even if the inhumane 
plan be rejected, the number of guards for the prisoners on the 
road, the notoriously diminished value of enforced over free 
labor, the growing demand for trained managers of the many 
machines used in road construction and the consequent elimina- 
tion of the mere drudge, together with the cost of daily trans- 



I30 CONVICT LABOR ON PUBLIC ROADS. 

portation, or the alternative of very expensive barracks, com- 
bine to make a bill of expense so great that we may well find it 
easy to believe the statement that by actual experiment free 
laborers can build 50 rods where prisoners build 30 at the same 
cost to the public. 

Again, the labor cost of machine broken stone is a mere 
trifle as compared with hand broken stone. To draw the stones 
to be broken to the prisons and to draw them out when broken 
is not seriously to be thought of. To march the prisoners from 
spot to spot along the highway and compel them to break to 
the requisite size the large stones, would cost more than to 
have the stones broken at some central point by machinery and 
transported to the localities when needed. 

Is it therefore utterly impracticable to employ piisoners in 
highway construction? On the contrary, round about a multi- 
tude of prisons within a radius of ten miles, the same favorable 
results for the public and the prisoners themselves may be ob- 
tained, as has already been instanced respecting the Providence 
(R. I.) County Jail at Cranston. These prisoners are most 
humanely treated, they do good work and a great deal of it ; 
the number of guards does not need to be more than one to ten 
prisoners. They do not wear the striped garb nor give the ap- 
pearance to the casual passer-by of being any other than indus- 
trious men engaged in most laudable work. What all these 
together may thus accomplish is, however, only a small fraction 
of the tremendous task of road building which is making its 
demands on the American people. 

Still another opportunity for a small but feasible use of con- 
vict labor on the highways is that of cutting down hills and 
filling up valleys in hill country roads. Unfortunately for us 
our ancestors did not seem to know that it was ordinarily no 
farther around a hill than over it. We have been all our lives 
hauling loads to the tops of hills and letting them down care- 
fully on the other side. These ill-graded roads cannot be 
abandoned, but they may be vastly improved by regrading. 
A gang of ten men provided with picks and shovels and wheel- 
barrows, could be worked to advantage under two guards cut- 
ting off the crowns of hills and wheeling the material down into 
the nearest depression. They could thus work apart from the 
free laborers hired for the road building proper; being in a 
small gang they would not interfere with each other, might be 
readily transported as much as fifteen miles from the prison 
and in the long Summer days even farther, and could be watched 
at a small expense, provided with tools at a trifling cost and yet 
do a work in grading of even more importance in hilly countries 
than the macadamizers. 

But a third opportunity for the employment of convicts 
offers an immense field, sufiflcient to put to work every crimina,! 



CONVICT LABOR ON PUBLIC ROADS. 131 

who might consistently witli other proper aims and interests be 
employed serving the public which now supports him in idle- 
ness. This is the employment of brick making already sug- 
gested from several quarters of the country. The macadam is 
not the ultimate road. Vast as is its superiority over the com- 
mon dirt road, it is far inferior to roads from which clouds of 
dust do not rise in Summer or on which mud does not gather in 
rainy weather. The brick road has passed the experimental 
stage. Its use is rapidly extending. It presents a surface free 
from mud and dust, it offers to the horse's hoof a surface more 
resilient than macadam, it admits of easy repair, it is capable 
of being rapidly built, it is delightfully easy to ride upon, it is 
an ideal highway. 

The difficulty originally encountered of securing an even 
quality of hardness in the bricks is not insurmountable. Clay 
beds are to be found well-nigh everywhere in the land. Tem- 
porary prisons near the clay beds might profitably be estab- 
lished and all the prisoners available for a few days' labor could 
be utilized in the old-fashioned method of brick making. Per- 
manent prisons in the other instances might be built and within 
the prison enclosure be included clay pits from which by the 
new method the brick making process could be continued all 
the year. The bricks as the property of the state or county could 
be delivered free to the road builders and so far reduce the 
public expense in road building. There could never be too 
many of them. By uniformly refraining from selling them 
in the public market, the labor of the convicts would not affect 
prices of goods or labor. The convicts would earn their living 
if it did not appear in the form of cash. 

The great difficulties now clusterin_o- about the employment 
of convicts would disappear in the case of such laborers. They 
would not be at work in public. They would not be largely 
associated with free laborers. They would not be disturbing 
the market by the goods produced. They would not unpleas- 
antly characterize road building as a convict employment. 
They would most effectively serve every honest laborer and all 
the material and moral interests of the region through which 
run the roads of which their bricks were the most important 
part. 

By all means let us have convicts perform labor profitably 
to the public — by no means let us, through such labor without 
imperative reasons, interfere with honest, free labor, and now 
that both of these desirable ends are obtainable through a 
profitable and feasible plan whereby the public gains, honest 
labor gains, the convicts themselves gain and nobody loses, let 
us thank the Michigan gentleman who made the motion that 
convicts should make bricks from which the best of roads are 
built, and unanimously second the movement. 



STATEN ISLAND HIGHWAYS. 

( Concluded. ) 
II. 

THREE classes of pavements were laid, viz. : of telford six 
and one-third miles, of macadam sixteen and two-third 
miles, of repairs to old macadam roadbeds seven miles. 

The method of putting such roadwork together may be 
briefly told. For the telford pavement the roadbed was first 
carefully graded and then rolled with a ten-ton steam roller 
until the earth- was perfectly hard and firm; on this the tel- 
ford stone was laid eight inches in depth, after which the pro- 
truding points were broken off and wedged between the larger 
stone until the whole became a rigid mass; the foundation so 
made was then thoroughly rolled until no further settlement 
occurred; then the first course of one and a half inch broken 
stone was spread and rolled, and after that another course of 
the same, the surface depressions being removed by fresh 
applications of stone until an even surface was secured. Finally 
the binding material was sparingly applied in thin layers, was 
washed in with a sprinkler and rolled to a finish. 

The macadam is constructed in the same manner, except 
that a four-inch foundation of two and a half-inch stone formed 
the foundation in place of the heavy telford bottom. 

Macadam repairs were troublesome on account of the 
uncertainties of the old roadbeds; a thorough examination was 
first made of the existing roadbeds at fifty feet intervals along 
the road, the depth of stone ascertained and the grade of the 
new work adjusted to secure the minimum thickness of eight 
inches. In construction the old roadbeds were first broken up 
by the steam roller equipped with picks, the loose road metal 
was then graded and in some cases removed, and other mate- 
rial substituted ; this constituted the bottom course, over which 
the second course and finish were made, as in the case of new 
macadam pavements. 

The broken stone used for road metal was universally trap 
rock from Staten Island, Hudson River and New Jersey 
quarries ; the telford bottoming was mostly trap, and in a few 
cases granite , or gneiss; the binding materials were mostly 
trap rock screenings and Roa Hook gravel; on one road a 
native gravel was used with excellent results, and in some cases 
light admixture of clay was allowed to assist in binding. 

The crowns of the roads were about one-fortieth of their 
width; in some cases more. The grades are adjusted to afford 



^'^'■ '^^'"'"^'^"y m^^^^^m^mmw^^^^ 




ffza^^as^^'^y^ 



2^' —A S'-^... 



Cross Section of 30ft, 12 /'n. Te/forc/ dtreet. 



v//^W^/>,^/fMl>/fii/i-} 




'ae^^sj^^^E*'' 



\ 3'^- 24' - - ^S'-i 

Cross Section of 30 ft., 6/a7. A^ocac/on? Street. 




Cross Section of /B/f Tetfof-d fPoac/ /n Cut. 




'-ZS"^ —7' * — — /<*■' — *.— 7' ^2'6^ 



Cross Sec f /on of /6ff. A/tacoafom f?ooc/ /'n f/tt. 



134 



STA TEN ISLAND HIGHWA YS 




STATEN ISLAND HIGHWAYS. VIEW OF COMPLETED ROADWAY AT NEW BKIGHTON. 

good drainage. The least fall is one foot in two hundred; 
heavy grades were reduced, the maximum being ten feet per 
hundred. As a rule the width of the country roads was sixteen 
feet ; in a few instances it was reduced to fourteen to cut down 
cost. Through the villages a greater width was required, gen- 
erally about thirty feet. Telford work was uniformly twelve 
inches thick laid in two courses of eight and four inches 
respectively from the bottom up; macadam pavements were 
eight inches thick, which was reduced to six inches in but one 
instance. Repairs of old macadam roads ranged from two to 
ten inches, according to the thickness of the existing roadbed 
and variations in the grade. The average thickness of the 
repairs was about four inches. 

The work was advertised twice. Under the first advertise- 
ment two small contracts were awarded covering about four 
and a half miles, the rest being too high for acceptance. Con- 



STA TEN ISLAND HIGHWA YS. 



135 




STATEN ISLAND HIGHWAYS, 



VIEW OF "RICHMOND TERRACE' 
OF NEW ROADWAY. 



AFTER COMPLETION 



tracts for the remaining twenty-five and a half miles were 
awarded in second advertisement at much lower prices to four 
different parties, one taking seventeen and a half miles, one 
five and a half, and two others one and a quarter miles each. 

The force employed to carry on this great work has included 
as many as 600 men. Seven steam rollers were used, one of 
twenty tons weight, one of fifteen, and the rest of ten. The 
stone was brought from five quarries — two on the Island, two 
on the Hudson, and one in New Jersey. The amount of mate- 
rial used in the present work will aggregate a surface measure- 
ment of 322,000 square yards, varying in depth from eight to 
twelve inches. Of this amount 65,700 square yards is for tel- 
ford paving, 155,700 for macadam, and 100,600 for the repaired 
sections. 

The selection of the highways for improvement was happily 
made. 



136 STATEN ISLAND HIGHWAYS. 

Staten Island offers topographical facilities for fine roads 
unsurpassed in the state. The northern rim of the Island is 
level terrace, overlooking the kills and the bay. There are 
level stretches across the southern rim, fourteen miles to 
Tottenville, and across the western meadows. From the 
heights overhanging the villages along the narrows the roads 
command sweeping views of the ocean and the cities across the 
bay. Here they are already lined with handsome residences, 
and a little across the south and west traverse a wooded district 
as pretty as a park. Short crossroads connect the main high- 
ways at frequent intervals, and the whole system is admirably 
adapted to the purposes of improvement. When Engineer 
Bacot's work is finished, each road in the system will be as 
smooth as a city drive, strongly built and thoroughly drained. 

The finest highway in the Staten Island system is the 
"Shore Road" following the rim of the island, from Fort 
Wadsworth to Port Richmond, about six miles. Leaving the 
fort, this road passes first the villages of Clifton, Stapleton and 
Tompkinsville. St. George is next in order with the ferry to 
New York, its great amusement pavilions and colony of hotels 
and handsome homes on the heights above. The pretty 
Richmond Terrace carries the road on past Snug Harbor to 
Port Richmond, around the kills. The " Shore Road " is now 
a hard, smooth driveway averaging thirty feet in width. 

The methods of construction are well sustained in this piece 
of work. 

The improved "Shore Road " leads to the boundary line of 
Port Richmond and merges with that town's macadamized 
local streets. Shaded the greater part of its distance and 
terraced along the kills, it now forms one of the finest roads for 
its class in the country. 

The highway second in importance to this leads from 
Clifton to Tottenville, a distance of fourteen miles, across the 
opposite side of the island. It is commonly known as the 
Richmond and Amboy Road. This is a link of one of the old 
post roads across Jersey to New York. 

From Clifton to the Clove it follows Vanderbilt Avenue and 
Richmond Road. Half a mile of this is repaired and a mile 
and a half new telford, sixteen and eighteen feet wide. From 
the Clove to New Dorp one mile is macadam and two miles 
telford. A mile and a half spur from New Dorp connects the 
road with Richmond, the county seat. From the Old Black 
Horse Tavern in New Dorp, the favorite resort of Lord Howe's 
officers, the main road leads away nine miles to Tottenville, a 
sixteen foot width of macadam almost all the way. 

The Richmond Turnpike, another highway across the heights, 
leaves the Shore Road at Tompkinsville and climbs Grymes 
Hill to the beautiful section about Silver Lake. This forms 



STAT EN ISLAND HIGHWAYS. 



137 



one and a quarter miles of repaired and macadam road. The 
Manor Road from Richmond Terrace up, including Columbia 
Street, is built of one and a half miles of macadam, a quarter 
mile of telford, and a little less than a mile of repairs. 







CULVERT PLANS, STATEN ISLAND HIGHWAYS. 

The Old Stone and Morning- Star Roads are important sec- 
tions of the new system. They cover four miles in two sections ; 
one of sixteen foot telford connecting Elm Park and Port 
Richmond as the opposite extremities of a horseshoe, the other 
two and three-quarter miles of macadam, the same width, 
crossing the flat country to New Springville. 

These complete the list of main roads now tmder construc- 
tion. Each includes sections formed of the local streets and roads 
of the townships they pass through, but they are known better 
by the popular names under which they are referred to. 

The second section of the work on the system will cover 
thirty-seven miles of roads. Included will be the continuation 



138 



STA TEN ISLAND HIGH WA YS. 



of the Richmond Turnpike to Bull's Head Tavern, the Old 
Stone Road from New Springville across the meadows ,to the 
proposed Freshkills Bridge, the road from Richmond through 
Rossville to Tottenville, the Ocean Terrace and several high- 
ways of lesser note. 

The turnpike, continued, 
will form a splendid drive- 
way from the shore villages 
to the aristocratic environ- 
ments of the country club. 
It will connect with the 
Clove Road, the most im- 
portant of the cross sections. 
The Clove Road is to be 
widened from twenty-five 
to sixty feet for a distance 
of a half mile and finished 
in model fashion. The 
Manor Road will be ex- 
tended from its present 
terminus at Castleton 
Corners to New Dorp. The 
Ocean Terrace, winding 
about the crest of the hill 
and commanding a view of 
the sea, will be four miles 
of smooth macadam. Over 
on the western side the road 
from New Springville to 
Freshkills will be built for 
half a mile on an embank- 
ment across the meadows. 
A new iron draw-bridge 
will continue the drive 
across the Freshkills to the 
point where it connects 
with the highway from 
Richmond to Tottenville, 
which will be nine miles in 
length and all macadamized. 
The old road from Port 
Richmond to the west shore, opposite Elizabethport, is also 
included in the second section. The entire work on both 
sections will probably be completed within a few years. In the 
meantime the authorities of the Island's towns will co-operate 
with the supervisors and improve their smaller thoroughfares. 
It may be said that hardly a foot of public highway will be 
overlooked in their general effort to perfect the Island's 
common road system. 




ST A TEN ISLAND HIGHWAYS. 



139 



Few matters of public import heretofore discussed have 
excited such general interest. The more prominent residents 
of the Island have been identified with the movement since its 
inception. Mr. Erastus Wiman of Rapid Transit fame, on 
whose enterprise Staten Island depends for the electric com- 
munication it is to have, is naturally warmly interested in the 
work. 

The members of the board of supervisors in charge of the 
work include Judge Nathaniel Marsh, the chairman, who has 
been the backbone of the undertaking from the start; also 
Supervisors Moore and Cole, his associates in the County Roads 
Committee, and Messrs. Credo and Van Name. Engineer 
Bacot is established in headquarters at the Old Village Hall, 
Stapleton. 




CULVERT PLANS, STATEN ISLAND HIGHWAYS. 

The late George William Curtis took a lively and friendly 
interest in the movement, and might frequently be observed 
standing on the roadside, while taking his daily outing, watch- 
ing attentively the various operations in the course of the road 
work. On one occasion he was heard to remark that the prac- 
ticability of constructing a road with a steam roller, finished 
and ready for use without wasting months in the old way for 
the traffic to pack it down, and wasting and ruining the road 
metal in doing so was a revelation to him, and that he would 
not have believed it possible if he had not beheld it with his 
own eyes. How little are the wonderful powers of the steam 



14° 



STA TEN ISLAND HIGHWA YS. 



roller understood by the public and even by the profession, when 
only superior intelligences awaken to the new light. 

The crowning event in the history of the Richmond County 
road movement is recorded in the institution of the system of 
maintenance of the completed county roads. 

This wise provision of the law gives the assurance that the 
present excellent condition of the public highways will not 
have its day and ^o, but will be perpetuated so long as the law 
is respected and the people's will is not thwarted by political 
interference. 

The Department of Maintenance was established in Feb- 
ruary, 1892. Contract was made with a local party for one 





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PARTIAL PLAN SHOWING DIMENSIONS OF CULVERT. 

year after the work had been duly advertised. By the terms 
of his agreement he was to keep the roads in repair and in a 
cleanly condition at all times, to sprinkle some fourteen miles 
of the same during the Summer and to do any special work 
that the engineer might require. 

The cost of repairs for the pa,st year foots up about $6,000; 
the street cleaning by section hands and gangs $2,100; the 
street sprinkling $2,700, and special work, including various 
odd jobs, $6,400. 

Repairs were always made with the aid of a steam roller, 
and were only needed on parts of roads first built. Lack of 
space forbids further details at this time. Street cleaning 



STATEN ISLAND HIGHWAYS. 



141 




142 STA TEN ISLAND HIGHWA YS. 

continuously carried on by section hands was found much more 
satisfactory and much cheaper than occasional or periodical 
gang work. 

The whole system is now under good headway and while much 
has been accomplished, still greater things are expected of it 
during the commg year. Meanwhile Richmond County enjoys 
her new highways and goes on quietly building more roads. 

Mr. Bacot's work and ideas have been widely noticed and 
studied and his close identity with the new principles of road 
building has lately led to his retention in charge of the model 
construction at Lenox. 

The Staten Island system, as an instance of cheap, serviceable 
and finely appearing road building, will receive attention not 
only throughout New York, but from road builders in every 
state. 

At a recent meeting of the New York Chamber of Com- 
merce the Richmond County roads were made the subject of 
favorable comment, and a committee was appointed to look up 
the present law and make recommendations to the New York 
Legislature during the present session with a view of making 
the Richmond County act applicable to every county in the 
state. Mr. Bacot has been asked to appear before the com- 
mittee to explain the workings of the law and to point out its 
strong and weak points with a view of preparing a bill for the 
legislature as nearly perfect as may be. 



$iOO i^gold) in prizes for photographs of American roads. See 
full page announcement in front advertising pages of this number. 
Noiv is the season to compete. Full pat-ticulars and competitors' blanks 
supplied on application to the editor of Good Roads. 



Read the page in this number entitled ' 'A few important lines to 
you from the Editor. 



"If you will send me printed matter that will help your 
circulation I will put it where it will do the most good. We 
wish that a copy of Good Roads had place in every farm house 
and that your ' Gospel' was as well known." O. L. F. Browne., 
Secretary., Commercial Exchange., Des Moines, Iowa. 



" Good Roads is a very interesting magazine to me, as its 
policy for improved roads is in harmony with all humanitarians 
for our beasts of burden that travel thereon. Being a member 
of Good Will Grange of Glastonbury it gives me something 
interesting to say to the members. " — Robert Moseley, Glastonbury, 
Conn, 



METROPOLITAN ROAD-MAKING. 

HOW THE NEW YORK BOULEVARD FROM FIFTY-NINTH TO ONE 

HUNDRED AND FIFTY- FIFTH STREET WAS ORIGINALLY PAVED A 

SUBSTANTIAL, BUT RATHER EXTRAVAGANT METHOD OF TEL- 
FORD CONSTRUCTION. 

FROM the first annual report of the New York Park Com- 
missioners, published in 1871, we take the following 
interesting description of the original method followed 
in paving the principal suburban roadwa}'" of that city. It will 
impress the reader as a substantial and thorough process of 
road-building, but withal, it suggests an undue and perhaps 





t 'Ji 



i„^ 



^n.,.^ 



AN OLD TIME PICTURE. ROLLING MACADAM ROADWAY IN NORTHERN SUBURBS OF NEW 
YORK CITY A QUARTER OF A CENTURY AGO. 

unnecessary thickness of the separate layers and a consequent 
waste of material. 

"The curb is set, the first layer of broken stone rolled, and 
the top layer of trap-rock placed upon one roadway from 
Eighty-eighth Street to One hundred and third Street ; with 
the present means and supply of materials, and with the aid of 
another steam roller which has been ordered, there will be no 
difficulty in not only completing one roadway through to One 
hundred and fifty-fifth Street, but also advancing the second 
far towards completion during the present season. 

"The plan adopted for the improvement of the avenue 
consists of a sidewalk on each side, of twenty-four feet in width. 



144 



METROPOLITAN ROAD-MAKING. 



two carriage-ways of forty feet in width with a strip twenty- 
two feet in width at the centre , and to have four lines of curb, 
with a row of trees along each curb, together with a sewer, 
Croton water, and gas pipes placed under each sidewalk. 

"The superstructure is being constructed upon what is 
known as the Telford plan. 

"A description of the work may be useful as a matter of 
record. 

"It is briefly as follows: The road-bed is trimmed to the 
lequired form, which is a descent of eight inches from the curb 
along the centre strip to the outer curb, and the ground is made 
firm by the use of a six and a half ton roller. 

"Upon the prepared road-bed, a pavement of quarry stones 
is set by hand, the stones being from eight to ten mches in 
depth, three to six inches in width, and not exceeding fourteen 
inches in length, and of as nearly an uniform size as possible, 
with parallel sides. 

" The stones are laid lengthwise across the road, with the 
broadest edges down. After being closely set together, they 




PARTIAL CROSS SECTION SHOWING MATERIALS AND DIMENSIONS. 

are firmly wedged by inserting and driving down with a bar 
used for that purpose, in all possible places, stones of the same 
depth, until every stone is bound and clamped in the proper 
position. 

"The projections of the stones on the top of the pavement 
are then broken off with a light hammer, and the spalls worked 
into the interstices not already filled by the process of wedging, 
by which the pavement is reduced to an even surface of eight 
inches. 

' ' Broken stones of gneiss, of a size to pass through a ring 
two inches in diameter, are then spread evenly over the pave- 
ment to such a depth as will make six inches when rolled. This 
layer is then rolled, first with a six and a half ton horse roller, 
so that the steam roller can pass over without difficulty, and, 
when thoroughly compact, is in readiness for the top layer. 



METROPOLITAN ROAD-MAKING. 



145 



"The top layer is of broken stone of trap-rock, of a size to 
pass through a ring one and a half inches in diameter, spread 
evenly over to such a depth as will bring the surface to the 
proper grade. After being made thoroughly compact, screened 
gravel, to the depth of about one and a half inches, is spread 
on top, and thoroughly rolled. 

"Both the stone and gravel are kept well moistened, by 
means of sprinkling carts, while the rolling is going on, and 
the gravel, working down into the interstices under the roller, 
consolidates the whole material. 

' ' When completed, the entire depth of pavement, stone, 
and gravel is eighteen inches. 

" It has been found impracticable to consolidate the stone, 
when placed on the road, by the heaviest rolling with a sixteen 



S^-^^ 







PARTIAL SECTIONS OF ROADWAY AND 
SIDEWALK. 




When the 



ton steain roller, without some I 

binding material. Hard gravel ' * 

has been used for this purpose 
as being preferable to loam or other material, 
avenue is first thrown open to travel the roadway is kept moist 
by sprinkling, and a man is employed to pick off any stones 
that may be loosened by the feet of horses, and a two-horse 
roller is kept passing over it until it becomes thoroughly com- 
pact and smooth." 

The same report also contains the following description of 
work on St. Nicholas Avenue. 

" The superstructure of the roadway is a rubble-stone foun- 
dation twelve inches in thickness, and surfaced with six inches 
of gravel, and with a twenty inch curb of five inches edge, and 
a fourteen inch blue-stone gutter. 

" The manner of construction is briefly as follows: "The 
road-bed is truly shaped and trimmed with a crown of eight inches 



146 



METROPOLfTAN ROAD-MAKING. 




at the centre, and made firm by the use of 
a roller. Upon this prepared road-bed 
rubble stones, such as are obtained from 
ordinary rock excavation, are deposited 
from carts. The «. 

stones that are too 
large are broken 
up, and the sur- 
face evenly ad- 
justed by a little 
labor of the hand. 
' ' The largest 
stones used are to 
be not over nine 
inches in dimen- 
sions measured the 

largest way, and are generally less than that 
in size, and so far as practicable are uniform 
in size. The curb is set while the work of 
placing the stone is progressing. The layer 
having been properly formed, it is surfaced by 
spreading over it fine rubble or quarry chips, 
or, if these are not available, it is broken over 
by hammers to fill the interstices and smooth 
the surface, and a light roller passed over to 
compact it. 

"A light layer of gravelly earth or hard pan 
is then spread over and moistened by means of 
sprinkling carts, and rolled down firmly with a 
light roller, so as to effectually close all 
apertures and interstices against the admission 
of the gravel to be placed on top. 

"The gravel is applied in two layers, and 
all the large stones 
raked out and re- 
moved and while 
being rolled it is 
kept well moisten- 
ed, care being 
taken not to have 
it too wet. 

"The first layer 
is well compacted 
before applying 
the top layer. 

"Before the 
roller is put on the last or top layer, a 
light coat of gravelly loam or hard pan, 
about one-fifth of the bulk of the gravel, 




w • 



METROPOLITAN JWAD-M AKING. 147 

is spread and thoroughly intermixed with the gravel by the use 
of rakes, so as to make it bind properly, care being taken that 
too much loam is not applied, and that it is well incorporated 
with the gravel. 

" The road is then thoroughly rolled, and until the surface 
has become hard and consolidated. 

" JMen skilled in shaping, raking and keeping true the grade 
and crown of the surface are employed during the finishing of 
the surface. 

"When the hrst layer of gravel is being rolled the gutter 
stone should be set. 

" It is believed that gravel roads constructed with either 
rubble or telford stone foundations are better suited for light 
and pleasure travel, and are more agreeable both for carriages 
and horses, less difficult and expensive to maintain, require 
less attention in watering, and raise less dust than roads 
finished with a macadam surface." 

$100 i^gold) in prizes for pJiotograph of Aiiierican roads. See 
full page aiiiioiincevient in front advertising pages of ihis nutnber. 
Noiv is the season to compete. Full particulars and competitors'' blanks 
supplied on application to the editor of Good Roads. 



Read the page in this number entitled ' ' A few important lines to 
from the Editor.'' 



"Your very elegant copy of Good Roads came to hand a 
few days after your letter, thanks to yourself and to Mr. H. W. 
Sutherland. 

I have always wanted time to read. I should certainly like 
to know that every item of your publication is widely read. After 
a little I shall turn over the number to one of the most intelligent 
of our highway commissioners in this township, and also, as soon 
as convenient, give you a list of names of the supervisors of this 
County (LaSalle). The county has 80, 000 people. Will write 
(an editoral) notice of your publication for the Republican and 
Democratic papers published here at the county seat. Between 
my house and the court house (10^ miles) the Spring rains 
destroyed nine bridges. Two just built at large expense and a 
third (wood) belonging to the city. Two private, one wood 
the other stone, just built; four were for foot travel. Two 
others were seriously damaged, "—i'?^'?;. M. K. Whittlesey, 
D. D. , Ottawa, LaSalle Co. , ///. 



"I HAVE collected from the boys of the Illinois Cycling Club of 
this city about a hundred copies and sent them to farmers, 
road commissioners, newspapers, etc. , generally with a personal 
letter requesting them to read and consider. For the good of 
the order, 6^^6'ro-^ W. Patterson, Yorkville, III."' 



WHEEL-TIRE PHILOSOPHY. 



PRACTICAL TESTS BV A GREAT WAGON FIRM UNDER WHAT 

CONDITIONS IS IT BEST TO USE WIDE TIRES THE RELATIVE 

VALUES OF WIDE AND NARROW TIRES DEMONSTRATED BY 
CAREFUL EXPERIMENTS. 

ALL men are not born to be great, but whenever true great- 
ness develops in the personal character of the individual, 
it is apt to carry him beyond the limits of mediocrity in 
whatever direction he may turn, and to make him distinct and 
apart from other men whose lives and vocations tend in the 
same direction. 

All the world over the famous Studebaker Brothers of South 

Bend, Indiana, are known by 
the products of their handi- 
work, and their enterprise has 
not only placed them in the 
van of American wagon mak- 
ers, but has given to their 
country the right to claim the 
largest and most successful 
wagon making industry in the 
world. Their business history 
is a veritable romance. In 
1852 two brothers, Henry and 
Clement Studebaker, having 
learned the blacksmith's trade 
in the service of their father 
at Ashland, Ohio, moved 
westward to South Bend, and 
with a cash capital amounting 
to only $68 opened a black- 
smith shop, and began busi- 
ness. During the first year they worked steadily, shoe- 
ing horses and doing repair work, and "between times" 
made two wagons, in which good material and honest 
workmanship were so well combined that not long ago one of 
these wagons was known to be still in iise. It must not be 
assumed from this fact that the Studebaker wagons are 
warranted to last for forty years ; but the lasting qualities of 
these first products of their small establishment show that 
these brothers have depended upon genuine merit as the best 
groundwork for a reputation, and that their unexampled 
success is due, in no small part, to honest methods. ,^3 




HON. CLEM. STUDEBAKER. 



WHEEL-TIRE PHILOSOPHY. 



149- 




i^ ,11// A,|,/ m^^MMZ, " ~T >■ " n 



.■'i^^-/', 



^ 



THE ORIGINAL STUDEBAKER WAGON SHOP. — 1850. 
In the rude log shop, shown in this illustration, John Studebaker, the father of the 
Studebaker Brothers, carried on the work of country blacksmithing at an early day, 
and brought up his sons to a knowledge of horseshoeing and wagon making. The old 
shop, near Ashland, Ohio, still stands, and is pointed out as the humble place where 
the first lessons in vehicle making were taught to boys who in after life were to enjoy 
the distinction of being tlie leading wagon and carriage makers in the world. 

From year to year, by dint of hard work, the business was 
made to succeed and to grow. Other brothers were admitted, 
Henry, one of the original partners, selling his interest to J. 
M. Studebaker, and at a later day two other brothers, Peter E. 
and Jacob F. Studebaker were admitted to the firm, which 
continued in charge of the four brothers until 1887, when the 
fraternal partnership was broken by the death of the youngest 
brother. 

The first wholesome success came to the firm in 1864, when a 
contract for army wagons gave them a profitable start. Three 
or four years later their factory (a frame building) caught fire 
and was entirely burned to the ground in thirty minutes. 
They rebuilt with brick and added largely to their plant from 
year to year, till 1868 when the "Studebaker Brothers Manu- 
facturing Company" was formed as a stock company, A 
second and more disastrous fire burned the entire possessions 
of the new company ; but the old time vigor was still alive and 
new walls began to rise while the ruins were still smoking. 
The force employed has continued to grow until the 
number of employees is now upwards of fifteen hundred 
and the total product of the establishment not less than fifty 



WHEEL- TIKE PHILOSOPH \ ' 




p. E. STUDEBAKER. 



thousand vehicles each year. 
They go to all parts of the 
earth and range in style from 
the simple two wheeled cart to 
the state landau driven b)' 
the President of the United 
States. 

The Studebaker Company 
has fifteen hundred agents who 
buy direct from the inain com- 
pany to sell again, and in every 
respect they seem to be entitled 
to the premiership among the 
wagon makers of the world. 

However much these state- 
ments may read like an advertise- 
ment, Good Roads is free to 
assure its readers that they 
are made without the knowledge, 
much less suggestion of the gen- 



tlemen to whose business enter- 
prise they refer ; for, in view 
of the real object of this article, 
the foregoing lines will serve 
as a fit prelude to a descrip- 
tion of the results obtained by 
the Studebaker Manufacturing 
Company in a series of tests in- 
stituted by them in the public 
interest less than a year ago. 

" On June ist and 2d, 1892, 
at South Bend, Ind., Mr. J. M. 
Studebaker, Vice-President of 
the Company, assisted by Messrs. 
G. M. Collins, Master Mechanic, 
H. D, Johnson, General Su- 
perintendent and C. M. Haeske, 
Superintendent of Wagon De- 
partment, made a series of tests 
for the purpose of determining J- ^'- studebaker. 

the relative values of broad and narrow wheel tires under dif- 
ferent conditions. In these tests a regular 3)4^ inch thimble 
skein wagon was used, having front wheels of 3 feet 8 inches 

in diameter and hind 
wheels 4 feet 6 inches; 
again with wheels 3 feet 
FAiRBANK's DYNAMOMETER. 6 inchcsaud 3 fcct lo In- 

ches: the different widths of tires used being t>4 inches, 
3 inches and 4 inches." 





WHEEL-riRE PHILOSOPHY. 



151 




WAGON WORKS OF THE STUDEBAKER MANUFACTURING COMPANY, AT SOUTH BEND, IND. 

A Fairbanks' dynamometer was attached to the doubletree 
and the horses exerted their pull through this instrument, to 
move the load. The scale of the instrument was carefully cali- 
brated by testing through the medium of U. S. standard 
weights and scales, and the value of the results is therefore 
considerably enhanced. 

Eight tests were completed of which the following shows 
separate record in detail : 

Test No. i. — Size of wheels, 3 ft. 8 in. and 4 ft. 6 in. ; width 
of tire, 4 in. 

Weight of wagon including load, . _ . . A'hA'b l''^^- 

To start the load on block pavement, . _ . _ 350 

To move it dead pull on block pavement, - - - 100 

To start the load on good hard sandy road, - - - 700 

To move it dead pull on good hard sandy road, - - 275 

To start the load on good level gravel roads, - - - 600 

To move it dead pull on good level gravel roads, - - 175 

To start the load in soft inud, . . . - . goo 

To move it dead pull in soft mud, - - - - 550 

To start the load in deep mud, (12 to 14 inches deep,) - - 1050 

To move it dead pull \x\ deep mud, .... 550 

Test No. 2. — Size of wheels, 3 ft. 8 in. and 4 ft. 6 in. ; width 
of tire, I Yt, in. 

Weight of wagon and load, .... - 4235 lbs. 

To start the load on block pavement, .... ^oo 

To move it dead pull on block pavement, - - - 75 

To start the load on good hard sandy roads, - - - 725 

To mov3 it dead pull on good hard sandy roads, - - 300 

To start the load on good level gravel roads, ■ ■ , - 650 

To move it dead pull on good level gravel roads, - ■ 175 

To start the load on muddy roads, ... goo 

To move it dead pull on muddy roads, . . - - 500 








,4 






5^ 



•*ii 
















WHEEL-TIRE PHILOSOPHY. 153 

Test No. 3. — Size of wheels, 3 ft. 6 in. and 3 ft. 10 in. ; 
width of tire, j ^ in. 

Weight of load including wagon, . . . _ 4050 lbs. 

To start the load on block pavement, . - - _ 500 

To move it dead pull on block pavement, - - - 125 

To start the load on good hard sandy road, . . - yoo 

To move it dead pull on good hard sand road, - - 350 

To move the load on good level gravel roads, (dead pull), - 200 

To start the load on muddy roads, . . . - goo 

To move it dead pull on muddy roads, - - - - 550 

Test No. 4. — Size of wheels, 3 ft. 6 in. and 3 ft. 10 in. ; 
width of tire, 4 in. 

Weight of wagon including weight, - - - - - - 4260 lbs. 

To start the load on block pavement, - . . - . 500 " 

To move it dead pull on block pavement, - - - - - 150 " 

To start the load on good hard sandy roads, - - - _ yoo " 

To move it dead pull on good hard sandy roads, - - - - 350 " 

To start the load on good level gravel roads, - - - - ygo " 

To move it dead pull on good level gravel roads, - - - 250 " 

To start the load on muddy roads, . . . - . 1000 " 

To move it dead pull on muddy beds, . _ . . . 5^0 " 

On muddy dirt roads that were filled with ruts the power 
required to move this load varied from 900 to 1600 lbs. 

Test No. 5. — Size of wheels, 3 ft. 6 in. and 3 ft. 10 in. ; 
width of tire, 4 in. 

Weight of wagon, ...... ggQ ibg. 

Weight of load including wagon, - - - - - 3700 " 

To move it dead pull on block pavement, - - - go " 

" " " " hard dirt roads, . - . 200 " 

" " " " level sandy roads, - - - 300 " 

" " " " muddy roads, . _ . . ^^q " 

On sandy roads where it cut in on an average of 3 inches, 

the average pull was, - - - - - 650 " 

On level sandy roads where the tire cut into the sand on an 

average of 4 inches, to start it required - - - iioo " 

Test No 6. — Size of wheels, 3 ft. 6 in. and 3 ft. 10 in. ; 

width of tire, i y^ in. 

Weight of wagon including load, . . - . - 3500 lbs. 

To move it dead pull on block pavement, - - - go " 

" " " " good hard sandy roads, - - - 350 " 
" " " " sandy roads where the tire cut in 3 in., 650 " 

Test No. 7. 

Wishing to see the difference of the \%, in. and the 3 in. tire in 
driving across fields ; and not being satisfied with the 

load, the weight of the wagon and load was increased to 45go lbs. 
With i^ in. tire, the tire cutting into the sod \% inches, to 

start this load required - - . . . 1250 " 

And to move it dead pull on the level , - - - - 650 " 

While on good hards road it was started at - - - 850 " 

And easily drawn on a dead pull with - - - - 350 " 

Size of wheels were 3 ft. 6 in. and 3 ft. 10 in. 



154 WHEEL-TIRE PHILOSOPHY. 

Test No. 8. — Size of wheels, 3 ft. 6 in. and 3 ft. 10 in. ; 
width of tire, 3 in. 
With the tire cutting into the sod i>^ inches on an average, 

the load was started easily at ..---- 11 00 lbs. 

To move it dead pull, ...-.-- 550 " 

On good hards roads this load was started at - - - - 700 " 

" " "to move it dead pull required - - - 350 " 

The dead pull on the pavement was ----- 125 " 

Comparison of Tests Nos. i and 2. 

Difference in weight: No. i was no lbs. heavier than No. 2. 
On block pavement. No. 2 started i per cent, easier than No. i. 

" " No. 2 pulled 5 per cent, easier than No. i. 

On good hard sandy roads, No. i started i per cent, easier than No. 2. 

" " " " No. I pulled 7 per cent, easier than No. 2. 

On level gravel roads. No. i started 1.5 per cent, easier than No. 2. 

No. I pulled .07 per cent, easier than No. 2. 
On muddy roads, No. i started 2.7 per cent, easier than No. 2. 
No. 2 pulled .8 percent, easier than No. i. 

OR, 

You can start 597 lbs. more on i^-in. tire with the same amount of 
power exerted than you can on 4 in. tire on block pavement. 

You can haul 1301 lbs. more on block pavement with i '.^-in. tire with the 
same amount of power exerted than you can with 4- in. tire. 

You can start 260 lbs. more on good hard sandy roads with 4-in. tire 
with the same amount of power exerted than you can with i>^-in. tn-e. 

You can haul 505 lbs. more on good hard sandy roads with 4-in. tire 
with the same amount of power exerted than you can with i>^-in. tire. 

You can start 471 lbs. more on level gravel roads with 4-in. tire with the 
same amount of power exerted than you can with i>^-in. tire. 

You can haul no lbs. more on level gravel roads with 4-in. tire with the 
same amount of power exerted than }'OU can with i>|-in. tire. 

You can start 652 lbs. more on muddy roads with 4-in. tire with the 
same amount of power exerted than you can with ij^-in. tire. 

You can haul 313 lbs. more on muddy roads with i>^-in. tire with the 
same amount of power exerted than you can with 4-in. tire. 

The only advantage with the narrow tire is the starting and hauling on 
block pavement, and hauling in muddy roads. 

Comparison of Tests Nos. 3 and 4. 

Difference in weight: No. 4 was 210 lbs. heavier than No. 3. 
On block pavement. No. 3 starts 12 per cent, easier than No. 4. 
" " " No. 3 pulled 12 per cent, easier than No. 4. 

On good hard sandy roads, No. 4 started . 5 per cent, easier than No. 3. 
" " " " No. 4 pulled .5 percent, easier than No. 3. 

On good level gravel roads, No. 3 pulled 16 per cent, easier than No. 4. 
On muddy roads. No. 4 started 16 per cent, easier than No. 3. 
No. 3 pulled II per cent, easier than No. 4. 
OR, 
You can start 600 lbs. more on block pavement with i>^-in. tire with the 
same amount of power exerted than you can with 4-in. tire. 

You can haul 600 lbs. more on block pavement with i>^-in. tire with the 
same amount of power exerted than you can with 4-in. tire. 

You can start 210 lbs. more on good hard sandy roads with 4-in. tire 
with the same amount of power exerted than you can with ij^-in. tire. 



WHEEL- TIRE PHILOSOPHY. 155 

You can haul 210 lbs. more on good hard sandy roads with 4-in. tire with 
the same amount of power exerted than you can with i>^-in. tire. 

You can haul S07 lbs. more on good level gravel roads with the same 
amount of power exerted with i)4-iu. tire than you can with 4-in. tire. 

You can start 240 lbs. more with 4-in. tire on muddy roads, with the 
same amount of power exerted than you can with ij^-in. tire. 

You can haul 485 lbs. more on muddy roads with i)^-in. tire with the 
same amount of power exerted than you can with 4-in. tire. 

The advantage of the narrow tire is the starting and hauling on block 
pavement, hauling on gravel roads, and the hauling on muddy roads. 

Comparison of Tests Nos. 5 and 6. 

Difference in weight: No. 5 was 200 lbs. heavier than No. 6. 

On block pavement No 5 pulled 5 per cent, easier than No. 6. 

On good hard sandy roads No. 5 pulled 18 per cent, easier than No. 6. 

OR, 

You can haul 200 lbs. more with 4-in. tire on block pavement with the 
same amount of power exerted than you can with i>^-in. tire. 

You can haul 605 lbs. more on good level sandy roads with 4-in. tire 
with the same amount of power exerted than you can with i)4-m. tire. 

On sandy roads where the tire cut in three inches with the wide tire the 
average pull was the same, viz., 650 lbs. 

Comparison of Tests Nos. 7 and 8. 

Weight of loads were alike, viz., 4,590 lbs. 
Across fields No. 8 started 12 per cent, easier than No. 7. 
" " No. 8 pulled 15 per cent, easier than No. 7. 

On hard roads No. 8 started 17 percent, easier than No. 7. 
On hauling both were alike, viz., 350 lbs. 

OR, 

You can start 530 lbs. more with a 3-in. tire across fields with the same 
amount of power exerted than with a i_^-in. tire. 

You can haul 805 lbs. more with a 3-in. tire across tields with the same 
amount of power exerted than with a i}^-in. tire. 

On hard roads you can start 935 lbs. more with a 3-in. tire with the same 
amount of power exerted than you can with a i j^-in. tire. 

Test of California Wide Track Wagon. — i^in. iron axle; 
size of wheels, 3 ft. 8 in. and 4 ft. 6 in. , 3 in. tire. 

Weight of wagon, --..-. 1020 lbs. 

;' load, - ... - . 4260 

Total weight of wagon including load, - - - 5280 

To start the load on block pavement, . . . . 600 

To move it dead pull on block pavement,- - - - 100 

To start the load on good hard roads, . . . . goo 

To move it dead pull on good hard roads, ... 300 

To start the load on gravel roads, - ... yoo 

To move it dead pull on gravel roads, - . - - 200 
To start the load in thick sticky mud where the wheels cut in from 

2^ in. to 3 in., .--.... 1050 

To move it dead pull in thick sticky mud, same as above - 600 

To start the load on block pavement up grade, - - - 650 

To move it dead pull on block pavement up grade - - 125 

On roads with deep ruts the dynamometer showed as high as - 1500 

Where the steady pull was only .... ^c^q 

To start the load on good sod where the tire cut in about )4 in- - 900 
To move it dead pull on good sod where the tire cut in about }i in. 600 



156 WHEEL-TIRE PHILOSOPHY. 

The wagon started empty on wood pavement at - - 100 lbs. 

and was moved on the dead pull with - - - - 25 " 

California Wagon Test No. 2. — Same gear and load, 
wheels 3 ft. 8 in. and 4 ft. 6 in. ; tire, i ^ in. 
To start the load on block pavement, . . . . ^qq lbs. 

To move it dead pull on block pavement, - - . ^5 

To start the load on good hard dirt roads, - - - 700 

To move it dead pull on good hard dirt roads, - - 300 

To start the load on gravel roads, ----- 550 
To move it dead pull on gravel roads, - - - - 175 

In mud same as previous test it started at . . _ 1250 

To move it dead pull on mud roads, - . - - yoo 

To start the load on block pavement up grade, - - - 600 

On good hard sod across the fields, same as on previous test, it 

started at ----- - - 1000 

To move it dead pull across fields, ----- 500 

The tire in this case did not cut into the sod any further than the 3 in. 
tire did. 

To start the load on good sandy roads, - - - 900 " 

To move it dead pull on good sandy roads, . . _ 300 " 

Test of Regular Narrow Track. — i ^ -in. iron axle, wagon ; 
wheels, 3 ft. 8 in. and 4 ft. 6 in. ; width of tire, 2)^ in. 

Weight of wagon including load, - - - 5130 lbs. 

To start the load on block pavement, ... - 400 

To move it dead pull on block pavement, - - - 100 

To start the load on good hard dirt roads, - - - goo 

To move it dead pull on good hard dirt roads, - - 325 
To start the load on gravel roads, ----- 500 

To move it dead pull on gravel roads, - - - - 150 

To start the load on muddy roads same as before, - - 1000 

To move it dead pull on muddy roads, - - - 700 

To start the load on block pavement up grade, - - - 700 

To move it dead pull on block pavement up grade, - - 150 

To start the load on good sod, - - - . . goo 

To move it dead pull on good sod, _ . - - 500 

Roads the same in every test. 

Recapitulation. 
The foregoing deductions from the tests show seven points 
in favor of narrow tire, and thirteen points in favor of wide ; 
and these thirteen points are strong ones. On hard roads and 
pavement there is no strong argument to bring up in favor of 
wide tire, as under these conditions a narrow tire is to be pre- 
ferred, as there is not the resistance and friction that there must 
be on a wide tire. Neither in soft mud or slush is there any 
advantage in wide tire ; but on ground that a narrow tire would 
cut through, and a wide one would not, then the wide tire 
shows to the greatest advantage, as in comparison of tests No. 7 
and No. 8. These are good tests for the farmer, and show how 
easily he can overload his team ; as under these conditions test 
No. 7, 650 lbs. is a good dead pull, and no team should do 
more than that for steady work; 2.29 tons across the fields with 



WHEEL-TIRE PHILOSOPHY. 157 

650 lbs. straight draft is a big load. While almost any good 
team can do more than this, you must bear in mind that if the 
field is uneven or soft, and 1200 lbs. dead pull is required, as 
we found it would be, and even higher, this means a load 
of 4.58 tons. 

Test No. 8 shows at a glance whether the farmer should be 
urged to buy a wide tire wagon or not. We advocate wide tire 
for farms, and narrow tire for good roads and pavements. 



$100 iygold) in prizes for photographs of American roads. See 
full page announce/ncnt in front advertising pages of this nutnber. 
Now is the season to compete. Full particulars and competitors' blanks 
supplied o?i application to the editor ofOoOD Roads. 



Pead the page in this number entitled " A fe7U important lin^s to you 
from the Editor. 



"Allow me to assure you of my high appreciation of Good 
Roads and I feel sure it is doing a good work on behalf of an 
important national subject. All the copies I have received have 
been placed in the hands of influential citizens in this city. Let 
the good work continiie. " — IVm. H. Seaver, Oakland, Cal. 



" That illustrated monthly magazine, Good Roads, pub- 
lished in the Potter Building in New York, at $2 a year, is do- 
ing an excellent educational work. Its editor announces that 
it contains the best articles on street pavements and road con- 
struction that can be obtained. It also contains descriptions of 
the famous roads and streets of the world, and treats of road- 
making machines, rollers and kindred appliances used in the 
making and repairing of highways. We presume that a 
sample copy will be sent free to any one who will write fen- it as 
above. — The Blacksmith and Wheelwright, N'eic York. 

"The first volume of Good Roads should be bound and 
placed in every public reading room, club house and large 
hotel in the United States. I think this would be a valuable 
and lasting advertisement for our work. It must be seen and 
read to be appreciated." — E. J. Mock, Alma, Mass. 



"I HAVE a file of Good Roads and find them of great value. 
The Governor of this state has issued a proclamation calling 
together a road congress to meet at Raleigh on the 19th inst. " 
— H. B. Battle, Ph. D. , Director Agricultural College, Raleigh, N. C. 



MASSACHUSETTS LEGISLATION. 

THE work of the tetiiporary Massachusetts Commission, 
appointed last year, has been so well done and so widely 
commended that many of the best citizens of that state 
are now agitating the movement for a permanent commission, 
and a bill has been introduced into the State Legislature which 
appears to be so wisely framed that Good Roads has decided 
to print the bill in full, believing that it may serve as a model 
from which other states may gather suggestions of sound value. 
The bill is as follows : 

An Act to establish a Highway Commission to improve the 
Public Roads of this Commonwealth. 

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives in Gen- 
eral Court assembled, and by the authority of the same, as follotvs: 

Section i. The governor with the advice and consent of 
the council shall, within thirty days after the passage of this 
act, appoint three competent persons, to serve as the Massa- 
chusetts highway commission. Their terms of office shall be 
so arranged and designated at the time of their appointment 
that the term of one member shall expire in five years, one in 
four years, and one in three years. The full term of office 
after these dates shall be one for five years, one for four years, 
and one for three years, and all vacancies occurring shall be 
filled by the governor with the consent of the council. The 
members of said board may be removed by the governor with 
the consent of the council for such cause as he shall deem suf- 
ficient and shall express in the order of removal. They shall 
each receive in full compensation for their services an annual 
salary of thousand dollars, payable in equal monthly in- 

stalments and also their travelling expenses. They may expend 
annually for clerk hire, engineers, and defraying expenses, 
incidental and necessary for the performance of their duties, 
exclusive of office rent, the sum of thousand dollars. 

They shall be provided with an office in the state house, or 
some other suitable place in the city of Boston, in which the 
records of their office shall be kept. They may establish rules 
and regulations for the conduct of business and for carrying 
out the provisions of this act. 

Sec 2. They shall, from time to time, compile statis- 
tics relating to the public roads of cities, towns and counties, 
and make such investigations relating thereto as they shall 
deem expedient. They may be consulted at all reasonable 
times, without charge, by officers of counties, cities, or towns 
having the care and authority over public roads, and shall, 
without charge, advise them relative to the construction, repair, 



MASSACHUSETTS LEGISLATION. 159 

alteration or maintenance of the same ; but advice given by 
them to any such ofificers shall not impair the legal duties and 
obligations of any county, city or town. They shall prepare a 
map or maps of the Commonwealth on which shall be shown 
county, city and town boundaries and also the public roads, 
particularly the state highways, giving, when practicable, 
the names of the same. They shall collect and collate infor- 
mation concerning the geological formation of this Common- 
wealth, so far as it relates to the material suitable and proper 
for road-building, and shall, so far as practicable, designate on 
said map or maps the location of such material. Such map or 
maps shall at all reasonable times be open for the inspection of 
officers of counties, cities and towns having the care of and 
authority over public roads. They shall each year hold at 
least one public meeting in each county for the open discussion 
of questions relating to the public roads, due notice of which 
shall be given in the press or otherwise. 

Sec. 3. They shall make an annual report to the legisla- 
ture of their doings and expenditures of their office, together 
with such statements, facts and explanations bearing upon the 
construction and maintenance of public roads, and such sugges- 
tions and recommendations as to the general policy of the 
Commonwealth in respect to the same as may seem to them 
appropriate. Their report shall be transmitted to the secre- 
tary of the Commonwealth on or before the first Wednesday in 
January of each year, to be laid before the legislature. All 
maps, plans and statistics collected and compiled under their 
direction shall be preserved in their oihce. 

Sec. 4. County commissioners, city and town officers hav- 
ing the care of and authority over public roads and bridges 
throughout the Commonwealth shall, on request, furnish the 
commissioners any information required by them concerning 
the roads and bridges within their jurisdiction. 

Sec. 5. For the purpose of carrying out the provision of 
this act said commission may expend such sums for necessary 
assistants, procuring of necessary supplies, instrum.ents, mate- 
rial, machinery and other property and for the construction and 
maintenance of state highways as shall from time to time be 
appropriated by the legislature, and they shall in their annual 
report state what sums they deem necessary for the year next 
after the first day of March. 

Sec. 6. Whenever the county commissioners of a county 
adjudge that the common necessity and convenience require 
that the Commonwealth acquire as a state highway a new or an 
existing road in that county they may petition in writing, to 
the Massachusetts highway commission stating the road they 
recommend, and setting forth a detailed description of said 
road by metes and bounds, together with a plan and profile of 



i6o MASSACHUSETTS LEGISLATION. 

the same. Said highway commission shall consider such peti- 
tion, and if they adjudge that it ought to be allowed they shall 
in writing so notify said county commissioners. It shall then be- 
come the duty of said county commissioners to cause said road to 
be surveyed and laid out in the manner provided for the laying 
out and alteration of highways, the entire expense thereof to 
be borne and paid by said county. Said county commissioners 
shall preserve a copy of such petition, plans and profiles with 
their records for public inspection. When said highway com- 
mission shall be satisfied that said county commissioners have 
properly surveyed and laid out said road, and set in place suit- 
able monuments, and have furnished said highway commission 
with plans and profiles, on which shall be shown such monu- 
ments and established grades, in accordance with the rules and 
regulations of said Massachusetts highway commission, said 
highway commission may approve the same, and so notify in 
writing said county commissioners. Said highway commission 
shall then present a certified copy of said petition, on which 
their approval shall be indicated, together with their estimates 
for constructing said road and the estimated annual cost for 
maintaining the same, to the secretary of the Commonwealth, 
who shall at once lay the same before the legislature, if it be in 
session, otherwise on the second Wednesday of January follow- 
ing. If the legislature make appropriation for constructing 
said road, said Massachusetts highway commission shall cause 
said road to be constructed in accordance with this act, and 
when completed and approved by them said road shall become 
a state highway, and henceforth be maintained by the Com- 
monwealth under the supervision of said Massachusetts high- 
way commission. 

Sec. 7. Two or more cities or towns may petition the 
Massachusetts highway commission that, in their opinion, the 
common necessity and convenience require that the Common- 
wealth should acquire as a state highway a new or an existing 
road leading from one city or town to another, which petition 
shall be accompanied by a detailed description of such road by 
metes and bounds, and also a plan and profile of the same. If 
said highway commission adjudge that the common necessity 
and convenience require such road to be laid out and acquired 
as a state highway, they shall cause a copy of said petition, on 
which shall be their finding, to be given to the county commis- 
sioners of the county in which said road or portions of it lies. 
It shall then become the duty of the county commissioners, at 
the expense of the county, to cause said road to be surveyed 
and laid out, and set in place suitable monuments and a detailed 
description by metes and bounds, plans and profiles to be made 
on which shall be shown said monuments and established grades, 
and give the same to said highway commission; but said county 



Jl/A SSJ CHUSE TTS LEG I SLA TLON. 1 6 1 

commissioners shall have the right to change the line of said 
road, provided the termini are substantially the same. Said 
county commissioners shall preserve said petition and a copy of 
the plans and profiles, with their records, for public inspection. 
When said highway commission shall be satisfied that the 
county commissioners have properly surveyed and laid out said 
road and set in place suitable monuments and have furnished 
them with plans and profiles on which shall be shown said 
monuments and established grades, in accordance with the 
rules and regulations of said Massachusetts highway commis- 
sion, they shall then proceed in the same manner as provided 
in section six of this act ; and when said road is completed and 
approved by said highway commission it shall become a state 
highway and henceforth be maintained by the Commonwealth 
under the supervision of said Massachusetts highway commission. 

Sec. 8. In all cases where a highway is to be constructed 
at the expense of the Commonwealth as a state highway, all 
the grading necessary to make said highway of the established 
grade, and the construction of culverts and bridges, shall be 
paid by the county in which said highway or portion of it lies, 
and the work must be done to the satisfaction of said Massa- 
chusetts highway commission. No action by a person claiming 
damage for the taking of land or <:hange of grade under the 
provision of this act shall be commenced against a county till 
said highway commission has taken possession for the purpose 
of constructing such state highway. 

Sec. 9. When appropriation has been made by the legisla- 
ture for the construction of a state highway said Massachusetts 
highway commission shall at once cause plans and specifications 
to be made and estimate the cost for the construction of such state 
highway, and give to each city and town in which said road 
lies, a certified copy of said plans and specifications with a 
notice that said highway commission is ready for the construc- 
tion of said road. Such city or town shall have the right, with- 
out advertisement, to contract with said Massachusetts high- 
way commission for the construction of so much of such high- 
way as lies within its limits, in accordance with the plans and 
specifications of the highway commission and under its super- 
vision and subject to its approval, at a price agreed upon 
between said highway commission and said city or town ; but 
such price agreed upon shall not exeed eighty-five per cent, 
of the original estimate of said highway commission. If such 
city or town shall within thirty days not elect to so contract, 
said highway commission may advertise in one or more papers 
published in the county where the road, or portions of it is sit- 
uated, and in one or more papers published in Boston, for bids 
'for the construction of said highway in accordance with the 
plans and specifications furnished by said highway commission, 



1 6 2 MA SSA CHUSE TTS LEGISL A TION. 

and under their supervision and subject to their approval. 
Said highway commission shall have the right to reject any and 
all bids, and they shall require of the contractor a bond for at 
least thousand dollars for each mile of road, to indemnify 

such city or town in which such highway lies against damage 
while such road is being constructed, and the Commonwealth 
shall not be liable for any damage occasioned thereby. Said 
highway commission shall make and sign all contracts in the 
name of the Massachusetts highway commission. 

Sec. io. For the maintenance of state highways, said Mas- 
sachusetts highway commission shall contract vv^ith the city or 
town in which such state highway lies, or a person, firm or 
corporation, for the keeping in repair and maintaining such 
highway, in accordance with the rules and regulations of said 
highway commission, and subject to their supervision and 
approval, and such contracts may be made without previous 
advertisement. 

Sec. II. No length of possession, or occupancy of land 
within the limit of any state highway, by an owner or occupier 
of adjoining land, shall create a right to such land in any ad- 
joining owner or occupant or a person claiming under him, and 
any fences, buildings, sheds or other obstructions encroaching 
upon such state highway shall, upon written notice by the 
highway commission, at once be removed by the owner or 
occupier of adjoining land, and if not so removed said commis- 
sioners may cause the same to be done and may remove the 
same upon the adjoining land of such owner or occupier. 

Sec. 12. The Commonwealth shall not be liable for injuries 
to persons or property occurring through a defect, or want of 
repair, or of sufficient railing in or upon the state highway, but 
the city or town in which such highway is situated shall be liable 
the same as for injuries occurring upon other public roads. 

Sec. 13. Cities and towns shall have police jurisdiction over 
all state highways and they shall at once notify in writing the 
state highway commission or its employees of any defect or 
want of repair in such highway. No state highw^ay shall be 
dug up for laying pipes, sewers, posts, wires, railways or other 
purposes and no tree shall be planted or removed or obstruction 
placed thereon except by the written consent of the super- 
intendent of streets or road commissioners of a city or town, 
approved by the highway commission, and then only in ac- 
cordance with the rules and regulations of said highway com- 
mission and in all cases the work shall be iinder the supervision 
and to the satisfaction of the highway commission, and the 
entire expense of replacing same shall be paid by them to whom 
such consent was given or the work done ; but a city or town 
shall have the right to dig up such state highway without such 
approval of the highway commission where immediate neces- 



WIDE TIRES. 163 

sity demands their so doing, but in all such cases such highway 
shall be at once replaced in as good condition as before, and at 
the expense of the city or town. Said highway commission 
shall give suitable names to the state highways and they shall 
have the right to change the name of any road that shall have 
become a part of a state highway. They shall cause to be 
erected, at convenient points along state highways, suitable 
guide posts. 

Sec. 14. The word "road" as used in this act includes 
every thoroughfare which the public has a right to use. 

Sec. 15. This act shall take effect upon its passage. 



WIDE TIRES. 



OUR Canadian neighbors are alive to the question of road 
maintenance and are taking steps to prevent the de- 
struction of their wheelways through the cutting and 
grinding of the surfaces by narrow wheel-tires. The Ontario 
Department of Agriculture has recently sent out a valuable 
special bulletin setting forth the treatment necessary to make 
as well as to maintain good roads. The report says the repair- 
ing of roads once a year (the usual plan) is wrong in principle. 
It is all the more objectionable as almost always it is done in 
the Spring, the good effects disappearing before the time for 
fall and winter travel sets in. 

The report strongly commends the movement in favor of 
wide tires for draft vehicles. It says it has been proved by 
repeated experiments that wheels with tires 2)^ inches wide 
causes double the wear of wheels which have 4 ^^^ -inch tires. 
The wide tire has a tendency to roll the roadbed and keep it 
smooth at the same time, while the narrow one cuts it up and 
requires more hauling force for the same weight of load, besides 
spoiling the thoroughfare. Most of the European countries 
have laws regulating this matter. In France the market 
wagons have tires from three to ten inches in width, usually 
four to six inches, and the rear axle is the longest, so that the 
hind wheels run on a line outside of the fore wheels, the vehicle 
being thus a road-maker instead of a road-destroyer. For 
wagons without springs the tires should not be less than 2}^ 
inches for a load of 500 to 1,000 pounds on each wheel, and for 
loads of 2,000 to 3,000 pounds on each wheel the tire should not 
be less than six inches wide. The document is worthy of wide 
circulation in the United States as well as Canada. 



GENERAL MILES AND THE WHEELMEN. 

ON June I, 1892, at a banquet given by the Illinois Division 
of the League of American Wheelmen in honor of 
Colonel Charles L. Burdette, President of the League, 
at the Auditorium, Chicago, General Nelson A. Miles delivered 




"THESE YOUNG MEN (THE WIIKELMKN) Jl WK IHSCOX i: R i 1 1 WHAT IS THE TROUBLE 
WITH THE FARMER. IT IS NOT THE TARIFF OR COIXAGE, THE MONEY OR THE 
CURRENCY, THE MARKETS OR THE RAILROADS, IT IS THE ROADS." 

an address on "Military Cycling," in which he spoke as 
follows : 

' ' The w^heelmen who carried the despatch from Chicago to 
New York demonstrated more than one thing. They demon- 
strated the wretched condition of the American roads. We 
have wondered for many years what was the trouble with the 
country; there was so much dissatisfaction, there was so much 
complaint from the public press and the people that they were 
getting poor. They were going to make war upon the rail- 
roads; the railroads were their enemies. They were going to 
make war on the manufacturers ; they were dissatisfied with 

164 



GENERAL MILES AND THE WHEELMEN, 165 



the tariff and with the currency. They wanted flat money and 
they wanted free coinage. They wanted hard money and they 
wanted free trade or protection or they wanted something; 
they wanted the granger element or the Farmer's Alliance, and 
we have really been wondering what was the trouble with the 
farmers of this country. These young men, passing from here 
to New York, have not only been splendid bicycle riders, but 
they have been discoverers. They have discovered what is the 
trouble with the farmer. It is not the tariff or coinage, the 
money or the currency, the markets or the railroads, it is the 
roads. That is the trouble with the country. [Great applause]. 




"ROADS FURXI3H AN INDICATION OF CIVILIZATION." THE DENVER WHEEL CUB ( >X 
WELL DRAINED AND WELL KEPT ROAD NEAR DENVER, COLORADO. . 

If I were in politics, as my friend on the right [laughter], I 
would discuss that subject. I would let the farmers in the 
country know what the trouble is. The fact is, and you can 
realize it, the farmer is shut up for months in the year. He 
devotes the industry of a year to raising a crop, he has his stock 
ready for market, his corn gathered, and the rains come and it 
is impossible for him to sell anything; and while he may be in 
favor of free trade, he has not the opportunity of making a 
free trade with anyone. He cannot get anywhere at any time. 
[Applause.] He hears that corn is bringing a good price in the 
market, and he starts with a load, he gets a few miles from his 



1 66 GENERAL MILES AND THE WHEELMEN. 

home, and there he breaks down and remains. He starts for 
church on Sunday, trying to be a good man, he gets stalled in 
the mud, and the longer he stays there the more he needs the 
influence of the church. [Laughter and applause.] If he 
undertakes to '' /ive his stock to market they bolt the road and 
jump over the fences into his neighbor's fields, and out comes 
his neighbor with his dog and gun and threatens to prosecute 
him or shoot him, and he is in trouble all the time. He really 
cannot understand what is the trouble, but it is the condition 
of the roads. 

" Now these enterprising young men who carried that 
despatch through have demonstrated to the country that we 
need good avenues in order that our people may travel from 
one part of the country to the other, and that they may have 
means of bringing their products to the market. Roads furnish 
an indication of civilization. The reverse is an indication of 
the absence of the highest and best state of civilization. Those 
gentlemen, in carrying that despatch, demonstrated that we 
have a class of young men as intelligent, as brave, as resolute 
and as patriotic as ever graced any country in any tmie, 
[applause] and in my judgment they and the gentlemen that 
were interested with them in that enterprise are entitled to the 
thanks of the entire country. I am very glad to have an 
opportunity to say now, in this presence, that they have at least 
my thanks, and I believe that their efforts will certainly do the 
country much good." [Great applause.] 



$ioo i^gold) in prizes for pJiotograpJis of American roads. See 
full page announcement in front advertising pages of tliis number. 
No7v is t/ie season to compete. Full particulars and competitors' blanks 
supplied on application to the editor of Good Roads. 



Read t/ie page in tins number entitled ' 'A fe7u important lines to 
you from t/ie Editor 



" But a change is coming, and it is due mainly to that at 
one time despised 'toy,' the bicycle. The wheelmen have a 
national organization, with a membership of something like 
50,000. This organization, the League of American Wheel- 
men, took for its watchword 'good roads,' and it began an 
agitation that spread and grew until it has attained the dignity 
of a national movement. The people, especially the farmers, 
have been educated on the subject, and they are now gradua- 
ting. They see the advantages in better roads, and they demand 
improvement." — Courier Journal., Louisville, Ky, 



TO MY FELLOW-MEMBERS OF THE L. A. VV. 




For fifteen months we have 
been collecting- the names and 
addresses of thousands of road 
officers, county and town officers, 
prominent citizens, merchants, 
farmers and officers of trade- 
societies and granges in every 
state of the Union. 

Tliese are the men who should 
read Good Roads a)id whose support 
must be won before the publie roads 
can be improved. 

For fi.fteen m.onths we have 
been sending Good Roads maga- 
zine to thovisands of members of 
the L. A. W. The number sent 
to League members during the 
present month will be about 
3S.OO0. 

These members air all eoirvniced 
of the need of better roads and every copy of Good Roads sent to 
a League member is wasted, unless used by that member to extend the 
work. 

You and I are both League members. Let us consider a 
proposition. 

If you will sign and send to me a postal card giving me authority 
to send your copies of Good Roads to different persons selected 
within your state (whose names and addresses I take from lists in 
this office), they will be distributed in the best possible manner, 
without expense or trouble to you, with some possible benefit to the 
magazine and with the greatest certainty of good results for 

THE MOVEMENT. 

If you prefer to keep these magazines and are yet willing to aid 
our enlarged circulation, send me the sum of fifty cents (or any 
larger sum that you may see fit to contribute), towards subscrip- 
tions for road officers and other officials in your state. For each 
fifty cents received Good Roads will send the magazine for twelve 
months to road officers in the state where the contributor resides. 

I make this proposition, (i), to insure an enlarged circulation for 
Good Roads and to extend its influence ; (2), to relieve many League 
members from the expense and trouble of sending the magazine by 
mail to other persons from month to month. (The postage on each 
copy posted by subscribers will be about three cents during the 
coming year or thirty-six cents for the entire year, not counting cost 
of wrappers and time and trouble of mailing). 

We intend TO place GOOD ROADS in the hands of 100,000 
READERS EACH month during the present year, and to print 

and distribute thousands of PRACTICAL PAMPHLETS ON ROAD- 
MAKING IN EVERY STATE OF THE UNION. WE WANT YOUR AID NOW. 

To 7A<^ /Ktiif^ i^2^ ^^e- ^h^.<.-^-£^^ A^r^ xt-^ ^^^2^ Fraternallv vours 

/^ r^^x^cit A^&r.^'^^ ^ ±:St2i^ Isaac B. Potter. 



redo 



1C7 



TO THE WHEELMEN OF AMERICA. 

"By T)r. T). W. Barker of "Brooklyn. 

( Concluded. ) 

IT may not be pleasant to the patriotic citizen to thus adver- 
tise the defects of his own town to an unsympathizing 
world ; but it takes a good deal to wake some people up and 
this man's case was a desperate one, though it can scarcely be 
said that he was a monopolist in the matter of "mud baths." 

Local politics is a field for the active and energetic wheel- 
man. If road officials are to be elected see that men who have 
advanced ideas on the subject are nominated for office and 
elected. If the present incumbents are men whose education 
on road construction belongs to the last century, send their 
names to the editor of Good Roads and he will see that the 
proper rejuvenator is supplied. If road construction is being 
done improperly call the attention of the authorities to it, and 
protest against such waste of public funds, and damage to the 
road. There is a town not far away which thinks (if a town 
may be said to think) that it is making macadam roads by 
spreading broken stone on the surface of the old road and allow- 
ing it to be packed down by travel without any rolling or any 
provision for drainage of any sort. Now, to show the result of 
such work, take a large glass fruit jar, place in the bottom two 
inches of sand, then add some gravel, and on top some broken 
stone ; shake, stir and punch the mixture with a stick, to rep- 
resent the action of the wheels of vehicles and watch the result. 
In a few minutes the stones and sand will be found to have 
changed places, and that is just what happens on the road under 
such conditions, and in about a year, as in the above case, the 
local paper complainingly said "if our streets have been in a 
worse condition within the past ten years we are unable to recol- 
lect the time." 

In some places the organization of village improvement 
associations has proved very beneficial. If such a society exists 
in the town every wheelman should join it and endeavor to 
shape its policy in the right direction. If there is none then 
organize one and endeavor to get as many prominent and influ- 
ential people to join it as possible. If there is in the com- 
munity some one who is uncompromisingly opposed to it, make 
him an honorary member, thus enlisting your worst adversary 
in your own ranks. Don't be afraid that he will make trouble; 
he will be carried along on the tide of public opinion. Such 



TO THE WHEELMEN OF AMERICA. 169 

organizations have for their object, not merely the improve- 
ment of the roadway itself, but also such things as the removal 
of stones, stumps and other obstructions from the foot paths ; 
the trimming of shade trees and planting and caring for young 
trees by the roadside ; the removal of bushes and weeds, the 
prevention and removal of advertising signs and posters from 
trees, posts and bridges, and fences; inducing owners to refuse 
their consent to the placing of such things on buildings, barns, 
etc., the erection of guide posts and street names; the removal 
of dangerous obstructions, particularly the "gates ajar" which 
it is so nice to collide with on a dark night, the erection and 
maintenance of lamps at street crossings and at other dangerous 
places. It may be asked "what has all this to do with road im- 
provement?" Everything; it is road improvement of the high- 
est kind. To be sure it is the duty of the authorities to see that 
such things are done, but in small unincorporated towns there 
is no one whose particular business it is and "what is every- 
body's business is nobody's business," and even in large towns 
the officials need a deal of prodding sometimes. In a certain 
Connecticut town the improvement society offered a reward 
of ten dollars to the boy who should bring in the greatest num- 
ber of tin signs with which the town was decorated; in a week's 
time there wasn't a sign to be seen and the number gathered 
in amounted to several thousand and would have cost the society 
ten times that sum to have had them removed in any other way. 
Why any town should make a bill board of itself is hard to see, 
and if necessary, laws should be enacted making it a misde- 
meanor to so deface natural scenery. 

By identifying themselves with such work and taking an 
active and leading part in it, the wheelmen give evidence that 
as a body they are able and willing to supplement their faith bv 
w^orks of a practical and tangible kind, and that they are not 
asking others to do more for them than they are willing to do 
for others. And by allying themselves with social forces al- 
ready existing and working for the general good, instead of 
bucking against old-fashioned prejudice, they will earn and 
command the respect of the community for themselves as indi- 
viduals, the wheeling fraternity in general, and for the cause 
of road improvement. 



$100 iygold) in prizes for photographs of American roads. See 
full page announcement in front advertising pages of this number. 
Now is the season to compete. Full particulars and competitors' blanks 
supplied on application, to the editor of QiOOVi Roads. 



Read the page in this number entitled '\4fe7c> important lines to you 
from the Editor. 



^^"'^ 










The work of the Convention and of the 
National Assembly at Philadelphia was well 
and quickly done. Good feeling character- 
ized all the proceedings, -and the few ques- 
tions which roused the members to fierce 
debate were disposed of fairly and without 
friction. The unanimous re-election of 
Messrs. Burdett, Sheridan and Brown to 
the executive offices gives evidence of a 
general approval of their most successful 
administration of last year, and warrants the 
continuance of a policy which has done more 
to popularize the League work than has 
that of any other administratioi in the his- 
tory of the League. 



Colonel Pope has received from Senators 
and Representatives in Congress a number 
of most encouraging letters referring to his 
efforts to obtain the establishment of a Road 
Department similar to the Agricultural De- 
partment now maintained by the general 
government at Washington. The immense 
petition obtained by Colonel Pope and signed 
by thousands of citizens in all parts of the 
country, requesting the passage of a bill in 
line with his suggestion, has not been jore- 
sented to Congress, owing to the fact that 
" its presentation previous to the passage of 
the bill making appropriation for the Agri- 
cultural Department might cause it to be 
stricken out of the clause in that bill on the 
subject of roads." 

It is, however, the intention of Colonel 
Pope to submit this great petition at the 
next session of Congress. Good, Roads 
earnestly recommends its readers to add 
their names to this important petition and 
to obtain as many signatures as possible 
during the next few months. The petition 
must be completed and in readiness by 
December next. Blanks can be obtained by 
addressing the Pope Manufacturing Com- 
pany (Road Department), 221 Columbus 
Avenue, Boston, Mass. 



Let there be no misunderstandmg Good 
RoA[)S is not in business to make money, but 
to spend it. The League Roads Improve- 
ment Bureau was established for the pur- 
pose of carrying on a great work, and thus 
far its entire force has been exerted m a 
manner that in no way departs from that 
object. It is a work of philanthropy ; it for- 
bids every mercenary consideration, and by 
the faithful and bountiful support given to 
it by the L. A. W. we have gained the 
respect and co-operation of the best and 
ablest citizens in the country. So long as 
the present management shall remain in 
charge of the Bureau, its policy will be to 
collect every available dollar that can be 
applied to the furtherance of this work, and 
to expend it discreetly and in a manner best 
calculated to extend the influence of the 
League and insure its success. Whether 
coming from advertisers, from contributions, 
from subscriptions or from whatever other 
source, it must be distinctly understood that, 
aside from payment of legitimate running 
expenses, every dollar is to be expended in 
the pushing of the movement for better 
roads. In proportion as we depart from 
this policy we shall neither receive nor 
deserve the support of our fellow country- 
men. We propose to place Good Roads in 
the hands of every intelligent wheelman in 
the United States (whether League member 
or not) who feels an interest in the work 
and will express his endorsement of the 
policy here set forth. We propose to place 
Good Roads in the hands of every road 
officer and county officer in the United 
States during the present year and to en- 
large its regular circulation to at least one 
hundred thousand copies. It can be done. 
The demand is growing beyond all expecta- 
tion, and with forty thousand co-workers, 
the number of paid subscribers can be in- 
creased to any reasonable figure. 170 



RECENT PATENTS. 

lu this departmeut we shall print from time to time brief descriptive notes of 
recent patented inventions relating- to roads, streets, drainag-e, bridges and wheeled 
vehicles. 




Sectional View of Plant. 
PLANT FCR HKATING AND CONTROLLING SAND. Col. 
Francis v. Greene, Pateute*, New York, N. Y. An 
apparatus for lieatins and coutrolliuff sandiu paving opera- 
tions, liaving a healing drnm arranged in asliglitly-inclined 
position os'er furnaces for heating the same, provided with 
a hopper at its feed end and a chute at its delivery end, a 
conveyer ai ranged in close proximity to the feed eiid of the 
sand-heating drum, adapted to carry up the sand and de- 
posit it in the feed hopper, a main operating platform loca- 
ted at one end of the sand drum and i)elow the same, to 
which the sand is conducted afterleavingthel.eating-drum, 
a hot-sand platform arranged above the main platform, 
liaving it.j floor provided with a series of chutes leading 
down to the main platform and to a main or central chute, 
each chute being provided with an independent cut-olf, and 
a conveyer running from the main platform to a point above 
the hotrsaud platform. 




SEWER WELL AND GRATE. COITNTCIL MUNSON, Pa^ 
eniee, Utica, N. Y. The combination of a circular sewer 
well, anil a curb section having a vertical grated curb face, 
spanning the circle of the well and the curb section being 
of a form whereby a portion of the top of tlie well is ex- 
posed and a part is covered l)y the section, the curb section 
being rotatable on jind independent of the well, to enable 
the curip face of the cin-ii section to con form to the curb line 
of the street without reference to the well. 




BRIDGE. Richard Gray, Patentee, Bloomington, 111. 
In a bridge, the combination with the beam G. of the lower 
chord passing therethrough, the braces passing through the 
Ijeam in the same liorizontal axis or plane as the chord, and 
means for securing the parts. 




STREET-SWEEPING MACHINE. Atrr.rsT BERTRAM, 
Patentee, Brooklyn, N. Y. In a street sweeping machine, 
the comiiination with a pair of wheels and a suitable frame, 
of a revolving brush or broom, a collecting trough arranged 
in front of siid brush or broom adapted to receive the 
sweepings direct Iv tlierefrom. an elevating-trough adjacent 
to said collecting-trough and fed l)v same, and a receptacle 
into wliicli said elevating trougli dumps its load. 171 



172 



RECENT PA TENTS. 




SAFETY-GATE FOR DRAWBRIDGES. Adolph Hoeff- 
LER ami FtiANK L. (J. C.iAP.viAN, Pateiite?s, Stevens Point, 
^Vi-. The combination with a bridge of a flexible safety 
gate wound upon a vertical sliaft, and adapted to be closed 
liy tlie Ijridge when the latter is turned, a locking device to 
hold the gate closed, a releasing device attached to the 
bridge, and means for automatically winding up the gate 
when released. 




TRACK-CLEANER. Archibald Chishoi.m, Patentee, 
Bay City, .Mich. In a track cleaner the r(iiiii)inali(in of the 
car, the Ijlower muinted on the car and provided with 
main air pipes and with branch pipes leading from the 
main pipe toward the rails, and provided with pliable sec- 
tions and with vertical sections having nozzles with open 
ends in proximity to the rails, with the supports secured to 
the car and each provided with a laterally extending 
horizontal shelf, the radial bars pivoted by one end to the 
supports and resting on said shelves, the hangers pivoted 
to the outer ends of said radial bars and resting on the 
shelves, and with their outer portions secm-ed to tlie vertical 
pipe sections. 




CULVERT. Charles B. Davls, Patentee, Savona, N. Y., 
Assignor to himself and l»avis A Crandall, same place. A 
culvert provided with a metallic arch comprising two sets 
or series of metallic plates i)laced one on top of the other to 
oreak joints, rivets for fastening the two series of plates 
together, and flanges formed on the ends of the said sets of 
plates and bent in opposite directions to form a foot for the 
arch. 




STREET-SWEEPER. Jacob Edson, Patentee, Boston, 
Mass., assignor to the Edson Manufacturing Company, same 
place. In a street-sweeping machine, the combination with 
the frame and rearwardly projecting lirush-stipporting arm 
secured thereto, of a driving shaft bearing provided with 
tubular extensions, and a truss secured to the frame, and to 
the said tubular extensions of the driving shaft bearing. 





CONCRETE-MIXING MACHINE. Ernest L. Ransome, 
Patentee, Oakland, Cal. The apparatus for delivering the 
several ingredients lor concrete to a mixer in automatically 
proportioned quautities, consisting of a row of containing 
chambers situated above a conveyer and athwart its line of 
travel, each having an independent discliarge opening and 
regulating gate through which thecontentsof the chambers 
are ganged and carried liy the conveyer below the chambers 
directly to the mixer uud'erueath. 



I'ii.i'iiliJiiiPi' 




-jh.^ 



oNtract Motes 



^ilfllMlLBlliglllgsJiiill'"^ 



ROADS AND STREETS. 

GEORGIA.— Columbus.— About 22,000 square 
yards of telford or granite blocks are to be laid 
shortly, and bids will be received until April 5 
for the work. Apply to M. M. Moore, Clerk of 
Council. 

Atlanta. — Peachtree Street is to be paved with 
sheet asphalt. The City Clerk will receive bids 
for the completion of the work until March 30. 

ILLINOIS.— Streator.— Bids will be received 
April 3 and July 3, for the work of brick paving, 
the estimated cost of which is $150,000. 

FLORIDA.— Jacksonville.— 25,000 square yards 
of brick pavement is to be laid, and separate bids 
will be received by the board of public works 
until April 3, for brick, work, and for the entire 
job. 

WISCONSIN.— Milwaukee.— It is proposed to 
pave about twenty streets of this city with cedar 
blocks. Bids will probably be asked for. 

NORTH CAROLIMA.— Asheville.— New pave- 
ments are to be made with granite blocks and bids 
will be received until April 7 at the ilayor's 
office. 

PENNSYLVANIA. — Williamsport. — Fourth 
Street is to be paved with asphalt, by decision of 
the cit}^ council. 

Homestead.— The work of brick paving and 
curbing is to be begun here soon on an extensive 
scale, the work including 60,000 square yards of 
paving with vitrified brick and 20,000 lineal feet of 
6x24 inch sandstone curbing. The estimates 
and surveys are now being prepared. Further 
particulars may be had of City Engineer Elmer 
Hough. 

OHIO.— Norwood.— Bids will be advertised for 
shortly for the work of improvement in three 
Streets of this place. 

Cincinnati.— Until April 4 bids will be received 
by the Board of Administration for paving with 
brick. 

Dayton. — Improvements are to be made in this 
city in a number of the sidewalks. About 50,000 
square yards of paving is to be done with Hayden 
block, Medina block, asphalt or brick, for which 
bids are being received. 

Toledo. — Seven contracts for paving are to be 
awarded soon for paving with cedar blocks, 
Medina stone, asphalt blocks or Trinidad asphalt. 
The city clerk is receiving bids. 

Cleveland. — Six streets are to be paved with 
Medina block stone, four with Medina common 
stone, and four with paving brick, and bids will 
be received by the director of public works until 
March 29. 

MASSACHUSETTS.— Worcester.— The annual 
appropriation bill includes $45,000 for streets, 
$16,000 for parks and !g24,ooo for highways. 






SOMERVILLE. — Washington Street is to be paved 
and the board of aldermen has appropriated 
$24,000 for the work. 

MISSOURI.— Kansas City.— Bids will probably 
be asked for in the near future for the work of 
paving two miles with brick, granite, sandstone 
or asphalt. 

VIRGINIA.— Richmond.— Street work is likely 
to be done in this city in the way of improvement, 
the cost of which is estiinated at about $551,562. 

MICHIGAN.— Grand Rapids.— The legislature 
has just passed a bill authorizing this city to issue 
bonds for the purpose of improvement to the 
amount of $400,000. 

MINNEAPOLIS.— St. Paul.— Five streets are 
to be paved. Plans and specifications have been 
prepared and estimates made of the probable cost 
of the work. 

TENNESSEE.— Knoxville.— Sealed proposals 
are asked by the Board of Public Works for paving 
with brick about 50,000 square yards of streets, 
according to the plans and specifications in the 
office of the city engineer. 

IOWA.— Marshalltowx.— A large contract will 
be awarded after the bids are received (up to 
April loth) for 27,317 square yards of brick pavin.g 
and 10,640 lineal feet of stone curbing. For further 
information address the city clerk. 

INDIANA.— South Bend.— Proposals are asked 
for the work of 12,000 lineal feet of cement curbing. 
14,000 cubic yards of grading and 42,000 scjuare 
yards of paving. 

CALIFORNIA. — Pasadena. — A large amount of 
asphalt is to be laid in this place, the cost of which 
will be in the neighborliood of $45,000. 



SEWERS. 

OHIO. ~ Dayton. — Sealed proposals will be 
received at the office of the city comptroller until 
April 10, for furnishing :naterials and constructing 
storm sewers and appurtenances in this city. 
Plans and specifications may be seen at the offices 
of the city engineer and the engineers of sewers. 

Alli.\NCE. — It has been voted to issue bonds to 
the amount of $30,000 for a sewerage system. 

Norwood. — A sewer is to be laid in Elm Avenue, 
and bids will be received very soon, by vote of the 
council. 

Wellsville. — The length of the propcjsed new 
sewerage system is 8,ouo feet, with estimated cost 
of $40,000. The city surveyor has completed plans 
for the work. 

MAINE.— Skowegan.— The sum of $20,000 has 
been set apart by the citizens of tlii.s place for new 
sewers. 

MASSACHUSETTS.— Heveklv. — It is proposed 
tw build a brick sewer and the citizens have voted 
the sum of $40,000. 173 




Jfkf'''^^ 



ROWED 



THE TYPEWRITER'S SONG. 

One — two — three pages, 

Oh, dear ! it will be ages 

Before I am through. 

(Rattle, tattle, rattle) what's the date? 

(Thump, thump, thump) April 8, 

i8g2. 
(Rattle, tattle) Mr. Jere— 
Miah Rusk, Secretary 
Of Agriculture, City. 
Oh, goodness, what a pity ! 

Now, where on earth is that eraser 
1 should have written H-o-n 
Instead of Mr. — Now, then. 

Let me see, (Tattle, rattle) Dear vSir : 
(Rattle) Please send me a choice collection 
Of your personal (ting) se- (rattle) lection 
Of garden seeds, and — now I'm stuck ; 
Can't read these notes — Oh, hang the luck 1 
Bilge^bleege — blige. Oh, yes, I see. 
And oblige, (rattle) Yours respectfully, 
Tattle, rattle tattle 
B-r-r-r-t-1-l-raltle.— A/L/t. 



He who went to town meeting Monday to 
vote on the " ways and means" for another 
year had to try some mighty mean ways 
before he got there. — Lowell Courier. 



PRETTY HARD. 

In the matter of jDicturesque expression 
there is no one to excel a bright Ribernian. 

A judge was questioning an Irishman, 
says an exchange. 

*' He took you by tlie thi^ .'t and choked 
you, did he?" asked the judge. 

" He did, sor," said Pat. "Sure, sor, he 
squazed me throat till I thought he would 
make cider out of me Adam's apple." — 
Yotith s Cumpajiioji. 

Construction and Improvement of 

ROADS AND PAVEMENTS 

A SPECIALTY 

A. T. BYRNE 

Civil Engineer and 361 FULTON ST. 
c ^j ^ BROOKLYN, N. Y. 




Husband (to wife from Boston) — Vou 
never find any blue stockings in the Prince 
of Wales' set. Wife (strong-minded) — No; 
blue is not a fast color. — Life. 

Carleton Gates — Are you really so hard 
up? " 

Tramp — Hard up ? Why, boss, if suits of 
clothes was sellin' at a cent a piece, I 
wouldn't have enough to buy the armhole of 
a vest! — S/nith, Gray &= Co.'s Monthly. 

" I INSIST," remarked the professor, " that 
knowledge is power." 

" Not always," contended the business 
man. 

" But, my dear sir, won't you admit that 
education is one of the strongest powers we 
have ?" 

" Not in every case." 

" I can't understand how you can sustain 
such a position." 

"Easy enough. For instance, a chap, 
whom I knew to be as well educated as I am 
not, asked me in six foreign languages for a 
loan of fifty dollars, and as I couldn't under- 
stand what he said, he didn't get it, and I 
am just fifty dollars ahead — see ? " 

That all's not gold that glitters, our 

Philosophers agree; 
The more we live, the more we doubt 

'Most everything we see. 
The fruitage often contradicts 

The promise of the tree; 
But the worst of all her gruesome lot, 
Though with abominations fraught, 
Who tries an egg and finds 'tis not 

What it's cracked up to be. 

—Lippincotfs Magazine. 

SHE KNEW HER HUSBAND. 

"So you found poker chips in j'our hus- 
band's dressing case ! " said the woman who 
makes trouble. "That's proof that he plays 
cards for money." 

"Oh, quite the contrary! If those chips 
meant money, John would have cashed them 
long ago."— /'7/r/J'. ,., 



Good Roads 



Vol. 3. 



April, 1893. 



Xo. 4. 




ROADS, GOOD AND BAD. 

"By Gen. Charles IV. Darling, formerly Mililary Engineer in 
Chief of the State of New York. 

THE bill which has recently been introduced by Senator 
Manderson in the Senate of the United States should 
receive the careful consideration of our legislators at 
Washington. 

It would be a wise movement to create a national highway 
commission, composed of members of congress, the cabinet of 

the president of the United 



States, and one associate mem- 
ber from each state, whose duty 
it shall be to formulate plans 
for a national school of roads 
and bridges; to consider the 
advisability of establishing 
militar)'' or post roads in cer- 
tain sections of the country; 
to report what the United 
States has already done in the 
way of highway construction; 
and to make recommendations 
as to such roads as may still be 
under national ownership. It 
seems reasonable also that this 
important bill should provide 
for the collection and dissemi- 
nation of information on the 
subject in general and place 
on exhibition at the World's Fair all varieties of road making 
appliances. Free instruction would thus be afforded in the art 
for all there who desire it, and an effort would be made to collate 
the various state laws on the subject so that information may 
be imparted as to their practical workings. The committee is 
to report whether any form of national aid is desirable, and co- 
operate between nation, state and county, in a general system 
of construction based upon mutual agreement as to need and 
character of work. The commission is also to investigate the 
practicability of employing convicts upon the roads and of 
regulating the construction of vehicles for the better preserva- 
tion of road surfaces, and to report what national and state 
legislation or constitutional amendments are necessary, together 
with any other suggestions or recommendations concerning the 




GEN. CliAS. \V. DARLING. 



176 ROADS, GOOD AND BAD. 

subject that it may see fit to make. The bill is admitted to be 
educational in character, and it provides for a thorough in- 
vestigation of the whole subject of road improvement, and 
certainly this is the beginning" of a very important movement 
which should meet with universal approval. 

To secure the best results in the construction of highways 
there must be a uniformity of method throughout the states, 
and it should be in accord with the national government. By 
the establishment of a national school of roads, students would 
receive technical instruction in this branch of engineering and 
the treating of our highways would then be imder the care of 
experienced men. We are not making the same progress in 
road building that they are making in the civilized countries of 
Europe. The Via Appia, named by an ancient writer "Regina 
Viarum " was commenced 312 B. C, and was built, in part at 
least, by Appius Claudius Crecus. It is well known as the old- 
est and most celebrated of all Roman roads, leading from Porta 
Capena at Rome to Capua, Beneventum, Torentum, and Brun- 
dusium. To mark the width of this road two parallel trenches 
were first cut, out of which the earth was removed until a solid 
foundation was reached. This foundation for the body of the road 
was composed of four layers, the lowest of which consisted of two 
or three courses of flat stones laid in mortar. The layer next 
above it consisted of rubble masonry of smaller stones, or a 
course of concrete, and on the third layer, of a finer concrete, 
were laid large hexagonal blocks of hard stone, composed prin- 
cipally of basaltic lava, jointed together with great care to make 
the surface present the appearance of one smooth mass. The 
four layers, in the places where they have been examined, rep- 
resent an average thickness of about three feet, although in 
some places the thickness is greater. The width of the paved 
portion of the road appears to have been about sixteen feet, 
and on either side were unpaved foot paths separated by raised 
stone causeways. The cost of this stupendous undertaking 
must have been enormous, for in many parts of the road there 
were natural obstructions. Valleys had to be filled up, ravines 
bridged, swamps embanked, rocks cut through and large quan- 
tities of huge stones must have been carried, long distances. 
So far as possible, Roman roads were laid in a straight course 
from point to point, regardless of obstacles. The substantial 
character of these roads is shown by those which yet exist, 
which have borne the traffic of more than 2,000 years without 
material injury. None knew better than did the men who 
ruled at Rome before the Christian era, that roads form a 
primary element in the material advancement of a nation, and 
are essential to the development of the natural resources of a 
country. The Romans were indeed great constructors of roads, 
and they regarded them as of vital importance for conquest as 
well as maintenance of empire. 



ROADS, GOOD AND BAD. 



^11 



The roads laid by the Romans in Great Britain were not 
kept in even tolerably good repair by the subsequent occupants 
of the soil, and Macaulay states that even as late as the eight- 
eenth century, their roads there were in an incredibly bad 
condition. About the year 1285, one of the earliest laws en- 
forced by the occupants of the soil on the subject of roads, 
directed that all trees and shrubs should be cut down to the 
distance of 200 feet on either side of roads between market 
towns, in order to prevent the concealment of robbers in them. 
The first toll for the repair of roads was levied by the authority 
of Edward III, in 1346, on roads which now form part of the 




"THERE ARE FEW ROADS IN NEW YOKK THAT' ARE GOOD." SCENE ON COUNTRY ROAD 
IN ALBANY COUNTY, N. Y., SHOWING ABANDONED WAGON. DRAWN FROM PHOTO- 
GRAPH TAKEN IN FALL OF 1892. 

streets of London. In 1555 an act was passed requiring each 
parish to elect two surveyors of highways, whose duty it was to 
keep them in repair by compulsory labor. At a later period, 
in place of compulsory labor, the statute labor tax was sub- 
stituted. The roads in England were then in a wretched con- 
dition, and many of them were horse tracks leading to higher 
grounds to enable the riders to avoid bogs. These trackways 
were usually impassable in winter, being narrow and in places 
so deep and miry as to closely resemble some of our own roads 
in the west. As late as 1736 the roads in the neighborhood of 
London were so bad that in wet weather it is said a carriage 
could not be driven from Kensington to St. James Palace in 



17§ kOADS, GOOD AND BAD. 

less than two hours, and it was not an nnusual circumstance for 
royalty to get stuck in the mud. What the people of England 
have done for their roads within the past century can more 
easily be done by the energetic people of our own fair land 
with a less expenditure of time and labor. 

"Within five years," says Edward L. Wakeman, " I have 
tramped along 3,000 miles of British roads. Each time I step 
my feet upon their broad, firm, even surface, every drop of 
American blood in me tingles with shame at the thought of the 
mud pikes and bottomless road sloughs of our own splendid 
country, rich, great and strong enough to match the roads of 
Europe without a week's delay. And yet for five months of 
the year, and in a lesser degree for the other seven, half of the 
people of our farming communities are imprisoned and impov- 
erished helplessly at home. As one result, the people of the 
whole country pay, in an indirect road tax, through annual 
sharp advances on all food necessities of life, all of which the 
farmers lose, a sum each year enormous enough to maintain as 
superb roads as England anywhere possesses, around every 
section of cultivable land in the United States." 

Another writer, whose name is unknown, in speaking of the 
recent relay bicycle race against time from Chicago to New 
York, remarks that it has served to demonstrate one thing, 
viz. : that this country is several hundred years behind other 
countries in the matter of good roads. The storms and floods 
that have prevailed in the West serve to emphasize the fact 
that in this new country road-making is almost an unlearned 
art, and even in the Empire state the cyclists plodded through 
ways of mud and morass. All American travellers can testify 
that one of the first things to strike an American abroad is the 
magnificence of the public highways. The question of good 
roads obviously concerns no classes more directly than horse- 
men and general farmers. The market for driving horses will 
expand with the extension of good driveways, and aside from 
this, there is the greater pleasure of the driver, and the greater 
ease with which the horse performs the task required of him. 
The highways in the prairie states are often practically impass- 
able, and the writer observed a short time ago on an Illinois 
road, a stout team of horses trying to draw an empty wagon, 
and making a dismal failure of it, for the reason that the hubs 
were level with the top of the ground, and the horses were up 
to their knees and hocks in sticky prairie mud. Surely in this land 
of corn and wine we should have the best highways in the world. 
The city of Utica, in the county of Oneida, State of New York, 
according to statistics, is one of the healthiest and wealthiest 
cities in the United States, charmingly located in the Mohawk 
Valley. Beyond, and even within the city limits, all of its 
roads are not good, and there is no excuse for it, considering 



ROADS, GOOD AND BAD. 179 

the means which its citizens have at their command. There 
are a few roads in New York which are good, but the most of 
them are much worse than those in New England. 

To give us a good system of common roads all over the 
country, it would probably take five hundred million dollars, 
which is a big piece of money, but it is not great compared 
with the values which would be enhanced by its wise expendi- 
ture. It is estimated by Speed that the cost of maintaining and 
repairing a highway properly constructed ought not to be 
greater for a year than one per cent, of its first cost. In the 
two items of horses and vehicles, the increased values of these 
properties would more than pay for the improvement. The 
effect, also, upon the horses and vehicles used on roads would 
be more immediate and more direct, and the enhancement of 
the value of real estate would be so great that the large sum 
mentioned would seem insignificant. 

Turnpike roads, so-called from their having toll gates in 
former times, were generally managed by inexperienced men, 
until Telford and Macadam brought scientific principles and a 
regular system to bear upon their construction and repair. 

Thomas Telford, born in 1757, was the son of a Scotch 
shepherd, and having a taste for civil engineering he adopted 
it as his profession. Through the influence of Sir W. Pulteney 
he obtained a contract to erect a bridge across the Severn at 
Montford, which he completed in 1792. In 1803 he was ap- 
pointed engineer for the construction of 930 miles of roads in 
the Highlands of Scotland and subsequently he improved the 
road communication between London, Scotland and the northern 
towns of England. He also introduced a system of roads 
through a portion of Wales, which involved the erection of the 
magnificent suspension bridge across the Menai Straits begun 
in 1820. The name and fame of Telford in connection with 
roads is associated with a pitched foundation resembling the 
kind used in France about the beginning of the eighteenth 
century. A foundation of large flat stones was laid, and over 
that two layers of smaller stones were placed, bordered by 
large stones, turned with the edges up, which appeared on the 
surface of the road. In 1764 Tresaguet set the foundation 
stones on edge, and reduced the thickness of the upper layers, 
and it is said his method was usually followed until the influence 
of Macadam began to be felt. Macadam, however, was not a 
close follower of the system of his predecessor, as he did not 
pay so much attention to a foundation of the broken stone, for 
he contended that the sub-soil would carry any weight if made 
dry by drainage and kept dry by an impervious covering. 

Highways in England have been either of immemorial 
antiquity or have been created under the authority of an act of 
Parliament. According to the English law a highway is a 



i8o ROADS, GOOD AND BAD. 

place over which a right is enjoyed by the public for driving, 
riding or walking. It has often been called the Queen's High- 
way, not because that august personage has any better right to 
it than any of the public, but to denote the impartiality with 
which all her subjects may enjoy the right of way without dis- 
tinction of rank or station. Where the right of way belongs to 
the owner of horses, or his tenants, this private way is classed 
among easements. With the English people this is defined to 
be " a privilege without profit which the owner of one neigh- 
boring tenement hath of another, existing in respect of their 
several tenements by which the servient owner is obliged to 
suffer or not to do something on his own land for the advantage 
of a dominant owner." " The rights comprehended under the 
title of easements," says Gale, "are of a very important kind, 
. and include rights of water, rights of way, rights of light and 
air, rights to support from a neighboring soil or house, rights 
to carry on an offensive trade," etc. In Scotch law an easement 
is an incorporeal hereditament, and corresponds in many 
respects with a servitude ; but an easement is more limited 
than a servitude, inasmuch as it comprehends those rights only 
which carry no title to the profit of the soil. These latter 
rights are known abroad as " Profits a prendre. " An easement 
cannot exist apart from an estate in land, it being necessary 
that there should exist two tenements, one enjoying a dominant 
right, the others over which it is enjoyed (servient). An ease- 
ment must be constituted by deed or by prescription, and it 
may be distinguished by an actual or implied release. When 
a party entitled to the enjoyment of an easement is disturbed 
in that enjo3^ment, he may enforce his right by action at law, 
or he may enter upon the servient tenement and abate the nui- 
sance himself. 

Our law on the subject of easement is regulated by the 
same principles that prevail in England, and for more 
points on this subject it is only necessary to read "Comment- 
aries on American Law." It is stated by an able authority 
that a highway must be a thoroughfare, and a road which does 
not lead to any public place cannot properly be called a high- 
way. If a road is not created by an act of parliament it can be 
created by dedication, or by grant of the owner, or by the 
necessity of things. If a person allows the public for four or 
five years to pass through his fields without remonstrance, this 
will be an evidence from which a jury may infer that the owner 
meant to present to the people the right of way, and he cannot 
afterwards exclude the public. The manner in which a grant 
of the way is proved is generally by showing that the public 
have from time immemorial, or for a few years without inter- 
ruption, and with the owner's consent, enjoyed the right of 
way; for if that is proved, then the law assumes that the 



ROADS, GOOD AND BAD. iSi 

right was given by some lost grant. There are also 
rights of way limited to a particular purpose which may be 
proved by long established custom, such as a way for the 
inhabitants of a village to or from church. If an ob- 
struction, such as a gate or a wall, should encroach upon 
a highway, any passenger has a right to remove without 
ceremony the nuisance, but he must take care not to do 
more damage than is necessary for the purpose of clearing the 
road, otherwise he will subject himself to an action. Another 
incident to the use of a highway is, that the public have an ab- 
solute right to use every part of it, but certain well known rules 
must be complied with, such as that of giving and taking the 
road, otherwise if an accident were to occur, the transgressor 
would be liable for negligence, if it arose from a neglect of 
such rules, for these constitute the law of the road. It results 
from this principle that no person, or persons, can be entitled 
to convert a portion of the highway into any purpose, however 
useful, other than a highway. Chambers states that in London 
it has been held an indictable nuisance for an electric telegraph 
company to place their telegraph poles on the strips of land at 
the side of the road, for it practically obstructs the public in its 
free passage, and we know how much trouble we have lately 
had in New York with telegraph poles. In Scotland the right 
to the ground beneath the highway is said to belong to the 
crown, but in England it is the property of adjoining owners. 
If the land on both sides of a highway is the property of the 
same owner, then the right to the ground beneath the road is 
vested in him. If the land on one side belongs to a different 
owner from the land on the other side, then each is presumed 
to have the right to the ground under the highway up to the 
middle line. Neither of the adjoining owners, however, can in- 
terfere with the passage of the public, who have an absolute 
right forever to use it for every lawful purpose of transit. If a 
mine were discovered under the road, the adjoining owner 
would in England have a right to open it and appropriate the 
ore to his own use, but he would be obliged to leave sufficient 
support for the surface of the road. 

No more time need be occupied in citing other cases, but it 
has always been, is now, and ever will be, in all probability, 
the wish and intention of our National and State governments, 
to protect the people of the United States, in all their rights 
and privileges. Let them therefore know and understand that 
when rioters, anarchists, or agitators attempt to take the law 
into their own hands, then there only remains for them, at the 
hands of our government, the punishment which they justly 
deserve. 



ROAD-LAW IN SWITZERLAND. 
'By Edgar % Dawson, M. E. 

EVER since the beginning of the present movement in favor 
of better roads we have had discussions as to the best 
manner of building, and various systems have been advo- 
cated. 

Some have supported the macadam with excellent argu- 
ments and testimony ; others have based their hopes on the 
telford system as embodying the best knowledge on the sub- 
ject, and as likely to be the road of the future. There have 
been various examples cited of both of these systems in use in 
Europe. ' Now there is really as much to be drawn from 
European legislation on this subject as from European experi- 
ence in construction and maintenance. There is nothing mys- 
terious about road building. It is not a secret art. No more 
profound thought is required in this matter than in hundreds 
of other aifairs of daily life. American engineers are entirely 
competent to handle the question, even though they have not 
had the experience of their foreign colleagues. The difficulty 
does not lie there. Where does it lie, then? The answer is per- 
fectly plain and clear. In the indifference of the people to their 
own best interests in the matter and the consequent insufficient 
and improper legislation on the subject. 

The Swiss roads have long been famous and if we wish to 
gain valuable experience in dealing with this question we could 
not do better than turn our attention thither. 

The roads there are affairs of the several cantons, subject 
to cantonal legislation, the federal government having no con- 
trol in the ordinary matters pertaining to the different road sys- 
tems. Among the most progressive and advanced of the can- 
tons is Vaud, whose legislation on the subject which now in- 
terests us is particularly worth investigation. This is so because 
the chief industry of the canton is agricultural and consequently 
the different products have to be hauled greater distances in 
marketing them, than in manufacturing countries where the 
railways are more largely called into use. The type of road 
adopted in this canton is the macadam. On the principal high- 
ways the original thickness of broken stone must be at least 6 
in., the stones being broken to a diameter of from i^ to 2 in. 
This depth of 6 in. is soon increased by new layers put on at 
the proper seasons of the year, preferably in the Autumn. 
With the highways of the second class the thickness of the mac- 
adam and other details are decided according to circumstances 
by the judgment of the engineers in charge. On this latter 



ROAD-LAW TN SWITZERLAND 



183 




class of roads a great deal of gravel is used for repairs, or more 
properly, for maintenance. This although not so good as bro- 
ken stone of the same size, presents certain advantages. The 
chief of these is the ease with which it is to be obtained in so 



184 



ROAD-LA IV IN SWITZERLAND. 



many parts of the canton, the fact that it does not have to be 
broken to the proper size, and finally, its toughness and dura- 
bility. 

The laws on the subject of the highways in Vaud are divided 
into two separate and distinct branches, the ordinary road law 
and the law for the proper policing of the roads. The ordinary 
road law, which we shall take up first is under several separate 
heads. The chief of these are: classification of all public ways; 
maintenance ; construction of new roads, and reconstruction of 
old ones; widths of all highways; highways passing through 
towns or villages; methods of obtaining lands or materials 




ROAD OVER ST. GOTHARD PASS, SWITZERLAMD. (FROM PHOTOGRAPH CONTRIBUTED 
BY iMR. MARRIOTT C. MORRIS.) 

The descent into the Vale of Tremolo. The extreme height of road in this Pass is 
6,935 feet above sea level. This elevation is reached by an easy and almost uniform 
grade, obtained by giving to the roadway a windina: alignment. The whole work is 
done in the most substantial manner, involvinjf great skill, infinite care and consider- 
able expense; but like the other great land highways of Europe, the expense of con- 
struction has proven to be but trifling as compared with the value of the completed 
work. 



necessary for the roads ; obligations of the counties and pro- 
visions necessary for the reopening of highways temporarily 
closed to circulation. 

All the public ways where it does not conflict with any 
special law form part of the public domain ; and before allowing 
any road to be closed or the direction to be changed a commit- 
tee of inquiry investigates the matter, on whose report the 
legislature decides to give or withhold the authorization, the 
same procedure being necessary where there is question of 
opening a new road. 



ROAD-LAW IN SWITZERLAND. 185 

The highways are divided into cantonal and communal, 
which for our purposes we may call state and county. The 
state roads are those whose importance as arteries of communi- 
cation is generally reco'gnized ; all others coming under the head 
of county. 

The maintenance of the roads comprises the supplying of 
the necessary broken stone and all new work and repairs, where 
the cost does not exceed $200. With state roads the mainte- 
nance is incumbent on both the state and the counties through 
which it passes. The share that falls on the counties may, 
however, partially or wholly be placed to the charge of other 
counties than those through whose territory it passes. This is 
made possible only by the approval of the legislature. 

The state takes charge of the supervision and inspection, 
the supplying of materials, and in general, all work pertaining 
to maintenance. It also regulates and pays the salary of the 
roadhands, supervises the removal of all ditch dirt and takes 
charge of new work not costing over $200. The counties are 
under the obligation of providing, without compensation the 
materials necessary to the maintenance of the state roads. The 
maintenance of the count)^ roads is entirely incumbent on the 
counties within which the roads lie; the counties being com- 
pelled to conform in everything that pertains to improvement 
or maintenance to the regulations of the department of public 
works. The expense of construction and reconstruction of the 
state highways is partially borne by the counties interested in 
the proportion of seven-tenths by the state and three- 
tenths by the counties. This expense is divided among 
the townships in the following manner: First a list of the 
counties, which, by their situation and the position of their 
public ways, are interested in the projected improvement, is 
made up. The participation of the cost by these counties is 
made proportional to the landed interests of each county, as 
determined by the tax assessment, and also to the advantage 
that each would draw from the improvement. An effort is 
made in this latter particular to take into account all modifying 
circumstances. The advantage to be drawn from the improve- 
ment by the county least benefitted is rated as one; while, 
for the county most benefitted it is rated as ten, the 
others receiving values between these two extremes. The 
taxable land value for each county is multiplied by the number 
that represents its interest, and the expense shared propor- 
tionally to these products. This plan as described is prepared 
by the executive government of the canton. Before it is 
adopted, however, a committee of investigation is appointed by 
the legislature, which latter body decides finally in the matter. 

Lest there should be abuse of the power of decision as to the 
interest any one county may be supposed to have in the under- 



T^ 





ROAD-LAW IN SWITZERLAND. 187 

taking, it is expressly forbidden to compel any county to con- 
tribute, when the seat of authority of the county lies at a 
distance of twelve miles or more from the nearest part of the 
improvement. When the improvement does not call for more 
than $1,000 no action is necessary by the legislature; the 
authority of the executive being sufficient. In cases of this 
kind the department of public works makes a report to the 
executive on the division of the expense ; the executive there- 
upon deciding the matter. The object of this is to provide for 
urgent needs, where repairs or reconstruction are imperatively 
necessary. The other method of procedure is much more 
cumbersome and much slower, as is always the case when any- 
thing of the sort is referred to a committee whose action is not 
final. All this relates only to the state highways, for, where 
the same thing is necessary with a county road, the whole 
burden falls on the counties, except in unusual circumstances, 
where the legislature may grant a subsidy. Although the total 
expense generally falls on the counties, the work may be 
ordered to be done by the executive with the approval of the 
legislature. And as before, when the expense does not exceed 
$1,000 legislative approval is not even necessary, the decision 
cf the executive being supreme. The maintenance required 
by any such improvement devolves entirely on the counties, the 
state being in nowise responsible. When a subsidy is granted 
in aid of a county improvement, it must not exceed four- 
tenths of the total expense, and in cases where it is over $400 
legislative action is necessary. Otherwise the executive and 
the department of public works are allowed to decide. 

Not less important than the sharing of expense in the mat- 
ters of maintenance and construction is the minimum width 
that is permitted. On this, with a few exceptions, the following 
limits have been fixed, ditches not being included; for the 
state highways sixteen to nineteen feet, and for the county 
roads twelve feet. The exceptions above mentioned are in the 
case of the slopes of mountains or other circumstances render- 
ing such widths very expensive. Even in these cases, however, 
the roads must always have a width sufficient to enable two 
vehicles to pass safely. Where these conditions do not exist 
they are provided for as fast as circumstances will permit. 

The regulations with regard to encroachments on the Ime 
of a highway are very strict. And in the effort to establish a 
satisfactory width for the roadway entire, and in order to pre- 
vent further complications, a law has been enacted forbidding 
the construction or reconstruction of any wall at a less dis- 
tance than ten feet from the centre of a road. Whenever this 
renders the relinquishment of any land necessary, the owner 
receives damages. With a view to carrying out fully these 
regulations, proper permits are required from the Department 



iS8 J^O AD-LA IV IN SWITZERLAND. 

of Public Works before doing any repairing or constructing on 
a roadside. Where an enlargement is thought necessary by 
the Department of Public Works, it is recommended to the 
executive which has the final decision ; damages being allowed 
according to the estimate of the executive. based on the opinion 
of their advisers. When a road passes through a town, the law 
on the subject of constructions takes precedence of this and 
legislation is necessary. 

In all places where the width of the roads is not defined by 
walls or buildings, small stone posts are placed at suitable dis- 
tances on each side of the road for that purpose. This arrange- 
ment is of great advantage on embankments, adding greatly to 
the safety. 

In order to see that nobody's interests are infringed in this 
matter of indicating the limits of the roads, the posts for the 
state roads must be put in place in the presence of the road su- 
pervisor for the district. With the county roads this office is per- 
formed in the presence of a delegation appointed by the county 
authorities. This cautious method of proceeding not only pre- 
vents future damage suits, but also ensures a proper supervision. 

When constructing a new road or altering the limits of an old 
one, a plan indicating the location of the road is first drawn by 
a licensed surveyor, in accordance with the instructions of the 
Department of Public Works. Three copies are made of this. 
One is given to a functionary called the ''preserver of public 
rights;" one to the supervisior of the district; the original and 
the third copy being for the Department of Public Works. 
Proper discussion of the matter is thus ensured in advance, and 
when the work is finally undertaken it is on a proper footing, 
and can be completed without anyone being able to raise the 
cry that he has not had sufficient notice or that his interests are 
being disregarded. 

In many instances the state roads pass through small towns 
or villages; the entire charge of such portions of a road 
devolves on the county, within which the municipality lies. In 
all matters pertaining to such pieces of road, the decision of 
the Department of Public Works is paramount, and the county 
or municipality is held to conform thereto. The legislature 
itself, with the advice of the Department of Public Works, de- 
cides where the limits of the municipality lie ; so there is no 
uncertainty as to who is responsible for the proper condition of 
the road. 

Condemnation of property for the purpose of opening a new 
road is only resorted to when no agreement can be reached 
otherwise. The cession of the land is surrounded with legal 
forms sufficient to prevent any subsequent misunderstandings, 
and the indemnity is only paid after the completion of the 
work. The old road belongs to the state or the county, as the 



ROAD- LA IV IN SWITZERLAND. 189 

case may be. This old road-bed may only be closed to traffic 
after an official investigation. Where an old state highway has 
been superseded by another, but is so necessary to the local 
traffic that it may not be closed, it becomes a county road. 

It sometimes occurs that in order to properly drain a high- 
way, some of the water must be turned off by drains on the 
property of the adjacent landholders. In all such cases the 
proprietors are indemnified for any loss they may suffer. 

The materials necessary for either the construction or main- 
tenance of a road may be taken from the property of an indi- 
vidual or a county, proper compensation being, of course, 
granted. Before such action is allowed an official investigation 
must take place and the authority of the legislature be granted. 
This regulation is equally applicable to places of deposit for 
materials and to roads of access to the quarries, etc. 

Where it is wished to obtain possession of the property and 
not merely to buy the materials on it, an act of the legislature 
is necessary. The privileges just spoken of belong only to the 
state at large and those having the state roads in charge, but 
the counties may be authorized to avail themselves of them 
by the legislature. In addition to the compensation allowed by 
the state for materials acquired in this way, it, /. e., the state, 
is responsible in the civil courts for any damage that may 
occur; but no action is permitted against the immediate 
authors. The contractors and workmen that are employed in 
extracting materials from such property are not allowed to sell 
any part of what they have obtained in this way, but must use 
it all on the highways. 

The right of taking gravel or other material from the bed 
of a watercourse or lake belongs solely to the state. On occa- 
sion it may be ceded to a county for the maintenance of iis 
roads. To accomplish this the county authorities must make an 
application to the supervisor of the state roads for their district : 
indicating the place and time dviring which they wish to make 
use of the privilege. They must adhere strictly to the super- 
visor's directions. With a view to preserving all the best and 
most available material, a proprietor is not even allowed to ex- 
tract material from a water course on his own property without 
the permission of the district supervisor. This permission only 
being accorded when the materials are not needed for the 
roads. 

To stimulate the activit}^ of the people in finding quarries, 
etc., for suitable material, prizes are offered. 

When a case arises where a road, by virtue of a private title 
or an uninterrupted use during thirty consecutive years, is under 
the care of a county other than that on which it is situate, or 
of a corporation, or of an individual, the ordinary law for its 
maintenance does not apply, audit is dependent in this regard 



ipo ROAD-LAW IN SWITZERLAND. 

on those in whom the title is vested. This title may be bought 
back ; its purchase being demanded by either of the parties 
interested and taking place in accordance with the law for con- 
demning property. 

When the construction or reconstruction of a state high- 
way has been decided on and the work undertaken, the counties 
are compelled to pay into the state treasury each year until the 
completion of the work the share of the expense which falls on 
them. This share is calculated proportionally to the money 
paid out during the preceding year. The balance is settled 
after the completion of the work, when the entire bill of ex- 
pense has been made out by the Department of Public Works. 
In this way the participation of the counties is regulated on the 
real expense and not on the estimates. 

The amounts due the state treasury are collected by means 
of bills made out by the Department of Public Works. And 
in case of non-payment the county property may be levied on. 
When a county is so impecunious that its revenues are un- 
equal to the expense of maintenance, special sums of money 
may be raised for the purpose by assessing the landholders. 
The authority of the executive is necessary before this step 
is permitted. If a town or county does not adhere to all the 
regulations prescribed for its guidance, the executive orders the 
work done at once and charges the bill to the county. The 
municipalities, on the demand of the supervisor, must provide 
the road rnaterials he asks for and within the time he allots 
them for the purpose. They must conform to the directions 
that are given them, and in the case of failure the work is done 
by the order of the Department of Public Works, the bill going 
to the county as before. 

We have before spoken of portions of road, that under pe- 
culiar circumstances may have fallen into the hands of corpo- 
rations, or individuals, or other counties. This does not exempt 
the counties from any responsibility, as they are expected to 
see that these roads are kept in proper repair, and must notify 
the parties interested whenever repairs are needed and see 
that the work is properly done. If any delay in such repairs 
should be a source of danger, the work is entered on at once by 
the officers of the county, which is reimbursed afterwards by 
those on whom the expense should fall. If the counties neglect 
to enforce these regulations, the Department of Public Works 
steps in and does the work at the expense of the county in- 
terested. And when through any cause traffic has been inter- 
rupted on the public way of a town or village, the circulation 
must be re-established with the least possible delay. The 
municipalities are held strictly accountable for any negligence 
in this respect. If an accident occurs which renders a public 
way dangerous or unfit for traffic the county authorities must 



ROAD-LAW IN SWITZERLAND. 191 

provide a suitable passage on the adjacent property. When 
this is not practicable proper barriers must be placed at suitable 
distances from the accident, so ^s to give a different direction 
to traffic with the least possible inconvenience to those using 
the roads. In addition to this the district supervisor must be at 
once notified. 

If these provisions should entail very large expenditures on 
the counties, an indemnity for a portion of the expense may be 
allowed from the state treasury. 

A regulation that strikes an American strangely, and which 
one would expect to find often disregarded or shirked, is that in 
reference to the clearing away of snow from the highways. 
The provision covering this calls for a width of ten feet free 
from loose snow or ice. The expense rests on the counties, 
which may in extraordinary cases receive state aid. It is really 
remarkable with what diligence and perseverance this regula- 
tion is carried out on all the highways of the canton. On the 
large roads triangular snow ploughs drawn by horses are used, 
and on the other roads ploughs of the same shape, but smaller di- 
mensions and drawn by men. The regular road hands must be 
present and lend their aid in the work. The labor is paid for 
by the state, and they must render an account to their super- 
visor of the time and materials expended in disencumbering 
the roads. The Department of Public Works has in this way 
complete knowledge of the money expended and in case of an 
appeal for state aid, can furnish the government with very 
useful information. 

In my next paper I will speak of the policing of the high- 
ways. 



State of Vermont, 

OFFICE of 

Secretary of Civil and Military Affairs. 

Brattleboro, March 20, 1893. 
Mr. Isaac B. Potter, Ma7iaging Editor^ 

Good Roads, New York, N. Y. 
Dear Sir : — Governor Fuller directs me to send you a copy 
of the Vermont Legislative Directory, and ask that you mail 
addressed to the Road Commissioner of each of our towns 
(pp. 258-274) a copy of the Massachusetts number of Good 
Roads, and send the account for same to him here. 

Respectfully, 

J. H. Goulding, 

Secretary. 



THE UNRECORDED NATIONAL DEBT. 



By C. M. T'liimh, of Oakland, Cal. 

THE total interest bearing- debt of the United States now 
amounts to 585 million dollars. The debts of the several 
states and cities are placed at about 365 millions more. 
Four per cent, interest upon the total amount calls for a yearly pay- 
ment of thirty-eight millions — about sixty centsper capita of the 
entire population, ornearly eighteen cents on every one hundred 

dollars of the total property 
valuation of the United Sta.tes. 
This heavy obligation, which 
happily is being steadily 
lightened, is so well under- 
stood by taxpayers, that any 
ignorance on the part of a 
citizen, of either the nature or 
extent of the debt, is a direct 
impeachment of his intelli- 
gence, if not of his patriotism. 
How many citizens know 
that the American people have 
another, and still heavier in- 
debtedness, with a large pay- 
ment falling due as regularly 
and inevitably as interest on 
bonds, and which is increasing, 
rather than diminishing each 
year? This new and apparently 
unrecognized national debt is 
the obligation incurred by the township or county aiithorities 
of the several states to maintain the roads which have been 
accepted as public highways. This contract, it must be ad-^ 
mitted, is not only sacred, but its repudiation would result 
in a blockade that would be paralyzing to commerce and fatal to 
agriculture. 

The road tax varies greatly in the different states. In some 
of the counties of California, where the absence of frost and 
snow reduces the cost of road repairs to a minimum, the rate 
is as low as thirty cents per one hundred dollars property 
valuation. The maximum is fixed by some states at one dollar. 
It will be quite safe to assume one-half this limit, or one-half 
of one per cent, as the average amount of the road tax over 
the country. 1,2 




C. M. PLUMB. 



THE UNRECORDED NATIONAL DEBT. 



193 



With a property valuation of twenty-four and a half billions, 
the total yearly road tax amounts to more than one hundred and 
twenty million dollars ! This amounts to one dollar and ninety 
cents per capita, or three times the interest upon the public 
debt, national, state and municipal! 

The purpose of this brief, writing, however, is not so much 
to enlarge upon the extent and character of this yearly tax, as 
to point out the peculiar fact that, heavy, inevitable and cumu- 
lative as this burden is, it is in effect unrecorded. In other 
words, the records of the roads of the counties of the several 
states is usually so meagre and indefinite as to prove little bet- 
ter than no record at all. 




"THE TOTAL YEARLY ROAD TAX AMOUNTS TO MORE THAN A HUNDRED AND TWENTY 
MILLIONS OF dollars!" AND THESE ARE THE KOADS WE GET FOR OUR MONEY. 
SCENE IN THE SUBURBS OF PHILADELPHIA IN THE SPRING OF iSgi. DRAWN FROM 
PHOTOGRAPH TAKEN BY PROF. L. M. HAUPT AND REPRODUCED HERE BY THE 
COURTESY OF THE "CENTURY MAGAZINE." 

In how many counties of the whole country can the officials, 
or could they, before the dawning of this new era of good 
roads, off-hand, without lengthy investigation, or after resur- 
vey, give the simple number of miles of roads for the mainte- 
nance of which the county is obligated? It would be still more 
difficult, if not impossible, to furnish any adequate description 
of these roads, short of a detailed copy of the report of the 
original "viewers," or other officials, 



194 



THE UNRECORDED NATIONAL DEBT. 



What would be thought of a city government destitute of 
maps and full records of the streets of the municipality? 
So far as distinct road maps, or tabulated records are con- 
cerned, most of the territory outside of incorporated towns, 
miofht as well be a howling wilderness. The burden of the 
"howl" is the oppressive yearly road tax, of — nobody knows 
how much in the aggregate, expended — nobody seems to know 
how or where, and for a purpose nobody can fathom, but ex- 
acted with unerring certainty, to continue without apparent 
end, and with the deplorable result of lamentably poor roads. 

It would seem to be a very simple but orderly step in the 
line of common sense, for each and every town and county 
government, thus heavily obligated, to formulate the character 




•'the BURDEN OF THE 'HOWL' IS THE OPPRESSIVE YEARLY ROAD-TAX, OF— NOBODY 
KNOWS HOW MUCH IN THE AGGREGATE, EXPENDED— NOBODY SEEMS TO KNOW HOW 
OR WHERE, AND FOR A PURPOSE WHICH NOBODY CAN FATHOM; BUT EXACTED 
WITH UNERRING CERTAINTY, TO CONTINUE WITHOUT APPARENT END, AND WITH 
THE DEPLORABLE RESULT OF LAMENTABLY POOR ROADS." SCENE ON IMPORTANT 
COUNTRY ROAD NEAR CLEVELAND, OHIO, DRAWN FROM PHOTOGRAPH TAKEN IN 
THE SPRING OF iSgi, AND REPRODUCED HERE BY THE COURTESY OF THE " CENTURY 
MAGAZINE." 



and extent of its obligation by a methodical record of its several 
roads, named for easy identification and description, and meas- 
ured for exact determination of length, and extent of the cost 
of maintenance and repair. 

Especially does such orderly record become important when, 
as at present, under the impulsion of 50,000 wheelmen, public 
attention is being called to the unnecessarily miserable charac- 
ter of this unmeasured length of nameless country thorough- 
fares, and the project of transforming them into a known 



THE UNRECORDED NATIONAL DEBT. 195 

length of hard, usable roadways, is being^jroached as absolutely 
practicable. 

The fathomless depth of a quicksand is quite as suitable 
foundation whereon to erect a building, as is an undetermined 
length of roadway a suitable start for road improvement. 

Cannot a call be made for official reports which shall supply 
the total length of roadways in the country? Such accurate in- 
formation would prove a most important step towards formu- 
lating a systematic method of procedure to accomplish the 
essential purpose of road improvement. 

Are the wheelmen fighting for two million miles of roads, or 
for only two thousand? Who knows? Can they not take steps 
to obtain this much needed information as to the real extent of 
our heaviest national obligation? 



Good Roads, the official organ of the League of American 
Wheelmen, is doing a great work in the cause which it repre- 
sents. In the current number some of the snap-shot camera 
views which it presents of Western country roads, as well as 
city streets, show a condition of affairs that is almost incredible. 
Its artists might find some interesting specimens of impassable 
roads without going very far from New York, as every wheel- 
man hereabouts knows by bitter experience. — New York World. 



"The Asbury Park Wheelmen passed the following resolu- 
tion at the regular business meeting of the club to-night: ' The 
Road Improvement Committee be authorized to subscribe for 
one hundred copies of Good Roads for six months. ' * * * i 
am hard at work compiling a list of the ' one hundred,' and as 
soon as it is completed will send to you. I should like to see 
the last August number go out as the initial number — it is a 
'dandy.'" — C. R. Zacharias, Chairmati, Asbury Park Wheelmen. 



"The magazine is 'great' and properly used, will work 
much good in the interest of good roads which are a blessing 
to all and a delight to wheelmen." — W. H. Davis, Aurora., III. 



" I THINK so much of the subject, and feel its importance to 
be so great, that I am going to do a very unusual thing, and 
that is, give your announcement one page in our next 
number, without any charge whatever." — Joseph P. Reed, 
Treasurer and General Manager, Arthur s Home Magazine, Phila- 
delphia. 



"Good Roads is a good Gospel and you are getting out a 
fine magazine," — Rev. A. L. Loder, Norwood, Mass. 



MACADAM AND TELFORD ROADS. 

By Isaac "B. Potter. 

{Continued.) 

III. 

PRACTICAL METHODS OF drainage; SURFACE DRAINS AND UNDER 

DRAINS WHEN NECESSARY AND HOW CONSTRUCTED ; FORM AND 

LOCATION OF SIDE DITCHES HOW AND WHERE UNDER DRAINS 

SHOULD BE CONSTRUCTED HOW WATER GETS INTO A TILE 

DRAIN EXCAVATING FOR MACADAM ROADWAY FORM OF CROSS 

SECTION ROLLING THE EARTH FOUNDATION THE BENEFITS 

OF ROLLING HORSE ROLLERS AND STEAM ROLLERS. 

THE subject of drainage is not a difficult one. To the road 
maker it presents the simple task of getting- rid of the 
surplus water which accumulates from different sources 
upon the surface of the roadway and saturates the soil of which 
it is composed. The method of treatment in each case depends 
upon local conditions, and there is no problem in everyday 



FIG 14. CROSS SECTION OF MACADAM ROADWAY AND SIDE DITCHES, SHOWING PROPER 
FORM AND DIMENSIONS. 

affairs that admits of a wider application or common sense 
principles than that presented by the drainage of a roadway. 

Under drains are not always necessary. Many "soils are of 
a gritty, gravelly, open, porous nature, and through these soils 
the water passes quickly and easily, leaving the surface in pass- 
able condition within a few hours of the heaviest rainfall. But 
these soils are, in many parts of the country, rare and excep- 
tional, and when found, do not extend over any considerable length 
of territory. They do not require sub-drainage, except in rare 
instances, where the line of the roadway dips into a pocket 
formed by the clay sub-stratum which holds the water and pre- 
vents its passing outward from the soil above. It is only nec- 
essary, therefore, to construct ample side drains upon the 
surface, and these should never be omitted, no matter what 
may be the material composing the surface of the road. 

The writer has already indicated in Fig. 9, and by descrip- 
tive text in a former chapter, what should be the general form 
of cross section of the surface drain. It should always have 

ig6 



MACADAM AND TELFORD ROADS. 197 

broad, flaring sides and where, for any reason, these slopes 
cannot" be made so as to prevent caving in, they should, if pos- 
sible, be paved with boulders or rough rubble or other suitable 
material according to the products of the neighborhood. Side 
ditches should be located several feet from the outer edge of 
the roadway, to lessen chances of accident to travelers. In 
northern latitudes they should be ample in size and always kept 
clear to receive and carry off water in the times of heaviest 
flood, for no matter what may be the character of the soil com- 
posing the roadway, the frosts of Winter will harden it, closing 
the pores and interstices between the particles of earth and 
rendering it, for the time, practically impervious to water. 
When in this condition the surface drains alone must be de- 
pended on, and after a severe Winter has hardened the ground 
for several feet beneath the surface, several weeks must some- 
times pass before the porous soil can be depended upon to aid 
in the drainage of the roadway. Add to this condition the 
fact that heavy winter storms sometimes leave the snow piled 
and drifted to a depth of several feet along the wagon road, 
and it will at once be apparent that in the removal of this 
heavy snow to its proper place at the sides of the road, ample 



FIG. 15. CROSS SECTION SHOWING PROPER FORM MACADAM ROADWAY WHEN CUT 
THROUGH EARTH. THE SIDB DITCHES ARE PAVED AND HEAVY CURB STONES ARE 
SET AGAINST BANK TO PREVENT CAVING. 

ditches are necessary to receive it and also to receive and carry 
off the water resulting from a sudden thaw in the warm days 
of Spring. 

To further illustrate this important subject the writer has 
introduced Figs. 14, 15 and 16, showing different sections of 
macadam roadway with forms of side ditches suited to the 
several conditions of surface over which the road is constructed. 
In each case it will be seen that the most ample provision has 
been made for surface drainage. 

But surface drainage is not always sufficient. Many soils, 
while in a degree porous, are not of that quick-draining, open 
nature, which invites the quick passage of water, and wherever a 
roadway occurs in these soils, the question of under drainage 
takes to itself a double importance and becomes in many cases 
imperative. 

The writer is persuaded from a somewhat extended observa- 
tion in the construction of American roads, that sub-drainage is 
too often neglected in cases where the conditions would seem to 
make it necessary for the permanence of the roadway, and that 



198 



MACADAM AND TELFORD ROADS. 



in thousands of other cases a good under drain would add to 
the value and lasting qualities of the roadway to a de'gree ex- 
ceeding many times the cost of the drain itself, besides afford- 
ing a continuous pleasure and profit to the citizens and travelers 
by whom the road is used. 




FIG. 16. CROSS SECTION OF MACADAM ROADWAY OM EARTH EMBANKMENTT RAISED ABOVE 
SURROUNDING SURFACE. POSTS AND RAILS (OR STONE BARRIERS) ARE SET UP NEAR 
THE EDGE OF THE BANK TO GUIDE THE TRAVELER AND PREVENT ACCIDENTS. 

Under Drains j Their Forms and Location. — There is no fixed 
rule for the construction of under drains. The primary object 
of this form of drain is to provide an underground channel 
which shall invite and carry off the surplus water which satur- 
ates the surrounding earth above the level of the drain. Any 
form of under drain which permanently accomplishes this result, 
is good ; and a drain that is not permanently good might better 
have been left unmade. To construct a good drain requires no 




FIG. 17. DIFFERENT FORMS OF DRAIN TILE. 

elaborate outfit and the common sense selection and use of ma- 
terials found in most neighborhoods will generally suffice. 

Drain tile should be used if possible. It is cheap, plentiful 
and makes a permanent and substantial drain, insures an ample, 
uniform, and constant channel for the flood of water, and is far 
and away the best channel for ordinary road drainage that has 
yet come into common use. 

In buying drain tile it is well to remember that dealers sell 
their wares at a very substantial discount from list prices. 
The ordinary round tile is the best for general use, and is made 
in convenient forms as shown in Fig. 17, to provide for 
branches and connections. 

In the matter of size, a drain tile having an inner diameter 
of three of four inches will generally be sufficient for the under 
drainage of a thirty foot roadway and, in many soils, of even 
a greater width. A greater diameter may always be used to 



MACADAM AND TELFORD ROADS. 



199 



advantage and a six inch pipe is none too large to improve the 
condition of the roadway, since the larger pipe invites the 
entrance of warm air in spring and quickens the thawing of 
the frost and the drying of the earth which surrounds the pipe. 
The question of cost is, however, an important one. As a 




^*--- 




''-'im:^ 



FIG. 18. COMMON FORM OF TILE 
DRAIN MADE WITH DRAIN TILE 
OF THE "U" PATTERN COVER- 
ED BY MARSH GRASS OR STRAW, 
OVER WHICH ARE LAID BOULD- 
ERS OR COARSE RUBBLE OR 
FIELD STONE, AND THE DITCH 
FINALLY FILLED WITH GRAVEL 
OR COMMON DIRT. 



FIG. iq. CROSS SECTION OF 
DRAIN MADE BY LAYING 
BUNDLES OF FOSCINES OR 
SLIM POLES AT BOTTOM OF 
TRENCH ANDCOVERINGTHEM 
WITH COARSE GRASS, STRAW, 
STONES, ETC., AS SHOWN IN 
FIG. 18. 



guide in the matter of expense, the writer inserts the following 
brief table which gives the "list" prices advertised by the 
manufacturers and the carrying capacity of different sizes of 
drain pipe according to the grade upon which it may be laid. 
Discounts are made from these prices as already stated. 

PRICE LIST OF HARD BURNED DRAIN TILE. 







^ 






_ 


., 






1/1 
u 




fa 




8 





4J 











G 


t-< 






^^ 


g^ 


. 




l-H 






« - 


u 






Size. 


a 




p.<u 
fa 








D 

fa'^ 




lA 


hi) 


a 


> 










a 






u d 

















Pt3 


fa 


fa 







< 


^ 


fc 









2; 


2 inch 


3-141 


3 , 


$ 20.00 


§ .20 


3 .30 




8,000 




7.068 
12.566 
19.625 
28.274 










■30 








45.00 




25 
30 
40 




4,000 
3,000 
2,200 




9 
12 




.40 
.50 




6 inch 


80.00 




.70 




38.484 
50.265 
63.617 
78-539 
113.09 
176.71 
254.46 


15 






50 
70 
75 


.70 


•75 




8 inch 


150-00 
200.00 




1,250 




26 
33 
44 
60 
92 






1. 00 
1. 15 




850 




325.00 
450.00 
70C.00 




25 




1.25 


750 




I 

2 


50 
25 




2.00 
2.50 


500 


18 inch 


350 




314.16 
345.00 


106 

no 


1,000.00 
1,250.00 


3 
4 


00 
00 




4. CO 

5.00 


050 


21 inch 


225 




452-39 


150 


1,625.00 


5 


00 




6.50 













200 MACADAM AND TELFORD ROADS. 

CARRYING CAPACITY OF DRAIN TILE IN GALLONS PER MINUTE. 



Size of Pipe. 



2 inch 

3 inch 

4 inch 

6 inch 

8 inch 

9 inch 

12 inch 

IS inch 

i8 inch 

2o inch 

24 inch 2,376 









^ 






















l^ 




fa* 


^fe 


££ 


^S 


(2£ 


A°o 


^S 


^8 


.^8 


.c8 


^§ 


t^ 


" 


" 


" 


" 


" 


£fe 




a u 


a u 


fi t, 


C u 


a iH 


feS3 


n 0) 




I-? a) 


M 0) 


M 0) 


M a 


N p. 


rnft 


vo D^ 


o~0< 


^ a 


.a 


6 


9 


13 


19 


23 


27 


37 


13 


19 


23 


35 


40 


46 


64 


27 


38 


47 


66 


81 


93 


131 


75 


105 


i2g 


'83 


224 


253 


364 


153 


216 


265 


375 


460 


529 


750 


205 


2go 


355 


503 


617 


711 


1,206 


422 


596 


730 


1,033 


1,273 


1,468 


2,076 


740 


1,021 


1,282 


1,818 


2,224 


2,464 


3,617 


1,168 


1,651 


2,022 


2,860 


3,508 


4,045 


5,604 


.,s6o 


2,054 


?,450 


3,450 


4,i?o 


4,860 


6,850 


2,376 


3,381 


4,152 


5,871 


7,202 


8,803 


11,744 



fefa 



46 

79 

163 

450 
923 

1,240 

2,554 
4,467 
7,047 
8,410 
14,466 



Drain tiles should be carefully laid, and since this work is 
designed to be lasting and is always troublesome to repair, it is 
best at the outset to give due attention to the work of making 
it permanent. 

There is a variety of methods followed by different author- 
ities in the making of tile drains, and most of them are good 
and none positively bad. It is idle to take sides in a con- 
troversy which serves no good end and settles no important 
difference. Tiles should be laid true to grade, evenly and 
substantially supported by the soil beneath and at the sides and 
covered in such manner as to prevent the introduction of silt, 
mud and other foreign substances into the interior of the pipe. 
This- is accomplished inmost cases after the manner shown in 
Fig. 18, in which the line of tiles is covered by a layer of straw 
or coarse marsh grass, over which is carefully placed a con- 
siderable depth of rubble or field stone and the whole topped 
off with a material composing the macadam surface. Some- 
times the rubble or field stone is placed in direct contact with 
the pipe, being carefully laid against it on either side to sup- 
port it in constant position, while at the top of the stone layer 
is placed a compact layer of sod, which serves to prevent the 
passage of earth through the loose stone and into the channel 
of the pipe. 

From manufacturers of drain tile can be obtained catalogues 
and price lists which contain much practical information re- 
garding its cost, methods of laying etc. , which need not be 
included here. 

But excellent drains are often made without the use of 
drain tile and where tile cannot be readily obtained, other 
methods may be substituted with advantage. In stiff, firm 
soils drainage has been very well effected by simply digging a 
uniform ditch of the proper depth, form and grade, and 



MACADAM AND TELFORD ROADS. 201 

■filling" it to a depth of two or three feet at the bottom, with ir- 
regular boulders and rough field stone of such size and shape 
as to insure a loose, open structure through which the water 
will readily pass. Over this is placed a layer of sod, straw or 
coarse marsh grass and the top finally completed with the 
material which forms the roadway surface. A somewhat more 
elaborate, yet vastly more efficient form of drain can be made 
by the use of rough stones, and consists in the selection of 
flattened stones of a moderately uniform size, and so laid at 
the bottom of the trench that the edges of adjacent stones 
rest against each other so as to form an angular opening 
through which the water may pass as in the case of a drain tile. 
The bottom or channel stones are then covered with coarse 
rubble or field stones, over which is placed the usual layer of 
sod, straw or coarse marsh grass and the trench is then filled to 
the top with earth conveniently at hand. 

Again it sometimes happens that neither drain tile nor 
stone is conviently near at hand and in such cases fascines, 



/?Olrt£-^ 




riG. 20. CROSS SECTION OF MACADAM ROADWAY SHOWING TILE DRAIN AT CENTRE. 
THE EARTH IMMEDIATELY BELOW THE MACADAM SURFACE HAS BEEN DRAINED BY 
THE TILE AND IS KEPT FREE OF WATER, DOWN TO THE LINE OF THE SHADED SUR- 
FACE, THUS I'REVENTING THE SOFTENING OF THE ROADWAY AND THE "HEAVING" 
EFFECTS OF FROST. 

generally bound together in bundles by tough withes laid 
along the bottom of the trench will form an excellent substitute. 
Fascines lack, of course, the durability of stones and tiles, but 
if well prepared and properly laid they last for many years and 
insure a drain of practical permanency. 

Either of these forms of drain may be used successfully in the 
b)uilding of macadam roads and as one or the other may always 
be put down at a moderate cost, it is best not to omit them 
ivhenever the soil is of any but a dry and porous character. 

How Water gets iJito a Drain Tile. — From what has been here 
Avritten, if not from the common experience of those readers 
who are familiar with the mysterious qualities of American 
mud, it must be clear that the subject of drainage is closely 
connected with the art of road making, and however widely 
opinions may differ as to details of construction, it is a gener- 



202 MACADAM AND TELFORD ROADS. 

ally accepted fact that every well made road must be provided 
with a means for surface drainage, many of them for sub- 
drainage and not a few for both. It is important then that the. 
principles and process of sub-drainage should be well under- 
stood, and since tile drains are becoming much used for the- 
sub-drainage of roadways, the writer will undertake, in answer 
to many inquiries received on this point, to explain the matter 
in which water enters a tile drain and to dispel a few com- 
monly accepted errors. 

The object of a tile dram is in most cases to drain the sur- 
plus water from saturated earth. As already explained, soils, 
differ greatly in their retentive qualities, that is, in their power 
to absorb and hold moisture ; but avoiding reference now ta 
those loose, sandy soils through which the water quickly passes, 
and to those heavy, waxy clays which seem to hold it so ten- 
aciously, it may be said in a general way, that the earth of a, 
common dirt road, however compact it may appear, is made up 
of a great number of very small irregular formed particles be- 
tween which run minute, thread-like channels all connected with_ 














({nTlfii 



FIG. 21. CROSS SECTION OF MACADAM ROADWAY WITH UNDER DRAINS AT SIDES. THESE" 
DRAINS DRY THE EARTH UNDER THE MACADAM SURFACE AND KEEP IT CLEAR 
OF MOISTURE AND FROST. A SINGLE DRAIN AT THE SIDE OF THE ROAD WILL GEN- 
ERALLY ACCOMPLISH THE SAME END. THE CENTRE DRAIN (FIG. 20) IS BEST LOCATED- 
BUT MORE INCONVENIENT AND EXPENSIVE TO REPAIR. 

one another, and the particles themselves if placed under a, 
powerful microscope will be found to contain small cavities or 
cells. It has already been shown, in a previous chapter, that 
these cells of thread-like channels are in most cases too small 
to permit the rapid passage of water, and that when the road 
is wet by a heavy shower, the water, by capillary attraction 
and by the force of gravity, is drawn into the body of the 
earth, filling the cavities and thread-like channels so completely 
that the earth is said to be "saturated." Now, if, as is com- 
monly the case, there is found some feet below the surface, a. 
layer or stratum of hard clay or other substance into which the 
water does not easily penetrate, the water gradually sinks down 
into and through the earth till all that portion of the earth lying 
next to the clay sub-soil becomes fully saturated, and this satu- 
ration, if the supply of water has been great enough, may ex- 
tend nearly or quite to the surface. Let us suppose a case in 
which the rain fall has been heavy, and the line of saturation. 



MACADAM AND TELFORD ROADS. 20^ 

is, for the time, about one foot below the surface of the earth, 
and suppose that a hne of common round drain tile be laid 
three feet below the surface of the earth, or two feet below the 
line of saturation, and extending by proper grade to some con- 
venient waterway, where it finds an outlet. Bear in mind now, 
that water is a heavy, limpid, fluid, hard to confine and easy 
to let go, always seeking the lowest level and the freest passage. 
In digging the drain ditch (in the bottom of which the tile has 
been laid) we have cut through the soil to a depth of three feet 
•and on each side of our excavation there is an exposed surface 
into which lead millions of the fine thread-like channels be- 
tween the particles of earth, and as these hold water in satura- 
tion, the result is that the free outlet offered by the ditch serves 
to draw out from the adjacent particles of soil the water which 
they hold. The ditch above the tile being generally filled with 
material of a looser texture than the surrounding earth, the 
water coming into it from adjacent soils quickly descends to the 
bottom or narrowest portion of the ditch into which the tile is 
laid. Here, the water comes in contact with the solid earth at 
the bottom of the ditch. This earth it cannot penetrate, since 
the earth is itself saturated to fullness, and the open joints be- 
tween the lengths of drain tile invite the entrance of the water, 
and thus a small amount of drainage water is contributed to 
each joint along the drain tile, a considerable quantity is pro- 
duced and a substantial flow results through the opening or 
channel of the tile. The porous nature of the tile does not, as 
is generally believed, operate to increase the flow or to receive 
water within the body of the tile, and so far as the practical 
use and capacity of the tiles are concerned, they might as well 
be made of glazed crockery or glass, as of ordinary brick clay, 
as is commonly the case. The water does not enter through 
the pores of the tile to any appreciable degree but always 
through the joints at the end of the separate pieces. 

The writer has sometimes heard persons express wonder 
that it should be possible, much less practicable, for these open 
jointed tile drains to serve as water channels ; the common sup- 
position being that such a drain would prove " leaky," and that 
the water within the drain would escape and be absorbed by 
the surrounding soil. And so it would, were it not that 
the surrounding soil is generally itself saturated with water, 
and that in its surcharged condition it readily empties itself 
into the free, open channel of the tile which supplies a ready 
grade and a quick outlet for the little streams of water which 
are already pressing upon each other in their effort to escape. 
This tendency of water to find an open channel under ground 
may be observed by any person who will take the trouble to 
walk through a tunnel or into an extended cave. In the case of 
rock tunnels where the surrounding material is depended upon 



204 MACADAM AND TELFORD ROADS. 

to support the walls and ceiling of the tunnel, the water will be 
found dripping- from top and sides in various places, and gener- 
ally a small stream is formed along the floor of the tunnel, 
which runs to its proper outlet. When the tunnel is built 
through a body of earth and lined with brick or stone as a sup- 
porting material for sides and ceiling, the slightest imperfection 
in the masonry joints, by which an opening, however small, 
may be found, seems to invite the passage of water from the 
surrounding and superincumbent earth, which proceeds to 
drain itself into the tunnel through such small leaks as may be 
found. 

A reference to Figs. 20 and 21 in this chapter will show 
clearly the practical operation of tile drains after the manner 
ot the foregoing description. On each of these figures the 
dark shaded portion at the bottom of the figure shows the un- 
drained or saturated portion of the earth. Upon each side of 
the drain tile the water has been entirely drained from the soil 
down to the bottom of the drain tile, and as the distance from 
the drain tile increases, the top line of saturated earth is found 
to be higher, showing that the effect of the drain is less marked 
as upon the remote portions of the soil. Of course, a point is 
eventually reached where the distance from the drain is so- 
great that it has no practical effect in lowering the top line of 
saturated earth (called by drainage experts the " water table") 
but in most roadways a single line of tile, if properly placed 
and of ample size, is sufficient to drain the sub-soil effectu- 
ally. 

( To be Continued. ) 



$100 [gold) in prizes for photographs of American roads. Sec 
Jull page announcement in front advertising pages of thi% niunber. Now 
is the season to compete. Full particulars and competitors' blanks sup- 
plied on application to the editor of Good Roads. 



Read the page in this number entitled ' ' A few important lines to 
you from the Editor." 



The Massachusetts Division, L. A. W. , has ordered 500 
extra copies of the "Massachusetts Number " of Good Roads 
for use in that state. 



Good Roads is a bright, sprightly monthly devoted to the 
improvement of our city streets and country roads. It is a 
unique and readable magazine. — New York Herald. 



PAVING BRICKS AND HOW TO TEST THEM. 
'Sr Gorimm Dana, S. "B. 

THOUGH by no means of recent introduction paving- bricks 
have, witliin the last few years, assumed a growing im- 
portance in many of our American towns. When well 
selected and properly used they make an exceedingly smooth, 
clean and easily repaired pavement and have the merit of 
cheapness in point of first cost in certain favored localities 




FIG. I. CROSS SECTION AND TOP VIEW, SHOWING METHOD OF CONSTRUCTION OF SINGLE 

COURSE VITRIFIED BRICK PAVEMENT. 

where they can be readily obtained. Their durability seems to 
be the main point upon which the value of paving brick is 
questioned ; but in spite of its opponents, several of our large 
cities are using paving bricks to a large extent and in many 
cases they are regarded with much satisfaction. Among these 
cities are Chicago, Cincinnati, Columbus, Detroit, Des Moines, 
Fort Wayne, Galesburg, Little Rock, Memphis and Spring- 
field (111.) In many other cities, however, paving bricks have 
been tried with little success and soon discarded. No bricks 
have yet been made that can compare with granite in point of 
durability, nor is it claimed for them that they are able to stand 
the heaviest traffic in the larger cities. Indeed, under moderate 
traffic they have sometimes failed completely. What is the 
reason for this ? 

To my mind, the main causes which lead to the failure of 
brick pavements are two, — first, that the bricks were not 
properly laid ; second, that they where wholly or partly of in- 
ferior quality. To obviate these defects I will here suggest a 
few technical directions which relate both to the method of 
determining the cjuality of the bricks proposed to be used and 
the proper method of laying them in the roadway. 

Method of Laying. — Paving bricks may be laid in either one 
or two courses according to the character of the traffic which 
the roadway is expected to sustain. For light traffic a single 
course is often found sui^cient, while in more important streets, 
where the amount of travel is likely to become important, two 



2o6 PAVING BRICKS AND HOW TO TEST THEM. 



courses are always more economical and sometimes absolutely 
necessary. 

In either case an artificial foundation is necessary, being of 
the same general character whether one course or two is to be 
used and varying perhaps only in thickness. In beginning the 
construction work the excavation must first be completed to a 
depth varying from eight to twenty inches below the line 
determined for the grade of the finished work, and the sub-soil 
or bottom of the excavation should be carefully rolled with a 
heavy roller. All depressions and soft spots made apparent in 
the process of rolling should be filled as the work progresses 
and the surface of the finished rolled sub-soil should be left 
nearly or quite parallel with that of the proposed surface of the 
pavement. Upon the rolled sub-soil should be placed from 
three to eight inches of gravel, macadam or cinders which should 
be thoroughly rolled and compacted. Of course other materials 
may be used for the artificial foundation, such as concrete, 
cement and other combinations; but whatever material be 




FIG. 2. CROSS SECTION AND VIEW SHOWING METHOD OF CONSTRUCTION OF DOUBLE- 
COURSE VITRIFIED BRICK PAVEMENT. 

used it should be made compact and uniform in shape and 
substance. 

In case a single course pavement is to be used an inch or 
more of sand should be spread evenly over the foundation, care 
being taken to preserve a uniform and sufficient thickness of 
the sand layer which may be in some cases four inches thick if 
necessary. On this sand layer the bricks should be set 
edgewise with their longest dimension reaching across at right 
angles with the centre line of the roadway and so laid that they 
will break joints as shown in Fig. i. It is scarcely necessary 
to say that the sand used should be of a clean sharp quality, 
free from dirt, loam and other foreign substances. 

When the pavement is to include two courses of bricks a 
somewhat more elaborate form of construction is required. 
The sub-soil having been rolled as in the case just described, a 
layer of gravel, macadam or cinders from three to eight inches 
deep should be laid uniformly on the sub-soil and rolled to a 
compact condition. Over this artificial foundation should be 
laid from one to four inches of sand and on the sand the first or 



PAVING BRICKS AND HOW TO TEST THEM. 207 



lower layer of bricks, being placed on their broadest faces with 
longest edges parallel with curbstones and wnth the centre line of 
road-way, and breaking joints as in the ordinary brick sidewalk. 
Before the construction work has begun it is quite essential that 
the bricks should have been carefully assorted, and the softer 
and poorer bricks should all be used in the lower course where 
they will escape the hard wear and severe shocks of the heavy 
traffic. 




COMMON BALANCE SCALE ARRANGED FOR WEIGHING PAVING BRICK 
UNDER WATER 

To further insure this protection, as well as to provide a firm 
cushion for the top course, a layer of sand, about one inch in 
thickness, should be made to cover the entire lower course and 
upon this layer should be set the bricks of the upper course 
(these being the hard selected bricks as determined by the as- 
sortment), as shown in Fig. 2. In all cases the bricks should be 
firmly set and well rammed so as to insure their being thoroughly 
"bedded." 



2o8 PAVING BRICKS AND HOW TO TEST THEM. 

After the upper course is completed, and in all cases where 
a single course is used, it is best to fill all the interstices between 
the bricks with hot tar, composition, asphaltum or liquid cement ; 
care being taken to insure a complete and thorough filling of 
all the interstices and in this way prevent the introduction of 
water into the top of the roadway. The importance of this part 
of the work can hardly be over-estimated, for it has been shown 
that a single small hole in a so-called waterpoof pavement may 
cause the pavement to be undermined and insure its rupture by 
the introduction of moisture and frost. In any case where it 
is determined not to employ a tar or composition filling, a fine 
gravel should be swept into the interstices as thoroughly and 
carefully as possible. 

Testmg the Bricks. — The laying of a vitrified brick roadway- 
pavement, like the laying of all block pavements designed for 
roadway use, is a comparatively simple matter and the quality 
of the work in this respect is determined by the formula laid 
down in the specifications and by the superintendent who directs 
the performance of the work. There is, however, a besetting 
danger in the construction of brick pavements, which only the 
most exacting test can avoid and one to which is due more of 
the failures of brick pavements than perhaps all other causes 
combined. I refer to the uncertain quality of the bricks supplied 
for the public work and the difficulty of guarding against the 
introduction of soft and friable bricks. Paving bricks from the 
same lot, made with the greatest care, will often vary consider- 
ably in those qualities which serve to make them desirable, 
while bricks of different m.akes differ enormously. Hence the 
necessity of testing. Several bricks from each lot should be 
tested and if they vary in any marked degree, or if they fall 
below a required standard, they should be rejected. Among 
the most important tests to be made are (i), test for absorption 
and specific gravity; (2), test of impact and abrasion; (3), test 
of transverse strength. Other tests are sometimes made, but 
these are the most simple and if thoroughly carried out they 
may be relied on to answer all practical purposes. Before 
beginning these tests the bricks should be well dried, and per- 
haps the best way to do this is simply to store them in a hot 
room for not less than a month, and as much longer as maybe. 
The bricks should then at once upon being taken out, be care- 
fully weighed and marked so as to he easily identified. Any 
good pan scales of sufficient size can be used and weights 
should be employed indicating as close as 01 oz. if possible. 

Absorption Test. — Immerse the bricks in water until 
thoroughly saturated, and then weigh again to determine the 
increase of weight. As a means of determining when the bricks 
are thoroughly saturated, remove the bricks from the water every 
twenty-four hours and weigh each brick after having carefully 
wiped from the surface all surplus moisture with a dry cloth. No 



PAVING BRICKS AXD HOW TO TEST THEM. 209 



bricks should be considered fully saturated until they are found 
that two successive weighings do not indicate a variation of 
more than one-tenth of an ounce. This result will be attained 
in from four to seven days, depending upon the quality and 
texture of the brick employed. 

After the bricks are fully saturated each of them should be 
weighed under water. This can easily be done by removing 
the scale pan, counterbalancing it and attaching a brick to the 
arm by means of fine wire so that the whole may be submerged 
in water as shown in Fig. 3. Then, supposing W= the weight 




I LSI INO I'AVIMG BRICK. VIEW SHOWIML, " K \ 1 1 I LK " 1\ OPERA 1 ION, DURING 
ABRASION TESl 

of the dry brick in air, W2= the weight of the saturated brick 
in air, W3= the weight of the saturated brick in water, we have 
the formula. 

^, — TT.— =specinc gravity. 
W2-W3 ^ 1^ ^ 

w,-w 



w 

Wo-W 



W2-W3 



=absorption in per cent, of weight. 
=absorption in per cent, of volume. 



Absorption in per cent, of volume is a better means of com- 
parison than absorption in per cent, of weight, as it takes into 
account the porousity of the brick. To reduce the formula 
shown above to simple language I will state the following' rules: 
(1). To obtain the specific gravity of the brick, subtract the 
weight of the saturated brick in water from the weight of the 



2IO PAVING BRICKS AND HOW TO TEST THEM. 



saturated brick in air and divide the weight of the dry brick in 
air by the result. (2). To ascertain the absorption in per cent, 
of weight, subtract the weight of the dry brick in air from the 
weight of the saturated brick in air and divide the result by the 



absorption in 



weight of the dry brick in air. (3). To find 
per cent, of volume, subtract 
the weight of the dry brick in air 
from the weight of the saturated 
brick in air and use the result as a 
dividend. Then subtract the 
weight of the saturated brick in 
water from the weight of the 
saturated brick in air and call 
the result a divisor. Divide the 
■dividend by the divisor and the 
quotient will be the absorption 
in per cent, of volume. 

Impact and Abrasion Test. — 
This test is best made with a 
foundry "rattler," or one con- 
structed of wood on a similar plan. 
A picture is here provided, show- 
ing one of these rattlers in oper- 
ation, and Fig. 4 is a working 
drawing of the same machine. 
It is about three feet long and 
fifteen inches in diameter. The 
ends are of cast iron, with bear- 
ings cast in at the middle, while 
the rest of the machine is of 
oak. The oak slats or strips 
which compose the "barrel" of the 
rattler are bolted down so that 
one or more can be easily re- 
moved whenever it is necessary to 
get at the contents of the 
rattler. The cylinder is main- 
tained on a suitable frame and 
made to rotate at the rate of 
about thirty-five revolutions per 
minute. Such a cylinder wears 
much better than an iron one 
and lasts a longer time. The 
one shown in these figures was 
rotated for more than fifty hours 
w^ithout perceptible wear. 

Only one brick should be 
tested in each partition at once. A quantity of scrap iron 
is put into the partition with the brick to insure a severe rubbing 




G. 4. PLAN AND SECTION OF RATTLER 
USED IN TESTING PAVING BRICKS. 



PA VI NG BRICKS AND HO IV TO TEST THEM. 2 1 r 



and abrasion of the surface of the brick, and to expose it to a 
kind of wear similar to that to which it will be subjected in actual 
use as a pavement. Fifty pounds of well rounded scrap iron, 
such as is commonly used in a foundry rattler, and no piece of 
which weighs more than one pound, makes a good standard. Its- 
weight should be kept fairly constant by adding more as it 
loses in the process of wear. It will be found convenient to 
take say one-half an hour as the standard time for testing each 
specimen. The bricks should be weighed after each half-hour, 
and unless the loss of weight is found to be practically con- 
stant, the same specimen should be subjected to further rattlings 
until loss of weight is found to be uniform in two successive 
weighings. This will generally require from four to six hours 
test. In tabulating the results of the impact and abrasion test 
it will be found well to express the loss of each brick during^ 
the last half-hour test, in terms of its own weight, taking the 
weight to be as it was found just prior to the last rattling. 
This is the weight to be used in the final comparisons. If the 
rattler does not run at a constant 
rate the most reliable results can 
be obtained by regarding the 
number of revolutions in each 
test and reducing the losses of 
weight to what would have 
occurred in a given number of 
revolutions. 

Transverse Strength. — The test of 
transverse strength can be made 
on any testing machine of suitable 
size and capacity. Each brick to 
be tested should be supported on its 
long narrow edge upon two knife 
edges placed near the ends of the 
brick, so as to give a span of about 
six inches. It is a good plan to pro- 
tect the brick edge with plates, so 
that the sharp edges will not cut in- 
to the bricks ('See Fio- c \ The ^''^- 5- showing brick in po- 
Lu Lue uiiLivb. ^^oee rig. 5.; 1 nu sition for testing trans^ 

modulus of rupture is used to com- verse strength. 

pare the results in this test, and is found in the formula 

2bh^ 
for a load at the centre ; where w equals load in pounds, 1 
equals span in inches, b equals height in inches. 

Use of the Results. — The results of these tests is to prepare 
the table showing the relative standing of each specimen in 
each test, and also that of each group of specimens from the 
same load, thus: 




212 PA VI NO BRICKS AND HOW TO TEST THEM. 




A COLLECTION OF I'.KICKS AFTER COMPLETION OF TEST. 

TABLE SHOWING THE RELATIVE STANDING OF EACH SPECIMEN AND 
EACH GROUP FOR EACH TEST AND FOR ALL COMBINED. 





Specific 


Absorption 


Loss in Rat- 


Modulus of 


Totals. 


Final 




ID X . 


Gravity. 


in % of voL 


tler.- 


Rupture. 




Standiner. 


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Of course the brick that obtains a "standing " of No. i in this 
table is not necessarily the best brick, though it is generally apt 
to be among the best. Each test should be considered by 
itself and judgment exercised in deciding how much importance 
should be attached to its result. Thus, the brick that stands 
No. I in the final column of the table may have worn very 
slippery in the rattler, in which case it would probably do the 



FA VI NG BRICKS AND HOW TO TEST THEM. 213 

same in the pavement and for this reason may not serve well as 
a paving brick. No exact rule can be laid down in such cases 
and the widest field for the exercise of judgment is apparent. 
Finally it may be worth while to give some idea as to what 
is to be expected from good bricks in these tests. In specific 
gravity bricks will not vary a great deal. In eighteen bricks 
recently tested the limits were 1.9 and 2.5. A good brick 
should have a specific gravity of at least 2.2. The absorption 
may vary from one to twelve per cent, of its volume, but in a 
good brick should not exceed seven per cent. In the eighteen 
bricks above referred to, the loss of weight in the rattler for 
the last half hour test, varied from .13 to .82 per 
cent, of the preceding weight. In a good brick it should not 
exceed .50 per cent. The modulus of rupture may vary from 
1,200 to 400 pounds per square inch and the average good brick 
will stand about 2,500 pounds per square inch. 



$100 iygold) in prizes for photographs of American roads. See 
full page annou7ice7nent in front advertising pages of this number. Now 
is the season to compete. Full particulars and competitors' blanks sup- 
plied on applicatio7j to the editor of Good Roads. 



Read the page in this niiviber entitled ''A feiv important lines to 
you from the Editor. 



"I WISH that the ' Gospel of Good Roads ' could be placed in 
the hands of every man in America. It is the most masterly 
essay that it has ever been my good fortune to read, and Mr. 
Potter has stamped himself as an apostle of no mean ability." — 
The Referee (Chicago and New York. ) 



"The magazine Good Roads as far outranks all cycling 
papers in purpose, as the subject it ever keeps prominent out- 
ranks mere avarice. * * * If one wheelman is converted 
and filled with the zeal which characterizes a worker in the 
cause of road improvement, it is of more account than if a 
thousand had acquired a feverish interest in the sport. It is 
good roads which will cause the wheelmen to abound and the 
result of the labor of one road enthusiast is incalculable." — 
Cycling Life. 

The Illinois Division, L. A. W., has ordered 2,000 extra 
copies of the " Illinois Number " of Good Roads, to aid the 
work for better roads in Illinois. 



A KOREAN STATE VEHICLE. 



To the Editor of Good Roads. 

I send you with this a photographic negative made from my 
sketch-book notes, believing it may excite some attention among 
those readers of Good Roads who are interested in the general 
subject of wheels. 

We are all inclined to give ourselves credit for originality in 
mechanical devices, and among other things the foundation 
principle involved in the construction of a bicycle we all sup- 
pose to be modern ; at least dating within the present century. 



W- 










A STREET SCENE IN KOREA. THE MINISTER OF STATE WITH HIS OFFICIAL RETINUE. 

It was my pleasure to run across a strange scene. 

A few months ago, while on a tramp through northwestern 
Korea, I spent some time in Soel, the capital city. This 
strange land of "Choson," as it is called by the neighboring 
Japanese and Chinese, is peopled by probably the most con- 
servative nation on our globe. The country itself is called, sug- 
gestively, ''The Land of the Morning Calm," and the people, 
"The Hermit Nation." 

The Peninsula of Korea occupies the same relation, geo- 
graphically, to Asia, that Nova Scotia does to North America, 
and with very inuch the saine climate. The country has been 
opened to foreigners only since the recent date of 1882, and up 
to that time had been totally uninfluenced by western civiliza- 
tion ; nor, indeed, have these conditions materially changed since 
that date. 



A KOREAN STATE VEHICLE. 215 

The Koreans are of Tartar descent, but totally different in 
every way from the Japanese, who are their great enemies; 
and, although they pay tribute to China, and have in past cen- 
turies borrowed Chinese customs, they are not at all like the 
modern Chinese. They are so conservative that to-day the 
dress and customs are not much unlike those of two thousand 
years ago. 

From observation, and from inquiry on the ground, I found 
that there was but one form of wheeled vehicle for passenger 
purposes used in the land, although a crude affair was used for 
freight purposes in connection with their splendid inild-eyed 
brown bulls. 

One day, on my way home from looking at the King's pro- 
cession, I passed along the principal street of Soel, which 
crosses the city of 250,000 inhabitants from the northwest to 
the east gate. 

Near the broad, intersecting avenue, 120 feet wide, which 
leads to the King's palace, my attention was arrested by hear- 
ing and seeing a great crowd of white robed men suddenly 
rush out of a side street, shouting and gesticulating in a fran- 
tic manner. They were followed by another crowd of men 
with the " Kasi " or big married men's hats on their heads, tied 
by a ribbon under their chins. In the midst of these fellows was 
a very strange looking affair. 

The men who went before were attendants of a minister of 
state. 

They shouted for people to clear the track. The officer was 
seated on the Korean official wheel chair, and it was a unicycle. 

He looked as if he realized the uncertain situation in which 
he was placed, and while seated on the official leopard's skin 
was certainly a victim of the customs of his country. 

I had used up all the plates in my camera at the time, so I 
made the rough sketch on the spot. The boys in the fore- 
ground have their splendid black hair done up in the thick, 
heavy cue plaited in the Korean custom for unmarried boys, 
and the coolie women who were near me at the time had their 
light tinted extra dresses neatly folded and placed on their 
heads. 

We are apt to think that this country and this modern age 
have all the novelties of a mechanical and scientific nature. 
We think our bicycles a new idea, but here are the far off 
Koreans, whom we have looked upon as barbarous or semi- 
civilized, which they really are, who "go" us one better, 
because they use but one wheel, and have been using it for 
many centuries. 

Robert E. Pettit, L. A, W. , 30,504. 

"The Gladstone," Philadelphia. 



TO MY FELLOW-MEMBERS OF THE L. A. W. 




For fifteen months we have 
been collecting the names and 
addresses of thousands of road 
officers, county and town officers, 
prominent citizens, merchants, 
farmers and officers of trade- 
societies and granges in every 
state of the Union. 

These are the men who should 
read Good Roads and whose support 
must be won before the public roads 
can be improved. 

For fifteen months we have 
been sending Good Roads maga- 
zine to thousands of members of 
the L. A. W. The number sent 
to League members during the 
present month will be about 
35,000. 

These members are all convinced 
of the need of better roads and every copy of Good Roads sent to 
a League member is wasted, unless used by that member to extend t/ie 
work. 

You and I are both League members. Let us consider a 
proposition. 

If you will sign and send to me a postal card giving me authority 
to send your copies of Good Roads to different persons selected 
within your state (whose names and addresses I take from lists in 
this office), they will be distributed in the best possible manner, 
without expense or trouble to you, with some possible benefit to the 
magazine and with the greatest certainty of good results for 

THE movement. 

If you prefer to keep these magazines and are yet willing to aid 
our enlarged circulation, send me the sum of fifty cents (or any 
larger sum that you may see fit to contribute), towards subscrip- 
tions for road officers and other officials in your state. For each 
fifty cents received Good Roads will send the magazine for twelve 
months to road officers in the state where the contributor resides. 

I make this proposition, (i), to insure an enlarged circulation for 
Good Roads and to extend its influence ; (2), to reheve many League 
members from the expense and trouble of sending the magazine by 
mail to other persons from month to month. (The postage on each 
copy posted by subscribers will be about three cents during the 
coming year or thirty-six cents for the entire year, not counting cost 
of wrappers and time and trouble of mailing). 

We intend to place GOOD ROADS in the hands of 100,000 

READERS EACH MONTH DURING THE PRESENT YEAR, AND TO PRINT 
AND DISTRIBUTE THOUSANDS OF PRACTICAL PAMPHLETS ON ROAD- 
MAKING IN EVERY STATE OF THE UNION. WE WANT YOUR AID NOW. 






(J^<1 



Fraternally yours, 

Isaac B. Potter. 



THE PUSH FUND FOR 93 

ENCOURAGING RESPONSES FROM L. A. W. 

MEMBERS. THE FUND AND ITS OBJECT. 

* " LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS AND AMOUNTS 

SENT IN DURING THE FIRST WEEK. . . . 

WELL done, L. A, W. ! Within one week from the aate 
of mailing of our March issue, hundreds of letters 
began to pour into the office of Good Roads in 
response to the "Few important lines from the Editor" 
printed on page 167 of that issue and reproduced on page 216 
of this number. There is but one sentiment expressed in 
these letters. In words or in spirit each writer says, "I read 
Good Roads and want the magazine, but I send my con- 
tribution to extend the work and wish you a world of success. " 

The plain object of this fund, as more fully explained on 
page 216, is to enable us to extend the work for improved 
roads and to place Good Roads magazine in thousands of 
homes where intelligent people may be enlisted in the com- 
mon cause for which we are striving. It is also intended, 
if sufficient funds can be raised, to publish a large edition of 
cheap pamphlets giving in plain language a description of best 
methods of road making and to place these in the hands of the 
road officers in every state in the Union. Addresses of these 
road officers are always welcome at the office of Good Roads. 

The following contributions are acknowledged and all 
others received will be announced in succeeding numbers of 
GOOD ROADS. 

FROM FRIENDS OF THE L. A. W. 

A. H. Overman, Chicopee Falls, Mass $1,000* 

FROM L. A. W. MEMBERS. 

H. L. Salstonstall, N. Y. City $25.00 W. C. Ttiatcher, N. Y. City $2.50 

J. M. Andreini, N. Y. Citv 10.00 P. C. Thomas, N. Y. City 2.50 

Dr. B. H. Wells, N. Y. City 10 00 A. W. Graham, N. Y. City 2 00 

C. H. Weber, Louisville, Ky 6.75 Adam K. Koehler, N. Y. City 2 00 

C. E. Ward well, Rome, N. Y 6.00 G. R. Thorn, N. Y. City 2 00 

E. J. DeCoppet, N. Y. City 5.00 P. Poehrenl)ach, Jr., N. Y. City 2.00 

F. W. Kitchinpr, X. Y. City 5 00 F. H. Gouge, Dtica, N. Y 2.00 

Jolm Brand, E]mira,N. y 5.00 J. S Newliirk, Jersey City, N. J 2.00 

A. Comstock, Montclair, N.J 5.00 W. S. llungerford, Jersey City, N.J 2 00 

J. ^V^ fisuooil, Cincinnitns, N. Y 3.00 E. C. Mehrof, Little Perry, N.'j 2 00 

H, R. Bryan, Iliiils.in, X. Y 3.00 

R, L Gali)iii, Maniariinerk, N. Y 3 00 *Second cash payment on $6,000 guaranty, 

H. vender Linden, Pouglikeepsie, N. Y.. . 3.00 making toUxl of $2,636.92 paid in by Mr. Over- 

R. Byard, N. Y. City 2.50 man. 217 



2l8 



THE PUSH FUND FOR 'gj 



R. L. Calkins, N. Y. City SI. 50 

J. H. Broadliurst, N. Y. City 1.50 

J. P. Buike, N. Y. City 1.50 

G. Nicliols, UroolilvD, N. Y 1.50 

E. W. Adams, N. Y. Ut7 1.00 

C. Blancard, N. Y. City 1.00 

J. Benninser, Jr., N. Y. city l.oo 

S. Coles, N. Y. City 1.00 

F. DeCoppet, N. Y. City 1.00 

A. Eicklioli; N. Y. City 1.00 

J. M. Forusworth, N. Y. City l.OO 

A. E. HiUlick, N. Y. City 1.00 

J. P. Haight, N. Y. City 1.00 

C. W. Hubbell, N. Y. City 1.00 

E. L. Johnson, N. Y. City 1.00 

AY. D. Krus, N. Y. City 1.00 

C. S. Lowther, N. Y. City 1.00 

M. Meyer, N. Y. City 1.00 

E. H. Pardee, N. Y. City l.oo 

I. M. Shaw, N. Y. City 1.00 

AV. II. Starbuck, N. Y. Ciiy 1.00 

F. C. Winter, N. Y. City 1.00 

A. Wilkius, N. Y. City 1 00 

C. S. Cliaiiiberlain, N. Y. City 1.00 

H. J. Ricliardsou, N Y. City 1.00 

H. J. Parker, N. Y. City 1.00 

H. H. Bell, Jr., Brooklyn, N, Y 1.00 

E. H. Babcock, Brooklyn, N. Y l.oo 

A. Del Geiioyese, Brooklyn, N. Y l.oo 

L. P. Coleman, Brooklyn, N. Y 1.00 

C. W. lle\ylett, Brooklyn, N. Y 1.00 

F. Halstead, Brooklyn, N. Y 1 00 

T. W. Risdale, Brooklyn, N. Y 1.00 

H. Stutzer, Brooklyn, N. Y 1.00 

W. A. Van Duzer, Brooklyn, X. Y 1.00 

G. H. Gardner, Brooklyn. N. Y 1.00 

AV. C. Daubach, Bnrialo, N. Y 1 00 

C. P. Henn, Uutl'alo, N. Y 1.00 

F. AY. Parkes, Buflfalo, N. Y 1.00 

L. Steigerwald, Butlalo, N. Y 1 00 

C. P. Heermanse, Clave rack, N. Y 1.00 

R. C. Hall, Clyde, N. Y 1.00 

J. M. Tillman, Jr., Elmira, N. \ 1.00 

F. W. Snow, Ilillburn, N. Y 1 .00 

L. H. Hutton, Nauuet, N. Y 1 00 

G. B. Baird, Oneonta, N. Y 1.00 

L. F. Mabie, Peekskill, N. Y 1 00 

C. F. Cossnm, Poughkeepsie, N. Y 1.00 

C. Lown, Poughkeepsie, N. Y l.oo 

H. Booth, Poughkeepsie, N. Y 1.00 

M. Prineveau, Kamapo, N. Y 1.00 

P. L. Hughes, Rochester, N. Y 1.00 

R. H. Lansing, Rochester, N. Y 1.00 

Dr. F. H. Smith, Rochester, N. Y 1 00 

H. T. Maxwell, Rome, N. A' 1.00 

F. Ginkel, Syracuse, N. Y 1 00 

J. AVilkmson, Syracuse, N Y 100 

M. AV. Sherwood, Yonkers, N. Y 1 00 

D. H. Darling, Guilford, N. Y 1.00 

F. G. Long, Lisbon Centre, N. Y 1.00 

AV. May, Mays Mill, N. Y 1.00 

N. Feuiy, Jersey City, N. J 1.00 

G. T. Brown, Jersey city, N.J 1 00 

A. Cole, Linden, N. J.. .". 1 00 

W. Luttgen, Linden, N. J 1.00 

A. O. Hicks Long Branch, N.J 1 00 

J. D. Hegeman, Montclair. N. J 1 00 

P. Young, Montclair. N. J 100 

O. J. Lache, Newark, N. J 1.00 

A. P. Ge.st, Lambertville, N. J 1.00 

M. AV. AVagner, Philadelphia, Pa . ; 1.00 

Anonymous, N. A'. City 1.00 

Anonymous, N. Y. City 1.00 

Anonymous, N. A'. City 1.00 

T. D. Gross, Brooklyn, N. A' 75 

C. K. Alley, N. Y. City 50 

E. G. Baltz, N. Y. City 50 

F. A. Coleman, N. Y. City ,50 

M. Deckinger, N. Y. City 50 



H. C. Johanson, N. Y. City $0.50 

R. Kolb, N. Y. City 50 

J. E. Nicholas, N. Y. City 50 

J. Kice, N. A'. City .50 

G. A. Schmitt, N. Y. City 50 

E. D. Stout, N. Y. City 50 

F. G. Smith, N. A'. City 50 

F. H. Tremore, N. Y. City 50 

H. C. AVilcox, N. X. City 50 

H. S. Foster, Albany, N. Y 50 

J. A. Barkhutt'. Amsterdam, N. A' 50 

AV. I. Ferrey, Auburn, N. A' 50 

AV. F. Rossnian, Hudson, N. Y 50 

G. A. A'alerius, Ithaca, N. Y 50 

H. G. Thompson, Owego, N. A.' 50 

J. VV. Plant, Clean, N. Y 50 

G. E. Briggs, Peekskill, N. Y 50 

E. T. Liidley, Port Jervis, N. Y 50 

J. Reynolds, Poughkeepsie, N. A' 50 

J. T. Shay, Princes Bay, N. Y 50 

E. J. Snow, Rauiapo, N. Y 50 

AV. M. Smith, Rochester, N. Y 50 

AV. A, Brown, Brooklyn, N. A" 50 

G. E. Hall, Brooklyn,"N. Y 50 

E. Longbotham, Brooklyn, N. A' 50 

G. Muir, Brooklyn, N. A' 50 

VV. R. Scrimgeour, Brooklyn, N. A' 50 

J. A. Robb, Brooklyn, N. A' 50 

Louis Shaw, Brooklyn, N. A' 50 

E. D. AVard, Brooklyn, N. Y 50 

AV. H. Hotchkiss, Biilfilo, N. Y 50 

H. N. A'edder, Bufliilo, N. A' 50 

Dr. E. N. Santee, Cortland, N. A' 50 

C. F. Stevens, Elmira, N. A' 50 

C. H. Everest, Glens Falls, N. A' 50 

D. AV. Mandell, Greenwich, N. Y 50 

Mrs. D. C. Sperry, Hamilton, N. A' 50 

C. W. AVood, Syracuse, N. Y 50 

E. A^egte, Troy, N. Y 50 

C. E. Wilson, Troy, N. Y 50 

AV. A. Meeker, Troy, N. Y 50 

J. E. Chauncey, Utica,N. A' 50 

J. A. Odgen, Warwick, N. A' 50 

AV. E. Sayer, Warwick, N. Y 50 

W. H. Garratt, Yonkers, N. Y 50 

S H. Thaver, Yonkers, N. A' 50 

A. H. Morrill, Eddytown, N. A' 50 

O. S. AVadleigh, Deposit, N. Y 50 

C. E. Guile, Crosby, N. Y 50 

R. O. Jones, Painted Post, N. Y 50 

A. F. Bourton, Eoxbury, N. Y 50 

J.M Stokes, M.I)., Morristown, N. J 50 

AV. F. Day, Jr., Morristown, N. J 50 

A^^ J. Linihan, Newark, N. J. : 50 

M. W. Baldwin, Newark. N. J 50 

R. B. Boyd, New Brunswick, N. J 50 

E. S. Campbell, New Brunswick, N. J 50 

C. H. Johnson, Jr., Union. N. Y 50 

W. Coding, Sicketts Harbor, N. Y 50 

AV. S. Hall, Turners, N. Y 50 

M. Devendorf, Fort Hunter, N. A' 50 

R. F. Young, Kathboneville, N. A' 50 

E. Daeche Jersey Citv, N.J 50 

J. C. Hocke, Jersey City, N.J 50 

L. H. Mott, Leonia, N. J 50 

T. B. Somers, Millville, N. J 50 

L. A. AV. No. 28237, Lockport, N. Y 50 

Anonymous, N. Y. City , 50 

Anonymous, N. Y. City 50 

Anonymous, N. Y. Citv 60 

Anonymous, N. A'. City 50 

Anonymous, N. Y. City 50 

Anonymous, Albany, N. A' 50 

F. F. Lockwood, N. Y. City 25 

E. T. Havens, Brooklyn, N. Y 25 

H. F. Davis, Olean, N. Y 25 

" L. A. AV, No, 29546," N. Y. City 25 

Total Reheipts $1,229.50 




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Loolf out for April Fools, Tlie legislatures taye adjonrned. 

BucMeat cakes called in. Eat molasses and Mlmstone. 

Wasli-day. Don't Sdiiat in tlie Mtclien. &iTe Nancy a sliow, 

Negro slavery alioMed in D. C, '62, Tlie farier is still in liondage. 

loon in Apogee, SensiWe Moon. Apogee is well ont of tie mnd. 

Paint your Mots witli tallow and gird on your galoslies. 

P. T. Barnuni died, '91, His slow survives and travels liy rail. 

Rainy. Tliese weatler guesses are no letter tlian tlie 

home made Mid, M are just as good and will save 

you tlie trouMe, Now send $2,00 to tie Editor, 

Givil war legun, '61, Ever lear of Bnrnside's mud campaign? 

Eggs 30 cents a dozen in town ; lut don't you try it. 

Stayatlome; doclores; loilsoap; lunt len-lice, 

Lincoln assassinated, '65, His clotles didn't fit lim, lut 

le lad a leap of sense. Work your tlink-lox and 

latcl out a stock of sense for lome use. 

Town meeting. Swim down to tie Corners and vote for Mind EliakiE 

Dinks for patl master. Good weatler now for 

gallinules. Now plant drain-tiles, 

Darwin died, '82, He lad a grudge against monkeys. 

An unlucky day. Don't give your promissory note to tie ligltning-rod maL 

More rain. Plant more drain-tile. 

Go to clurcl. Put a luoy in tie wagon. It will lelp to locate 

you if you turn up missing, 

Noal landed (B, C. 9992). He was a good amateur sailor 

and le roosted ligl till tie mud dried up. 

Locomotive invented 18— Our grandfatlers pelted it 

will Irick-lats. Tley're all dead, and tie loco stHl snorts. 

Get your lair cut. Dusty weatler is coming. 

Briglt and warm. Sell tie spavined mare. Buy a licycle. 




PIT0R§lABl£ 



•r?J^': 




For some reason, or for some lack of rea- 
son, the estimable Governor of Pennsylvania 
has shown no active disposition to take part 
in the roads agitation, except a disposition 
to oppose it. The Philadelphia legislature 
passed a resolution commending Colonel 
Pope's scheme to the attention of Congress, 
but the resolution met its death in Governor 
Pattison's prompt veto. For half the year 
the roads are so bad in Governor Pattison's 
county that it is impossible to tell whether 
his neighbors' boots and shoes were origi- 
nally dressed with shoe blacking or white- 
wash and it may be that the indiif erence born 
of habit has instilled in Pennsylvania's chief 
executive an aversion to mended ways. 
Well, Governor dear, there are several thou- 
sand people in your state who are otherwise 
disposed, and if you won'twalk on macadam 
there is no serious objection to your walk- 
ing a plank. 



By the kindness of the Ames & Frost 
Company, of Chicago, we are in receipt of a 
copy of a letter, sent to that company by 
Mr. Perry Albright, of Polk, Wis., in which 
the writer says : "At the present time the 
roads are so bad that I cannot haul any lum- 
ber, but will as soon as possible." Our cor- 
respondents add : "We are in receipt daily of 
letters of this kind in our lumber depart- 
ment, and they show universal bad roads 
wherever we have occasion to do lumber 
business." 

It is the same everywhere. Country mer- 
chants complain ; trade is impeded ; the farm- 
ers shut up at home. Official mercantile 
reports ai-e replete with statements which 
show what disaster the mud season invari- 
ably brings. From R. G. Dunn & Com- 
pany's Weekly Review of Trade (just re- 
ceived), the following is quoted: "The 
stringency in money markets here and at 
some other points is largely due to slow col- 
lections, which appear to result rather from 
severe weather and impracticable roads than 



from any form of commercial unsoundness 
or inability to distribute products. * * * 
General trade at Chicago is good and collec- 
tions fair except at some western points ; but 
money is in strong demand and partly be- 
cause of bad roads receipts of many pro- 
ducts declined." 

There ought to be a law in operation for 
the next three months requiring every last 
century farmer to wear a leather harness 
and haul his own products to market in foul 
weather and fair; not that we have any- 
thing personal against the kicking farmer; 
but since the public code seems to make 
spanking a sort of misdeameanor, we know 
of no way better than the one here sug- 
gested of impressing him with the silliness 
of his perpetual warfare against a better 
road system. 



Rhode Island supplies a wholesome indi- 
cation of common sense in political circles, 
by the introduction of a resolution favoring 
improved roads, in the platform adopted by 
the Republican State Convention on March 
21, last. Briefly, and to the point, it runs, 
like this: " We believe the sound financial 
condition warrants the continuance of work& 
of public improvement, especially in the di- 
rection of better highways." Then, too, a 
hearty endorsement of the administration of 
Governor Brown is gratifying evidence of 
the popular favor with which that champion 
of road reform is regarded in his own state. 



New York is not altogether backward. 
Governor Flower has just signed a bill 
amending the highway law providing for 
the establishment of county roads, for the 
appointment of a county engineer in each 
county and for the abolition of the labor tax 
system in counties taking advantage of the 
new act. Money may be borrowed on the 
credit of the separate counties, and bonds 
issued therefor. The New York law is a 
strong move in the right direction. 22c 



Good Roads. 



Vol. 3. 



May, 1893. 



No. 5. 




N 



^hn^ 



.»«fe 



A PRACTICAL TREATISE IX 
PLAIN LANGUAGE, SHOWING THE 
BEST METHODS OF MAKING 
BRIDGES FOR HIGHWAY TRAVEL, INCLUDING 
FOUNDATIONS AND SUPERSTRUCTURES. 

By John N. Ostrom , C. E. . 

Mew. ^ylnicr. Soc. C. H.; Mem. IVesteni Soc. C. E. 

I. 

PRELIMINARY REMARKS THE IMPORTANCE OF A GOOD BRIDGE 

ROAD BRIDGES OFTEN BUILT " BY GUESS " BRIDGES FOR WIDE 

AND FOR NARROW STREAMS THE ECONOMY OF MATERIALS 

SIZE DOES NOT ALWAYS INSURE STRENGTH METALS BROKEN BY 

THEIR OWN WEIGHT THE POINT ILLUSTRATED PIERS AND 

ABUTMENTS; HOW ARRANGED HIGHWAY COMMISSIONERS; 

THEIR DUTIES IN BRIDGE BUILDING OUTLINE OF SUBSEQUENT 

CHAPTERS. 

IN engineering parlance, the strength of a structure is the 
strength of its weakest point, and it being self-evident that 
the bridge is the weakest point in the road, it easily de- 
serves the prominence which has iDeen given to it in the highway 
problem, from the days of the fallen tree makeshift to the Brook- 
lyn suspension ; for, while a teamster may stick in a mud hole and 
ruin both his market day and his prospects of the hereafter, he 
can quite as easily tumble through a man-trap of abridge to his 
final judgment on the mud-hole incident; and it therefore seems 
highly fitting that the mud hole and man-trap should be wound 
up in the same transaction. The ugliness of the mud hole in 
all its slimy details having been cleverly emphasized by Good 
Roads, the convincing logic of the "snap-shot" is now turned 
upon the man-trap, with a few plain directions for the making 
of safe, sensible and durable bridges. 225 




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HIGHWA V BRIDGES. ' 



227 



It seems to be a natural law that good and bad of every 
kind shall exist, and be tolerably well matched in fighting 
strength, and it would not be creditable, therefore, to deny the 
truth of the law as applied to bridges, except to state that the 
good ones are so few that they hardly have a fighting show. 

Good bridges can be constructed only on scientific princi- 
ples. Bad ones are generally built by rule of thu nib— tXiat is, by 
guess, and while frequently in a semblance of science they are 
in fact a fraud in disguise. Good bridges in our large towns 
and cities are generally secured through the design or super- 
vision of a skilled engineer, and this branch will take care of 
itself; but the term "good bridges" in the country is at present 




Jli^lneni 



J~J ;iB?arftf 2.0O JTeet =/O0oy^effl* - 



Figure 1. 
Showing- the economy of using several spans rather than a single 
span in bridging a wide riyer, where water is shallow and bridge need 
not be raised to a great height above the surface. 

a misnomer, because of the unwelcome fact that very few good 
bridges exist beyond the limits of the corporate cities and 
villages. 

This condition is owing to the fact that the town officials 
who make or who buy these bridges do not know what a good 
bridge is, and therefore buy a/a/i?/// structure, which violates all 
the known laws of mechanics, because it is cheap, or a picture 
ot scientific proportions, which in fact is skinned — built lighter 
than designed — to a skeleton of weakness, because they are 
unable to detect the fraud. 

Bridges for narrow streams generally consist of one "span," 
as we say; but in the case of a wide river it is generally cheaper 



22g HIGHWA Y BRIDGES. 

to construct sev^eral shorter spans, because a span of i,ooo feet 
in length weighs much more than five spans of 200 feet each. 
Look now at the comparative pictures of two such bridges 
shown in Fig i. Both are of the same total length; but 
note how much taller one is than the other. Bear in mind 
that the several low spans will carry just as many foot passen- 
gers and teams as the tall, single span, and that the great height 
of the latter is made necessary to enable it to support its own 
weight ; for if you were to make it no higher than the short 
ones it would sag in the middle, just as an inch board sags 
when you lay it across a hole twenty feet wide, and try to walk 
over it. Your common sense teaches you that the board will 
break down before you have gone half way to the middle. 
Now, referring again to Fig. i, you can see at a glance 
that there must be ma?iy pounds more metal in the high span than 
in the several low ones; therefore it must cost more, just as a 
carload of wheat costs more than a hundred pounds. If you 
catch the meaning of the above you will not be surprised to 
learn another secret, namely, that a span can be built so long 
that it will break down from its own weight. I will venture an 
illustration : 

Let us fancy that an earthquake has split open a wide crack 
in the ground, and so deep as to extend for several miles down- 
ward toward the internal fires of the earth, and that we have 
built over this deep fissure a bridge of enormous strength, so 
that it may safely be depended on to carry all the weight 
that can be heaped upon it. From the centre of this bridge 
we can easily make an experiment to determine whether a 
piece of metal will be broken by its own weight, and, to do this, 
suppose we take three metal rods, each being an inch square in 
cross section, and the materials of the several rods being mild steel, 
wrought iron and aluminum respectively. Let us remember that 
it has been many times proven by actual test that a mild steel 
rod, one inch square, will break when subjected to a pull of about 
68,000 pounds; a wrought iron rod under a pull of about 50,000 
pounds and it has been approximately determined that an alu- 
minum rod of the same size will break under a pull of about 
39, 000 pounds. Now, we know that a rod of mild steel, one inch 
square and 20,000 feet long, weighs 68,000 pounds, or a weight 
equal to the force required to break such a rod by pulling it 
apart, so that if we lower such a rod from the centre of our 
bridge lengthwise down into the opening in the earth, its own 
weight will be sufficient to break it off or pull it apart, and 
this break will occur near the top end of the rod when the 
whole length is run down. In the same way if we lower our 
iron rod, it will part after 15,000 feet are run out, while our 
aluminum specimen will stand the strain of its own weight 
until 35,000 feet have been lowered from the bridge. For the 



HIGHWA Y BRIDGES. 



229 



V,*' 




&30 HIGHWAY BRIDGES. 

sake of convenience, I have stated all these figures in round 
numbers. 

We do not yet know much about this aluminum, of which 
enthusiasts spoke a few years ago as being "lighter than 
wood and stronger than steel ; " but on paper its claims are 
very attractive, for it is as bright as silver, acids will not touch 
it, and it never rusts. Just think of silver bright bridges that 
never would require paint. And then, too, aluminum is the 
most abundant metal known; but unfortunately we have not 
yet found a cheap way of reducing it from clay, as we say iron 
is "reduced" from the ore; and in its pure state aluminum is 
not so very strong, although wonderfully light. However, in 
the twentieth century the intelligent school boys will know all 
about it, and I fancy our iron and steel age will then be only a 
curiosity of the past, as we now consider the stone and bronze 
ages of the ancient barbarians. 

Now to continue about breaking a bar by its own weight. 
It will do no good to make it loo times larger for it \\\\\ then 
weigh loo times more, and will break just the same. Of course, 
we know that a bar hanging straight down does not form a 
bridge, but you get a pull on it just the same when suspended 
over a wide stream; and your common sense tells you that the 
big Atlantic cable would not hold its own weight, if each end 
were brought up out of the water, and the attempt were made 
to clear it from the waves in the middle by pulling on the ends. 

In the case of the wide river mentioned at the beginning, 
the intermediate supports in the current we call piers., and the 
end ones abutments. If you get too many spans the additional 
piers required for them will cost more than the extra weight if 
one only were used. For which reason, in ordinary cases, 
where the banks are low, the water shallow, and the bed solid 
(so that masonry need not be more than twenty feet deep), the 
spans should be about 150 feet long; but in deep streams, or 
where the bridge is high above the water (as shown in the case 
of the high single span in Fig. i), the cost of masonry mounts 
up so rapidly that they must be much longer ; and when exten- 
sive navigation is considered, like that of the Hudson River, a 
gigantic span 3, 100 feet long and 145 feet above the waves is 
wisely designed by the government engineers. 

Having now devoted some space to show you that good 
bridges are needed, that a great saving can be effected in prop- 
erly arranging the number and length of spans and that mere 
size and weight will not insure strength either in a bridge or in 
any of its separate parts, but that these parts must be made of 
the proper proportions and diinensions in order to perform 
their offices to the best advantage, I wull turn my attention to 
the actual processes of bridge making and will try to make my 
statements clear enough to be imderstood by every reader of 
common intelligence. 



HIGHWAY BRIDGES. 231 

In most parts of the country, the construction of ordinary 
highway bridges comes in whole or in part under the direction 
of the commissioner of highways or other local officer of what- 
ever title, having similar duties. In the construction of a bridge 
these duties may be divided into (i) temporary work, such as 
the making of small wooden spans and foundations, which are 
commonly built under the direct supervision of the commis- 
sioner and by local mechanics, and (2) permanent work^ such 
as steel and iron bridges and deep foundations, which should 
only be undertaken by experienced contractors. 

In order to lead him in the right direction, and to provide 
rules for the construction of every bridge in a manner that will 
render it absolutely safe to life and limb, whether it be used by 
a dog cart or by the immense steam threshers and traction 
engine outfits which go through the country in seasons of har- 
vest, I will begin by explaining the simpler forms of construction, 
supplying a few pictures and drawings to make clear my de- 
scription, after which I will undertake to supply a plain treatise 
on permanent work subdivided, for convenience under such 
heads as (i) adopting plans and specifications for new bridges; 
(2) advertising for bids; (3) receiving bids; (4) letting con- 
tract; (5) inspecting work under the contract; (6) cost of 
bridges; (7) payments and final settlements. Technical and 
unusual terms will be avoided as far as possible, since it is the 
object of this treatise to convey practical knowledge to countv 
and town officers who are generally lacking in scientific educa- 
tion and whose official duties often suggest a need for the infor- 
mation here set forth : 

II. 

FOUNDATIONS CHEAPER FORMS OF CONSTRUCTION — CRIB WORK 

PIERS AND abutments; HOW CONSTRUCTED — FRAMING AND 

DRIFT BOLTING HOW TO PROCEED, WHEN WATER IS DEEP 

BEST TIMBER FOR PILE WORK; DRIVING THE PILES — FRAMING, 

COVERING AND FILLING PILE ABUTMENTS PILE PIERS AND HOW 

TO MAKE THEM. 

Crib Work. — A ' ' crib " may be defined as a sort of composite 
wood and stone structure, sometimes used for foundations under 
water on which permanent stone or metal work is to be erected, 
sometimes for abutments and piers on which the bridge spans 
are to rest, and often for both. It is a sort of timber "basket," 
generally filled with stone, and while never the most suitable 
foundation for a permanent and expensive structure, a good 
piece of crib work will sometimes serve to support a bridge for 
many years, and in most parts of the country is infinitely cheaper 
than stone. In each case the importance of the work, the 
amount of the appropriation and the convenience of materials 
will operate largely to determine whether crib work will answer 



232 



HIGHWA V BRIDGES. 



the purposes in yiew. I will assume that we have decided to 
build the abutments and piers of crib work. How shall we 
proceed? 

Abutments. — We may use either sawed lumber, eight inches by 
eight inches in size, or timber hewn on tw^o sides like a railroad tie, 
or we may employ round logs notched and fitted in the style 
adopted in the construction of log houses. The length of the 
first or front row (or face of the abutment) should be three feet 
longer than the width of the bridge roadway, and the second or 
back row (which is, say three feet distant from the front row) 
should be about six feet longer than the front row. We shall 
need also a lot of pieces four feet long to connect the front and 




Figure 3. 
General view of crib-work piers and abutment in place. A portion 
of one of the " caps " on the nearest pier has been removed to show 
method of construction. 

back rods, and besides these a number of fourteen-foot timbers 
to form wings or protections which must extend from the face 
of the abutment backward into the bank so as to keep the cur- 
rent of the stream from getting behind the crib work and 
destroying it. The form of construction is clearly shown in 
Fig. 2. We begin our work by leveling off the bottom of the 
stream close to the bank for a sufficient length and width and 
laying down a front and a back sill, two feet eight inches apart, 
so that the rear sill just nicely clears the bank. Then lay the 
fourteen-foot wing pieces across the extremities of the sill and 
let the rear ends of these pieces extend up stream and down 
stream, making obtuse angles with the face of the sills, as shown 
in Fig. 2, and dig holes or trenches in the bank into which 



HIGHWA Y BRTDGES. 



•33 



the ends of the wing pieces must be placed. Then we lay, say 
two of the four-foot pieces across from the front sill to the back 
one, thus dividing the space between the sills into three bins. 
Now, if our purse will warrant the slight additional expense, 
we bore a five-eighths inch hole through both timbers wherever 
they lap or cross each other and drive into each hole to its full 
length a round iron rod three-quarters of an inch in diameter 
and sixteen inches long. This is called "-drift bolting'' and 
when the bolt is driven well home, it will extend entirely 
through the timbers and be flush at both sides. 

But if the expense of drift bolting is 
too great we can toe-nail along the joints 
with fifty penny spikes, or notch in the 
ends of the sticks where they cross, as 
our grandfathers did in making block 
houses. A reference to Fig. 4 will 
assist you to understand the way in 
which this toe-nailing is done. After 
doing this we put on a front and a back 
timber as before, and then more cross 
pieces and wing pieces until a layer of 
the latter comes four feet above high 
water. Then take a twelve-inch by 
twelve-inch cap and lay it on top mid- 
way between the front and back 
timbers, resting at the ends on the two 
wing pieces, and in the middle on the 
two cross pieces, drifting it down solid 
to all of them with three-quarter inch 
round iron bolts twenty inches long. 
Now dump field stone into the three 
pockets or bins till they are full up to 
the cap piece, and continue the filling along the wing timbers 
to a height even with high water-mark. After this we fill in 
'behind with earth, taking care to level off each load until we 
have reached the height of the road line ; and when this is done 
we have an abutment which will stand securely until the timber 
rots, which, on an average, is about ten years. Don't forget to 
examine the pictures as you read. 

Crib Piers. — To build a crib pier, get out the necessary 
number of sticks, three feet longer than width of bridge roadway, 
and cross pieces four feet long, to form the ends of the pier and 
the pockets or bins. If the water is not more than a foot deep, or 
if bottom is dry, your work will be easy. Level off the bottom 
of the stream for the two bottom pieces, and lay them two feet 
eight inches apart, running up and down stream parallel with the 
current. Then lay across four 4-foot sticks, two at the ends and 
two between, forming three bins. As in the case of abutments, 




Figure 4. 
Showing what is meant by 
the term "toe-nailing." The 
several timbers shown here 
are toe-nailed together, after 
which a section is cut ofif to 
show the style of fastening. 



HIGHWAY BRIDGES. 235 

drift bolt together, or notch the corners according to the 
limit of your purse. Continue course after course until your 
last layer of cross pieces is four feet above high water. Then 
lay along the top, up and down stream, two caps twelve inches 
by twelve inches, one foot apart, and on the four cross pieces, 
drift bolting the caps solidly, as for abutments. Then, after 
filling our crib with held stone, we have a pier good for about 
ten years. 

But sometimes the water is deep, and when this is the case 
we must expect to meet with some dilhculty, though it may 
be overcome with a little care. First we take soundings with a 
pole, and if the bottom is not level, and we are unable to scrape 
or rake it off, we begin by dumping field-stone in the bottom 
and spreading it with a rake, till there is a level place large 
enough for our pier. Now we float two long bottom timbers 
close to the shore, lay on the four four-foot cross pieces, and drift- 
bolt the side pieces and cross pieces together. Float this like a 
raft over the level place, already prepared for the side of the 
pier, and anchor with a line to each bank. Then we begin on 
top and lay up the crib just as you did in the other case. It 
will sink, and finally strike bottom, when we can finish just as 
I have described for the crib pier in shallow water. Don't for- 
get the pictures of the pier work. 

Pile Abutments and Piers. — I have described a simple and sub- 
stantial form of crib-work and one that can be used to advan- 
tage in the making of thousands of country highway bridges 
because this crib- work is neither expensive nor difficult to con- 
struct. But sometimes crib-work cannot be used to advantage 
because the natural conditions presented by the bridge site are 
not favorable. The earth composing the banks and bottom of 
the stream may be soft, easily "scoured" or moved by the 
water, the current of the stream may be rapid, and other con- 
ditions may combine to suggest the adoption of some other form 
of construction. In such cases it is often best to build our piers 
and abutments of piles with suitable planking and filling, as I 
shall presently describe. 

Do not make the mistake of calling these excellent friends 
"spiles." This is a term commonly used by ignorant people 
whose experience should have taught them better, and I need 
only say to you that the term is incorrect and improper. The 
best pile timber is white oak, but white oak is growing scarce 
and consequently expensive. Next in order of quality is elm, 
and after elm there is little to choose between beech and maple, 
though cypress and hard pine are both used in the south for 
piling, and along the northern lakes yellow pine and spruce are 
employed in the same way. A timber pile should be straight and 
sound, not less than eight inches in diameter at the small end 
and not necessarily more than fourteen inches at the butt. 



HIGH WA V BRID GES. 237 

It is false economy to use a pile having a diameter of less 
than twelve inches at the butt, for if the pile be, say only eight 
inches, it is not only too light to withstand the force of heavy 
driving, but it will rot away by the time a fourteen-inch pile has 
decayed to a depth of three inches from the outside. The lar- 
ger pile costs in the rough but little more than the smaller one, 
requires but little extra force to drive it and lasts two or three 
times as long ; so that you see that it is plain business policy to 
use the larger pile. 

Length of Piles. — The length of the pile to be used mast, of 
course, be determined by the height of the bridge above high 
water, by the depth of the water and by the character of the 
bottom. If the bridge is to be raised high above the water to 
answer the purposes of navigation, or for any other reason, or if 
the water is deep or the bottom soft and lacking in firmness, 
the piling will need to be of considerable length. In extreme 
cases, in great rivers, the piles are sometimes spliced and 
drriven a hundred and fifty feet long, but in all cases of ordinary 
highway bridge construction a length of twenty -four feet will 
probably serve our purpose. 

Depth to which Piles should be Driven. — Piles should be 
driven till they attain a firm " footing " and yield slowly to the 
stroke of the hammer. In sand, gravel or loose earth we may 
expect but little trouble in driving to a depth of from twelve 
to fourteen feet, and it is generally unnecessary to go deeper. 
On the other hand, in dry, baked ground, after a long period of 
dry weather, we may expect great difficulty in driving a pile as 
deep as twelve feet from the surface, even though a two 
thousant pound hammer be used, and to lessen this difficulty, 
we simply pour water into the hole and about the pile, to soak 
and soften the earth, till we have reached a depth of at least 
twelve feet. In quicksand we encounter a curious pheno- 
menon. Each successive stroke of the hammer will seem to 
drive the pile farther into the sand, and as long as we continue 
driving there will seem to be an endless tendency of the pile to 
reach on toward China. If, however, we drive the pile, say to 
a depth of about fifteen or twenty feet, and then stop and let it 
remain untouched for a day or two, we shall be surprised to note 
that it has acquired great firmness and that a heavy stroke 
of the hammer will scarcely move it downward an inch. 

Pile Abutments. — Now, to go back to our work of construc- 
tion, suppose we are about to build an ordinary abutment with 
pile framework. After fixing upon the place where we are to 
locate our abutment, we begin by driving along the face of the 
bank in a straight row, four, five or six piles, according as the 
length of our abutment may require. These piles should be about 
four to six feet apart, and when driven we saw them off evenly, 
say four feet above the highest water mark known to the oldest 



2 38 HIGHWAY BRIDGES. 

inhabitant. Then, from the two end piles in each row, we 
draw a Hne in a " slanting " direction upward toward the bank, 
both up-stream and down, so as to make obtuse angles with the 
face line of the abutment, as shown and described in the case 
of the crib-work abutment and as appears in Figs. 5 and 7. On 
each of these slanting lines drive two piles, say seven feet apart 
as shown in the figures. Now^we take a piece of square timber 
twelve inches by twelve inches in size and three feet longer 
than the width of our roadway (if the roadway is to be fourteen 
feet this timber should be seventeen) and lay this timber along 
on the top of the sawed piles at the front of the abutment, 
after w^hich we bore a five-eighths inch auger hole down through 
the centre of the timber, which we call a cap, into the centre of 
each pile on which it rests, to a depth of about nine inches. 
Then we drive well home a three-quarter inch drift bolt, 
twenty inches long, in each of these holes, and we shall find our 
cap securely fastened to the row of piles which support it. 









Figure 7. 
Showing' arrangement of piles for face and wings of abutment. 

We are now ready for our siding, inside and out, and for the 
inside we use two-inch planking fastened on with thirty penny 
nails, while upon the outside we use a more substantial three- 
inch plank, fastened with fifty penny nails, and covering the out- 
side from the ground to the cap in line with the current of the 
stream. The wing piling, running from the front of the abut- 
ment back into the bank, must be covered both inside and out in 
the same way, in order to prevent the current of the stream from 
cutting in behind the abutment. The object of the inside plank- 
ing being merely to hold the earth, while the outside is to serve 
the more important purpose of protecting the piles from flood 
trash, ice, etc., the difference in thickness between the inside and 
the outside covering is readily accounted for. After the planking 
is securely put on we fill in behind our abutment with earth, and 
when this is completed our work on the abutment is done. I 
must here warn you that in filling behind the abutment, we 
must take great care to level off each layer of earth whenever a 



HIGHWAY BRIDGES. 



239 



load is dumped so as to avoid a tendency of the earth to slide 
against the piles, and by exerting a great pressure crowd the 
face of our abutment out of ' 'plumb. ' ' For a bridge having a road- 
way fourteen to eighteen feet in width, four piles wall be 
.sufficient in the front row and two in each wing, making eight 
piles in all for each abutment. For each extra foot in width 
beyond fourteen, add one foot to the length of the cap and 
leave the wings as already described. If you look carefully at 
the illustrations (Figs. 5 and 7) and then read the description 
over again, you will understand it. The piles in the face of 
the abutment, shown in Fig. 5, are six in number; but you are 
not to be misled by this fact, for the number of piles is always 
to be determined by the width of the bridge roadway, and if the 
piles are set aboiit four to six feet apart "between centres" 
it will be easy to decide the number to be used in any case that 
may arise. 



- . 4 _ - 




4- 




Figure s. 
Showing arranpfement of piles in the construction of a pile-pier. 



Pile Piers. — If our bridge is to consist of more than one 
span we shall need piers, or supports in the stream, upon which 
the bridge spans are to rest. If the water is deep we must 
place our pile driver on a substantial flat scow to insure stability 
and to enable us to move it about in driving piles at different 
parts of our work. If the water is too shallow to admit the use 
of a scow, or if a scow is not to be had, we must locate the pile 
driver on a temporary platform or "blocking " built up in log- 
house style. Very often the water will be found so shallow 
that one or two logs or rough timbers laid evenly on the bottom 
and covered with rough planks will answer every purpose. 

Having made everything ready, we first determine the points 
where the piers are to be located, and having carefully laid out the 
distance of the first pier from the abutments, we begin our work 
by driving two rows of piles in line with the current of the 
stream and parallel with the faces of the abutments. If the 
face of the abutment contains four piles, then each of these two 
rows of pier piles should also consist of four and they should be 



24° 



HIGHWA Y BRTDGES. 



in line (looking- across the stream) with the four piles in the 
face of the abutment. If the abutment contains six piles in the 
face or front row (not counting those in the wings) each row 
of pier piles should consist of six ; but for all ordinary purposes 
four piles will be sufficient. The piles for the pier should be 
four to six feet apart, depending- on the width of roadway and the 
number of piles used, measured up and down stream, and two feet 
six inches apart across the current. It will be best, however, to 
have the up-stream end of each pier pointed, so that when com- 
pleted it will have what is commonly called an ice-breaker, and 
to give to the pier this form we drive a single pile three feet 
above the up-stream end of the pier and in a line midway 
between the two rows, and after driving all the piles we saw 
off all the tops except the up-stream one evenly, three feet six 
inches above extreme high water-mark and securely fit on four 
cross caps six by twelve inches in size and four feet long. 
When these caps are in place the tops of the caps will be on a 
level with the tops of the abutment piles, which, as you remem- 
ber, we sawed off at a height of four feet above extreme high 
water-mark. 

We are now ready to fix in place two long top caps upon 
which the ends of the bridge spans are to rest, and these, for a 
bridge having a fourteen-foot roadway, are to 
be seventeen feet long and twelve inches by 
twelve inches in size. They must be securely 
fastened to both the cap pieces and the piles 
upon which the caps rest, and to insure this 
fastening we must use drift-bolts, twenty-seven 
inches long and three-quarter inches in 
diameter. Having put the top caps in place 
as shown in Fig. 6, we bore a five-eighths inch 
hole through the top cap and the cross cap 
and into the centre of the pile to a total depth 
of about twenty-eight inches at each point 
where the top cap crosses one of the support- 
ing piles beneath it. Then at each of these 
points a twenty-seven inch drift bolt should be 
driven tightly down till the end is flush with 
the top of the upper timber. It will then 
reach into the pile nine inches and will make 
a secure fastening. 

After the top caps are securely in place we 
fatt'LnTngloS'eftop pl^nk the outsidc of the pier with three-inch 
cap, cross cap and pile lumber (cxccpt the down-strcam end, which 

in building a pile pier. ■, \ .'■^^ j-^i- r 

miay be two inches) and m this manner form 
a tight box around the piles, the down-stream end being square, 
and the up-stream end sharp to cut the current and ice and render 
flood trash less liable to lodg-e against the pier. It is a good 




FiGUKh. Q. 



HIGH IV A V BRIDGES. 2 4 1 

plan to fill the inside of the pier between the planks with com- 
mon field stone up to the high water line, as this method will 
make the pier more solid and enable it to resist the pressure of 
ice and floods. But if this is done, we must make our outside 
planking very secure to resist the outward pressure of the stones, 
and to do this we should use three fifty-penny nails at each place 
where a plank is laid against one of the pier piles. Indeed, in 
any case, this strong method of spiking will not be out of 
place. 

I have said nothing about sawing off the up-stream pile at 
the point of the pier. For the sake of neatness, though not as 
a matter of necessity, it should be cut oft' at a height level 
with the top of the planking and it should not be cut off below 
this point in any event. If you will carefully study the pictures 
shown in Figs. 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9, I believe the whole method of 
construction will become clear to you. 

In a succeeding number I will tell you how to make a cheap 
land pile driver which can be easily transported on a lumber 
wagon, and will also explain how to set it up and drive piles 
economically. 

{To be Continued.) 



"Good Roads, New York, is a pushing periodical. The 
February number shows the usual determination to lift the 
country at the earliest possible time out of its expensive slough 
of muddy ways of travel, if the object teaching of bad roads 
and stalled vehicles and floundering pedestrians photographed 
on the one side, and the comfort and cheapness of travel on 
well constructed roadbeds on the other, will do it." — Brooklyn 
Daily Eagle. 



"The February number of Good Roads, the magazine which 
is doing more for the good cause than any other agency, is one 
of the best yet issued. It contains practical illustrations, argu- 
ments and directions for making good roads. Every one 
interested in roads or streets should read it. "■ — New Albany [I fid. ) 
Daily Ledger. 



" Have just received your February number of Good Roads. 
Permit me to encourage you in the noble cause you are ad- 
vocating. Your book ought to be read by every person with a 
progressive spirit. * * * Your Illinois and New York 
numbers are ' stunners. ' You ought to give Wisconsin a rub. 
That state has been my home for twenty-five years." — R, G. 
Huntinghouse, Chicago, III. 



ROAD-LAW IN SWITZERLAND. 




SFXOND PAPER POLICING THE HIGHWAYS. 

By Edjs^ar R. Dawson, M. E. 

N my previous article on the Road 
Law of the Canton of Vaud, Switz- 
erland, I dealt with the ordinary 
provisions for maintenance and 
construction, the apportionment of 
expense and allied matters. It is 
my purpose now to speak of the 
complementary portion of the law, 
that is, of the law for the policing 
of the highways. The one branch is as necessary as the other, 
and it is only by the combination of the two that a complete 
and satisfactory administration of a road system can exist. 

The law for the proper policing of the public ways is pri- 
marily for the purpose of seeing that the various regulations that 
are necessary are not infringed. All that I have hitherto said 
about the duties of state and county, about the methods pursued 
by the Department of Public Works for seeing that the work is 
properly done and that its instructions are complied with, 
would avail little if a strict observance of the rules found 
necessary was not enforced. 

The co-operation of those using the roads, and those owning 
propertv along the lines of the different public ways, is almost 
if not quite as necessary as the proper attention on the part of 
those in charge. I do not mean by this that any active co- 
operation is exacted or is necessary. But as the matter is one 
of law, and that chiefly of a negative character, requiring the 
people 7iol to do certain things rather than compelling any action 
on their part, a compliance with the spirit as well as letter is 
naturally more effective. 

The subject naturally falls into several minor divisions. 
The policing necessary to the proper maintenance and the 
betterment of the public ways, and that for the purpose of 
preserving the freedom and ensuring the safety of the roads. 

That relative to the adjacent constructions and to the demar- 
kation of the highways. 

And finally, infringements of the provisions deemed neces- 
sary and their punishment by fines. 

Under the first head come many useful and necessary regu- 
lations relative to the weight of wagons and the width of 
tires. 242 



ROAJD-LAIV IN SWITZERLAND. 243 

No wagon weighing more than 20,000 lbs. with the load 
included, is permitted, no matter by how many horses it may 
be drawn. As the weight of the vehicles may be ascertained 
by the number of the license or by means of scales established 
in suitable places on the more prominent highways, provision 
must be made that no deceit is practiced by unloading on other 
wagons in order to pass the scales, or by producing a false 
license number. This is, however, carefully guarded against 
by making the penalty heavy, and in addition, causing the 
excess of weight to be taken off. The limit of weight allowed 
is hardly one that would cause inconvenience to those hauling 
over our roads at present, even if they were able to attach a 
drove of horses to one wagon. The very fact that a penalty is 
necessary for the infringement of such a limit speaks volumes 
for the economy of a proper road system. Where with us (a 
very few exceptions being made) would our legislators think 
that anyone would be wild enough to attempt to haul such a 
load ? If we could only bring such facts home to our people at 
large, and farmers and merchants in particular, what would 
we not have accomplished for the cause of good roads? They 
would then see that economy in money spent for proper con- 
struction and inaintenance is not the only way in which expendi- 
ture may be saved. They would realize what a saving in 
horse flesh good roads really mean. The prescribed width for 
the tires of vehicles or rather the prescribed minimum widths 
are as follows: 

For four-wheeled wagons drawn by two horses, 2 in. ; by 
three horses, 3 in. ; by four horses, 4 in. ; by five horses, 5 in. ; 
by six or more, 6 in. 

For heavy carts having but two wheels, the minimum width 
of tire is 3 in. ; should three horses be necessary the width is 
placed at 4 in. ; and when more than three are used, at not less 
than 5 in. Under exceptional circumstances, and then only in 
remote parts of the canton, these rules are relaxed for wagons 
hauling certain farm products. These numbers do not include 
the extra horses necessary on steep hills; the hills where such 
extra horses are needed being determined by the legislature. 

The widths of loads allowed (with the exception of hay 
wagons circulating in the remote parts of the canton) is limited 
to eight feet. Aside from the fine with which an infringement 
of this regulation is pimished, the offender is responsible for 
any damage he may have caused. 

In order to provide against the roads being torn up on the 
hillsides by the wheels being made fast to prevent too great 
speed, there is a regulation to the effect that the drivers of 
heavily loaded wagons must use an iron shoe. This shoe hav- 
ing greater breadth than the tire, causes the dragging effect to 
be spread over a larger surface, and consequently does not tear 



ROAD-LAW IN SWITZERLAND. 245 

up the road-bed to the same extent. Should the hillsides 
happen to be covered with ice, the wheels may be made fast 
with a chain, or an iron shoe or drag provided with a rough 
under surface, may be used. A brake that completely arrests 
the movement of the wheel is regarded as any other appliance 
for making fast the wheels. 

Dragging logs of wood along the roads, except when they 
are covered with snow or ice, is equally forbidden. 

To aid in the observance of these provisions, notices are 
placed in appropriate places to remind drivers of the regula- 
tions. 

The regulations with regard to trees and hedges along the 
highways are very explicit, and to them are in lager measure due 
the facility with which the roads are properly maintained. The 
free action of the wind and sun are two great agents in keeping 
the roads in order, assisting so materiallyin keeping the roadway 
free from moisture. It is maintained by some that having trees 
near a road also aids very sensibly in its drainage ; absorbing 
water through their roots and evaporating it from their leaves. 
That this action goes on is undoubtedly true, but European ex- 
perience advocates allowing the agencies of the wind and sun 
fair play. 

The regulations of the Canton of Vaud that w^e are at 
present considering forbid the planting of any tree nearer 
than ten feet to the road, or thirty feet to the next tree that is 
on the roadside. This provision does not apply to bushes or 
very small trees. 

If the branches of trees on the roadside extend over the 
roadway to such an extent as to form an inconvenience to 
trafhc, they must be properly trimmed on the demand of the 
road supervisor. Should a proprietor neglect to comply, it is 
done by those in charge of the roads and the proprietor com- 
pelled to pay costs and also fined. 

The regulation above mentioned which forbids the planting 
of any tree nearer than ten feet to a highway does not apply to 
the avenues of trees planted by the state or the counties with 
the object of affording shade on the foot-paths, which from 
their uses for pleasure walks or otherwise render them de- 
sirable. But when the cotmties wish to establish such avenues 
they must submit their plans to the state road supervisor and 
comply with the directions given by the Department of Public 
Works. The provisions with reference to the trimming of trees 
on private property apply equally in this case. 

If a highway passes either through or by the edge of a for- 
est the trees must be cleared away for a width of eighteen feet. 
An exception, however, is made when the road is on a very 
steep hillside. In this case on the down hillside the trees are 
allowed to stand. 



246 



ROAD- LAW IN SWITZERLAND, 




SWlTZLRLAXlJ— TIIE STAUBBACH, LAUTERBRENNEN. 



The free action of the wind and sun is so much valued in 
the maintenance of the highways that the trimming of roadside 
hedges is also the subject of strict rules. The proprietors must 
trim their hedges every year, between August 15 and Sep- 
tember 15, so that they may not be more than four feet above 
the level of the road surface, nor project over the road-bed. 
In addition to this it is expressly forbidden to plant near the 
hedges any bushes that may counteract the play of the wind 
and sun. 

The height of the walls along the roadsides is put at five feet 
as a minimum, except in the cases of buildings or walls adjacent 



ROAD-LAIF IN SWITZERLAND. 247 

to such buildings. A retaining wall must not be more than one 
foot higher than the earth it sustains, where that height is more 
than five feet. 

In planting hedges the proprietors of the land must call on 
the district supervisor to indicate the limits of the roadway and 
fix the alignment, and from the limits thus assigned allow a space 
of one and one-half feet to the line on which the hedge is planted. 

The regulations with respect to turning water on the public 
ways are most salutary. Water being one of the greatest 
enemies a good road has, it is of paramount importance that the 
road-bed be kept free from it. No drains of any kind are 
allowed to be conducted by the side of or across the road-bed, ex- 
cept by special permission of the inspector of the Department 
of Public Works. The person to whom such a permission may 
be given must follow out in all particulars the directions given 
by those in charge of the works ; he must execute all the neces- 
sary work at his own expense, and keep it in good repair with- 
out in any way affecting the road. In addition to this he must 
guarantee the coimt}^ against any action that a third person deem- 
ing himself injured might institute. The drains, if they cross a 
road, must be of either masonry or iron, but if they merely run 
parallel may be of either earthenware or wood. Such conces- 
sions are never allowed to interfere with any changes that are 
deemed expedient in the roads, but if the interests of any one 
are infringed an indemnity is allowed. When rain water from 
a roof would fall on a road, proper conduits must be provided 
so as to conduct the water to the ground and prevent the wear- 
ing action that falling freely from a distance produces. 

One regulation that we might imitate with great profit, 
by strictl_v enforcing, is that in reference to throwing grass or 
stones or trash of any sort on a roadway. Our roads sufi^er 
greatly by being used at times for the purpose of getting rid of 
anything that is inconvenient on one's property. We might 
also follow their example in not permitting cattle to wander up 
and down our roads at will as they do in so many places. 

Wherever excessive speed would be dangerous or inconven- 
ient to traffic, it is prohibited, as well as the practice that is 
sometimes indulged in of having only one driver for a number 
of carts. The limit in this is put at four carts to one man and 
between such lines of carts a space of two hundred steps must 
be allowed ; the driver must walk at the head of the first horse. 

The safety and ease with which the roads may be used at 
night is greatly promoted by compelling the use of lanterns on 
all vehicles, bicycles being included. In the same way sleighs 
must be provided with bells that make themselves heard at a 
distance of more than a hundred feet. 

The long lines of empty carriages or wagons that one some- 
times sees with us, drawn by one team, are not known ; as more 
than two are not allowed to be attached to each other. 



ROAD-LAW I A' SWITZERLAND. 249 

In no particular would we do better to follow their example 
than in reference to the use that is made of public ways when 
any constructing or repairing is going on on neighboring prop- 
erty. Not only are the deposits of materials that one so often 
sees dangerous to traffic, but they are injurious to the road-bed 
and turn it to a use for which it was not intended. 

The regulations on this subject forbid anyone making a 
deposit of any kind in a public way, for inore than one day, 
without having previously obtained a permit from the super- 
visor of the district. This permit is only issued under the 
following conditions ; That a space sufficient for the safe 
passage of all vehicles be left; that the materials be placed 
where the supervisor directs in order to incommode traffic the 
least possible ; that in the case of building, greater quantities of 
material than the advancement of the work requires be not 
deposited; that such deposits, if they consist of materials 
destined for use elsewhere, be not left over ten days, the time 
necessary to remove them included. If the nature of the work 
is such that the above conditions cannot be fulfilled, and if the 
deposits are such that the freedom of the way must be inter- 
rupted, the inspector of the Department of Public Works only 
is entitled to issue the authorization. Should the traffic of the 
way be entirely interrupted, a new passage must be opened on 
adjacent property where that is possible, or if not, the fact of 
the interruption must be properly advertised and posted. The 
expense of all this is naturally incumbent on those who cause 
the interruption of traffic. 

The same restrictions exist with respect to scaffoldings as 
with deposits of materials; permits from the proper authorities 
being necessary preparatory to their establishment. 

The solidity and stability of the highways are not allowed 
to be jeopardized by the opening of quarries or gravel banks, 
etc., too near the roadways; nothing of the kind being allowed 
nearer than twelve feet. Should it be necessary to excavate 
for a construction at a less distance than the twelve feet, 
barriers must be so placed that all danger of accidents is 
avoided. 

The restrictions placed on proprietors of mills and factories 
immediately on the public ways certainly add greatly to the 
comfort of those using them. To accomplish the end desired 
in this particular, the law directs that where anything of the 
kind that could frighten horses exists at a distance of less than 
thirty feet from the roadway, the working of the engines or 
whatever it may be, must be hidden. 

In the same line as this are the regulations which prohibit 
lime kilns or fires at night within the same distance. Factories 
of soap-fat or those using bones, or anything of the kind that 
produces disagreeable odors or smoke, are forbidden inside of 



250 A'OAn-LAJl'S IN SWITZERLAND. 

the thirty foot line. So much for making use of dead animals 
near a road. vShould the brutes be alive and constitute a 
menagerie they must be kept at a distance of 120 feet from the 
public way. 

Infringements of the various regulations are punishable 
by fines of different sizes, according to the magnitude of the 
offense. 

The fining may be done on the complaint of those in charge 
of the roads, of the police, or officers of the cotmty. When a 
private citizen complains of the infringement of a rule an in- 
vestigation is, of course, made. 

A percentage of the fine in cases of the latter sort goes to 
the informer. 

Such are the chief regulations with reference to the high- 
ways in the Canton of Vaud. There are others of which I have 
not thought it important to speak; some because different con- 
ditions would render them either useless or inapplicable in this 
country ; some because their necessity is so obvious that they 
must exist and be observed everywhere. 



"I AM in receipt of Good Roads, and being a book-keeper 
in a grain office where farmers are constantly coming and 
going, I use my own copy of Good Roads and all other copies 
I can procure from other members, by distributing them among 
people who appear to have a progressive spirit. Can't other 
members of the L. A. W. do the same? Yours for good roads, 
W, E. Sheldon^ Local Consul {^Jackson., Mich.y 



" The December number of Good Roads has a special value 
to every citizen of Illinois, as it is especially an Illinois edition, 
and contains many excellent articles on the road question of 
Illinois, one from the pen of Governor Altgeld. Every road 
commissioner in the state should have this magazine, and espe- 
cially the December, 1892, number." — Putnam Record [III.) 



"Good Roads announces a series of state editions, devoted 
to the especial needs and demands of localities. This promises 
to be an extremely valuable feature of the excellent work this 
magazine is doing." — Tribune [Detroit, Mich.) 



" Good Roads is a magazine of great excellence, and gives 
promise of doing good and very much needed work in behalf of 
the improvement of country roads." — Daily Journal [Elizabeth, 
JV- J) 





THE FRISKY 
HARE. 



/ESOP REVISED TO DATE. 

^y W. W. "Bcadcll, Editor, "Pearl City {111.) •■ rlfews.'- 

NCE upon a time, during a Spring thaw, 
a mud turtle came out of the comatose 
state in which he had remained all 
Winter, and started for Studebaker's 
mill pond. On the way he met a 
frisky young hare, who straightway 
began to guy him because of his slow- 
ness. This caused the mud turtle to get exceeding 
wroth, whereupon the f. y. hare renewed his efforts. 
Now, the mud turtle was a regular subscriber 
to his home paper, and therefore was up to snuff. 
He knew that every Spring the trail between 
Yellow Creek and Loran was one wild waste of 
soft and sticky mud ; so he promptly offered to bet 
the cigars with the hare that the latter wouldn't 
stand half a show with him in a race between 
Kleckner's corner, Yellow Creek, and Fry's corner, Loran. 
This tickled the hare immensely, for he thought it was the big- 
gest bluff that was ever promulgated by any being on this 
terrestrial sphere. But, as he had no 
particular objection to filling his vest 
pocket with good Havanas, he snapped 
up the offer so quick that the mud 
turtle, who was considerable of a 
snapper himself, opened wide his 
mouth in admiration. 

Arrangements were soon perfected 
for this grand track event. The contestants toed the scratch 
and the word was given for them to go. With a few jumps 
down the sidewalk, the hare was far in the lead. He turned 

once to yell back to the mud 
turtle, inviting him to start, but 
the latter kept in the road and 
sawed mud and said nothing. 
Being in his natural element, the 
mud turtle knew he was all right. 
In about six jiffies the hare 
had made half a mile, and found 
himself at the end of South Main 
street. Here he had to leave the dry sidewalk and take to the 
highway. Two leaps landed him in the middle of the road. 
He stuck there. ,„ 




'THE HARE GLYI^D HIM." 




'OPENED WIDE HIS MOUTH IN 
ADMIRATION." 



252 



.^SOr REVISED TO DATE. 




"WITH A PITYING GLANCE, SUPPLEMENTED BY A WINK OF HIS OFF EYE, 
HE FORGED PAST." 

Along about three o'clock in the afternoon, the mud turtle 
came to the spot, and with a pitying glance at the hare, supple- 
mented by a wink of his off eye, 
he forged past. 

Three weeks later, news came 
that the turtle had reached the 
goal, slightly disfigured, but still 
very much on the turf; while the 
last heard of the hare was that he 
was still struggling and calling the 
road authorities very bad names. 

Moral: Don't try to beat a man at his own game. 




'STILL VERY MUCH ON THE TURF. 



•'GOOD ROADS" FOR MARCH. 

THE contents of Good Roads can hardly be classed as light literature, 
yet a man who will say that the March number of the magazine is- 
not entertaining holds himself open to the charge of not having 
looked It over impartially. New type, excellent illustrations and a 
series of interesting articles make it exceptionally valuable. Editor Potter's 
call for voluntary subscriptions, for the purpose of enabling him to send the 
publication to road officers and others whose aid in the movement is desir- 
able, has our sincere sympathy. Regardless of the whys and wherefores of 
the case, our personal impulse is to respond. It is not well to question a 
man's right to be born after he has grown up and asks the wherewithal to 
save himself from walking through the world barefooted. Good Roads is- 
no beggar. It pleads a worthv cause. Its mission is the enhancement 
of human happiness. Shall wheelmen grumble, then, if they are asked 
to give a mite to that which they have created? We have built the 
engine — let us keep it supplied with fuel. — The Bearings. 



CLEANING ASPHALT PAVEMENTS. 

A SHORT CHAPTER ON TOOLS AND METHODS.* 

ALL street pavements should be kept as clean as possible. 
The uneven surface and the joints between the blocks 
make it difficult to keep stone clean or wooden block 
or brick pavements as clean as they should be. Asphalt pave- 
ments, on the contrary, having a hard, even and smooth sur- 
face, can, without difficulty, and at a small cost, be kept as clean 
as the floor of a gentleman's stable or carriage house. 

No one who has ever seen a properly cleaned and cared for 
asphalt pavement can have failed to be impressed with its 
beauty and the comfort it affords those who use it. Travelers 
universally notice and praise the admirably kept asphalt pave- 
ments of London and Paris, and speak of them as luxuries that 
we cannot hope to enjoy in America. Nothing could be further 
from the truth. 

Our asphalt pavements in this country are fully equal to 
the foreign pavements, except in the one essential of cleanli- 
ness, and there is no good reason why they should not be 
equally well cared for in that respect. This is not an idle as- 
sertion ; it is a fact which experience has proved. 

No people are more willing than Americans to incur the 
expense necessary to secure the best of everything in the way 
of the comforts and conveniences of living, but it may be justly 
said that after spending money freely for the first cost of the 
things we want, we are apt to become negligent and slothful in 
taking care of them. So with asphalt pavements; everybody 
admires their beauty and cleanliness when they are first com- 
pleted and opened for travel, but no provision is made for keep- 
ing them in that condition. The dirt is allowed to accumulate 
upon the surface ; in rainy weather this dirt becomes mud, and 
in dry weather it becomes dust, which is carried by the wind 
upon the faces and clothes of those using the street, or into 
the business houses or homes of the residents. To remedy the 
latter evil, the sprinkling cart — of which it may be said that 
" it never rains but it pours " — is called in, the street is deluged 
with water, and what before was dust becomes a mass of reek- 
ing slush, which no lady can cross without imminent peril to 
her shoes and skirts, and which, under the hot sun, gives off a 
varied assortment of bad smells, and worst of all, forms a fer- 
tile hot-bed for the propagation and dissemination of disease- 
producing germs. When thus covered with slimy mud, an 

*GoOD Roads is indebted to the courtesy o£ the Warren-Scharf Asphalt Co. for the 
subject matter and illustrations contained in this article. ajg 



254 CLEANING ASPHALT PAVEMENTS. 

asphalt pavement, which in any other state affords a sure foot- 
hold for horses, is more or less slippery. These conditions 
pertain to pavements of all kinds, but they are less excusable 
in the case of asphalt pavements, because of the ease and the 
comparatively small cost of remedying the evil on that kind of 
pavement. It is the object of this article to point out how- 
asphalt pavements should be cleaned, the implements neces- 
sary and the cost of the work. 

There are two general systems of street cleaning which may 
be designated as " Machine Cleaning" and "Hand Cleaning," 
or, as the latter is called abroad, the "Orderly System." 

Machine Sweeping. — In this method the surface of the street 
is swept at intervals of one or more days by street-sweeping 
machines drawn by horses. The work is usually done at night, 
so as to incommode travel as little as possible. The machines 
sweep the dirt from the centre each way to the gutter, where 
it is collected into little piles by the use of hoes and brooms, 
and is then shoveled into carts or wagons and hauled away. 
The street should be lightly sprinkled — only enough to lay the 
dust — just in advance of the sweeping machine. 

The objections to this system are: 

I St. Even if the pavement is swept every day, the horse 
droppings and other dirt will, during hot days, become dry and 
converted into dust by the travel, and will thus render resort to 
sprinkling necessary. 

2d. Unless the surface of the pavement is in just the right 
condition, the machine brooms do not clean the streets 
satisfactorily. 

If the dirt is too dry, the power brooms raise a large volume 
of dust which floats away into houses or settles back upon the 
street. If the street is wet and sloppy, the brooms do not 
properly remove the dirt, but only plaster it upon the surface 
of the pavement, to be ground to dust during the next day, or 
to be converted into slush if flooded by the water carts. 

3d. The sweepings are often not promptly hauled away, 
and the travel on the street scatters them about over the pave- 
ment again, thus rendering the previous labor useless. 

Hand Siueeping. — This is the system employed in cleaning 
the asphalt pavements in foreign cities, and which has rendered 
these pavements so famous and so admired by travelers. 

It consists in dividing the streets into sections, each of which 
is cleaned by one man or boy, who is responsible for the con- 
dition of the pavement under his charge. The implements 
required by each man, and their cost, are as follows : 

One street scraper $3. 00 

Two brooms, with handles, each 75 

One scoop shovel 85 

One hand barrow 2.00 



CLEANING ASPHALT PAVEMENTS. 



= 55 



The scraper that is found best for the purposes is, we believe, 
an American tool, its place being taken in foreign cities by the 
"squeegee," which it is not necessary here to describe. The 
scraper, as well as the method of using it, is sufficiently 
described in the accompanying illustrations. 

When pushed before the operator, as shown, the thin steel 
blade accommodates itself to any small inequalities in the 
surface of the pavement and is a most effective tool for re- 
moving and collecting mud or damp droppings from the surface 




1% 



CAS,J STEEL BLADE 
"^/S BIRMINGHAM iV.g. 



mw 



-4'-6- 



of the pavement. It is not, so far as we know, upon the market, 
b;it any good blacksmith, with the aid of the drawings here 
given, can make it. 

The brooms most suitable for sweeping asphalt pavements 
are what are known as "Bass" brooms of the usual form of 
street brooms. They should be twenty or twenty-two inches 
long and of the best quality. Those made by J. McArthur & 
Co., No. 131 Reade Street, New York, have been found by 
experience first-rate, but they can doubtless be secured of equal 
quality from other inanufacturers. If bought in quantities a 
considerable discount from the price given above could probably 
be secured. The shovel best suited for the purpose is the ordi- 
nary scoop shovel of medium size. Any good wheelbarrow will 
answer for carrying the sweepings the short distance necessary 
to some place of temporary deposit until taken up and carted 



256 CLEANING ASPHALT PAVEMENTS. 

away. There are several styles of handcart made especially 
for this purpose, but they cost much more than wheelbarrows, 
which serve the purpose very well. 

How the Work is Done. — The men employed spend the 
whole of the day from 6 A. M. to 6 P. M. (excepting the time 
required for the midday meal), upon the part of the street 
assigned to them. When the street is dry, each man should, 
during the early morning hours, while travel is light, and at 
other times as opportunity may offer, sweep thoroughly at 
least a part of his street with the hand brooms, to remove the 



dust. He should get over the whole of his work in this way 
every two or three days. During the remainder of the time he 
passes rapidly over his work, removing with the scraper or 
brooms, or both, the fresh droppings before they have had time 
to dry and to become ground into dust. If this part of the work 
is faithfully done, it will be found that very little dust will 
accumulate on the pavement unless the street is very heavily 
traveled. By the skillful use of the scraper, the moist dirt can 
be rapidly collected and removed by the wheelbarrow or hand- 
cart. In wet weather the dirt will be almost wholly removed 
by means of the scraper, which is the most effective tool known 
for use on the smooth asphalt surface. The work is not 
laborious, but requires active, alert men or boys to do it 
properly. 



CLEANING ASPHALT PAVEMENTS. 257 

The final disposal of the accumulated street sweepings will 
depend on circumstances. It is usually removed at stated 
intervals by the carts of the street cleaning- department. 
Where, as can generally be arranged, the carts can make four 
or more trips over the street each day, the sweepings can be 
taken up directly from small piles which may be made at points 
on the street where they will be least disturbed by the travel, 
as in the gutters, in the entrances to alleys, etc. In European 
cities the sweepings are put into small iron boxes or bins located 
at convenient points along the street or i:pon the edge of the 
sidewalk, and the bins are emptied every night only. In this 
country the occupants of property along the streets generally 
object to these bins, claiming that the effluvium given off from 
the sweepings is objectionable, and that the bins themselves are 
unsightly and obstruct the street. The amount of sweepings 
from asphalt streets is not great, averaging on a block of the 
usual length about one-fourth of a pound per day for each 
vehicle passing over the street. 

Amount of Asphalt Pavement one Man ean Clea/i, and the Cost of 
the IVork. — The amount of pavement one man can properly care 
for in this way varies with the amount of travel ; on residence 
streets with light travel, one man can keep from two thousand 
to three thousand linear feet of street (say 36 feet wide) in a 
thoroughly satisfactory condition. On downtown business 
streets, with very heavy travel, one ordinary block, say 400 feet 
long, is about as much as one man can care for. 

The following examples will best illustrate the amount of 
labor required and its cost : On CoUingwood Avenue, Toledo, 
Ohio, length 3,750 feet, width between curbs 30 feet, one man 
is constantly employed and has an assistant about eight days out 
of each month. Total cost (exclusive of cost of tools and hauling 
away sweepings), $50 per month, or about one and one-third 
cents per linear foot of street per month. 

On Jarvis Street, Toronto (the leading residence street of the 
city, with a moderately heavy travel), each man took care of about 
1,350 linear feet of street, 36 feet wide, and kept the street in a 
ver}'' satisfactory condition. 

On Race Street, Cincinnati, 42 feet wide, several squares 
were cleaned and cared for under this system. The work was 
undertaken and carried on as a practical lesson to the occupants 
along the street in cleaning an asphalt pavement, and proved 
highly satisfactory to all. It required one man to each square 
of about 400 feet in length. The travel over this part of the 
street averages over five thousand vehicles and nearly seven 
thousand horses per day. 

It will thus be seen that an asphalt paved residence street of 
moderate travel can be, in this way, cleaned and cared for at 
about the usual price paid for street sprinkling. 



258 CLEANING ASPHALT PAVEMENTS. 

Sprinkling. — When an asphalt paved street is cleaned in the 
way described above it will be found that sprinkling is seldom 
required. There will be times during- gusty weather when a 
small amount of dust that will always remain on any pavement 
however well it may be cleaned, will be raised and blown about. 
On such days very light sprinkling, just enough to keep the 
dust from flying, would be desirable. This may be best done 
by providing the men who do the cleaning with a reel of garden 
hose say one hundred feet long, and making suitable connec- 
tions with the city water pipes at distances of, say two hundred 
and fifty feet apart, to which the hose may be attached when 
required. The street can thus be sprmkled lightly as frequently 
as may be necessary, at little or no expense in addition to the 
cleaning. Under no circumstances should the pavement be 
flooded by water carts. There are, it is true, sprinkling wagons 
fitted so that the amount of water discharged upon the street 
can be nicely regulated, but even then the drivers are likely to 
be careless and to flood the pavement. It will be found better 
and cheaper to keep the sprinkling wagons off of asphalt pave- 
ments altogether. 

Another objection to excessive sprinkling is that it greatly 
reduces the life of pavements of all kinds. Every one who has 
visited stone working machinery has observed that where stone is 
to be sawed into or ground av/ay, a constant stream of water is 
kept dropping upon the part to be cut ; and if one asks why 
this is done, he will be told that it greatly expedites the work, 
and that without the water the process of sawing or grinding 
the stone would be a very slow one. So with pavements, 
whether of stone or other material, if they are kept constantly 
flooded with water, their life will be greatly shortened, and for 
this reason alone, if for no other, sprinkling should be avoided 
wherever it is possible to do so. 



$100 i^gold) in. prizes for pliotographs of American roads. See 
full page announcement in hack advertising pages of this nutnber. 
Now is the season to compete. Eull particulars and competitor s blanks 
supplied on application to the editor of Good Roads. 



Read the page in this number entitled ' ' A few important lines to 
you from the Editor. 



" Good Ro.a.ds is the title of an interesting magazine on oiir 
desk published by the League Roads Improvement Bureau. 
It is an illustrated monthly magazine devoted to the improve- 
ment of the public roads and streets, and each number is devoted 
to different states — the December number to Illinois, and con- 
tains papers from prominent men on the questions. Ask your 
newsdealer for it. " — Lacon Journal {III. ) 



;^ A RELIC OF ENGLISH COACHING DAYS. 

i '•' 

A HUNDRED and sixty years ago, when staid old England 
was yet undisturbed by the scream and rush of Steven- 
son's locomotive, and while traffic was still unquickened 
by the invention of the steamboat, and above all, when 
Tresaguet and Macadam and Telford were still unknown, then 
was the hey-day of the English stage coach, and the time when 
the inland travel of England was carried on almost wholly by 
way of the common roads. 

An interesting relic of these old days, in the form of the 
printed business announcement of one Nicholas Rothwell, 
proprietor of the Birmingham stage coach, was picked up some 
time ago in an old English inn in Warwick County, by Mr. A. 
H. Overman, President of the Overman Wheel Company, and 
by his kindness Good Roads is enabled to reproduce d, fac simile 
copy herewith. For one who is familiar with the history of 
English roads in the early part of the last century, it is easy to 
imagine the perils and perplexities encountered by Sir Nicholas 
and those hapless travelers who committed themselves to his 
uncertain care for two mortal days of a rainy season. The mud 
was deep and travel difficult, and it is said to have been no un- 
common thing for the public coach to become stalled in the 
deep mire of the public road and to remain there till pulled out 
by the aid of an ox team obtained from some neighboring farm. 
Sir Nicholas seems to have been well aware of these conditions, 
and so, to assure the public as fully as possible against the 
chances of such a mishap, he has headed his poster with a 
picture of his somewhat elaborate coach drawn by six prancing 
steeds, thus suggesting an equipment which might be regarded 
as worthy of the difficulties to Idc encountered. 

Yet if we read this old poster from end to end, we find two 
or three expressions which, in spite of the quaint sobriety with 
which friend Rothwell evidently wrote them down, are sug- 
gestive of real humor ; for, after setting forth his schedule of 
good intentions, he still seems to have in mind the uncertainty 
of the weather, and therefore opens for himself a comfortable 
loop-hole by adding the sentence " Performed (if God permit) 
by Nicholas Rothwell." 

If our old coaching proprietor could now come back to earth 
and ride across the splendid highways which have supplanted 
the mud roads of his day, he would find the old route through 
Warwick and Oxford and Buckingham and Surrey to be sur- 
rounded by a prosperous peasantry, whose use of the public 
road is independent of any conditions which the weather may 
impose, and that the miseries which beset the English traveler 
of 1 731 were not so justly attributable to the Divine will as to 
the shiftless ignorance of the British road maker of that day. 




BiRMlNGHAM 
STAGE-COACH, 

In Two Days aixl a half ^ begins May the 
24th. 1731. 

SETSout from the Sman'ifni\x\£irmn^ham, 
every Mots^ayzt fix a Clock i^i the Morning, 
through Warwick, Banlrury and Alfskv/y^ 
10 the Red Lien InnSnMerfgaie jircet^ London^ 
cvcry^ Weimfday lShoxxm%\ Anireturns frpm 
the faid Hed Uon Inn every Ihurfdcy Mocniog 
ac five a Oock the fame Way to ^^jiwaTi^Jnn 
in Birmingbcm every Saturday^ at u Shillings 
eaeh Pkffcn^r,and 18 Shillings fromlW/w^i. 
who has liberty tocarry 14 Pounds in Weight, 
and all above iopay QnePttmy a Pound. 
Perfonnd (if Cod permit) 

By Nicholas Rothwell. 

"The Week]; Waggoo /«$ oat cyery Tuefdaj fntm tht N^^f,Head m 
™TO««hiin.;/oiAf fed L»o» fen <r/«rf/*»< every Samrdaj^jipd rttnrnf 

2mr/efttj, - 

inlhtd ^aUh o 'ByCoBch. Chanet. Chaife, vHear/t^ Wlha Mttvrn/yif Oo^h 
«nJ ebU /^or/ft, tojinj Part Iff Crjtt itttutu^ at rvjenobtt BMtr : ^nd 
olfo Svdli Hcrfii h be hsd. 



BROOKLYN COBBLESTONES. 




OBBLESTONES gal Ore ! "Where do the cobble- 
stones come from? ' is a question the 
wheelman must sometimes ask himself as 
he looks with dismay upon these evidences 
of semi-civilization in the streets of 
Brooklyn. 

For answer he may trundle his wheel 
over these substitutes for good pavements 
until he comes to the outskirts of the city, 
where the first excavation or cutting in a 
hillside show him "cobbles" in all sizes, 
from pebbles to bowlders, mingled with the sand. 

The variety of material is considerable ; limestone and sand- 
stone of various colors, granite, quartz, trap rock, pudding 
stones, and occasionally a rare specimen whose birthplace was 
up in the White Mountains or other far away New England 
hills, for Long Island itself contains no rocks of native origin. 
All we have are imported. 

"Who imported them?" Oh, the ice brought them here 
one or two hundred thousand years ago. There wasn't any 
Long Island then, and New York City was seventy-five miles, 
or so inland and several hundred feet higher than at present. 
It was a rather cool climate, Winter lasted all Summer and 
began again in the Fall, and the ice was 300 feet thick over the 
land. Plenty of good skating, only there was nobody to skate. 
If ever there had been anybody he was frozen out or migrated 
into southern New Jersey, for the ice sheet extended no farther 
south than Perth Amboy, thence curving westward up toward 
the great lakes. 

Along the Maine coast it is estimated to have been two or 
three times as thick as along its more southerly border. 
" What has this to do with cobblestones? " 
Well, this sheet of ice was in constant motion, at least the 
greater part of it was, and was always pressing down toward 
the sea as the weight of snow accumulated in the higher land 
of the interior. In its slow progress it ground down the sides 
of mountains, smoothed off the tops of hills, cut out for itself 
valleys and depressions into which it flowed and received on its 
surface and into its mass great quantities of rock which it 
ground up, rounded and polished as it traveled along. 

Coming at last to the limit of its frigidity, the melting ice 
deposited its solid contents in the form of bowlders, cobbles, 
pebbles and gravel, and this it is that forms the "backbone" 



26 jt 



262 BROOKLYN COBBLESTONES. 

of Long Island. In this vast terminal moraine of the great 
glazier that covered New England will be found specimens of 
almost all the rocks indigenous to that region. Out of it 
Brooklyn has dug the ready made materials for her street 
pavements. Because of it the broad, level meadows that stretch 
from Flatbush to the Hamptons have been formed, partly from 
the gravel washed down from the hills and partly of the sand 
washed up by the sea. As a result of it, the Long Island cycler 
has diversity of landscape, variety of surface grades, the ex- 
hilaration of hill climbing and coasting, and 350 miles of 
abominable street pavements. — ''P. EossiT' in the K. C. 1J\ 
Announcer. 



$100 (go/d) in prizes for photographs of American roads. See 
full page ajinoiincement in back advertising pages of this number. 
Nom is the season to compete. Full particulars and competitor s blanks 
supplied on application to the editor of Good Roads. 



Read the page in this number entitled ^' A few importa):t lines to 
you from the Editor. 



" Before us we have the January number of Good Roads, 
a magazine devoted entirely to the improvement of the public 
roads and streets. This number is especially interesting, and 
relates exclusively to Massachusetts." — The Citizen., Everett., 
Mass. 



"By this mail I send you the last annual report of this 
association, containing a full list of our members with their 
addresses. Please let me know if it is received. * * * You 
and those engaged with you in this good work can certainly 
congratulate yourselves on the great interest you have created 
in this important matter, and a few years more will see great 
results from your efforts. Wishing you great success, I am, 
very truly yours, LLenry C. McLear, Secretary and Treasurer 
Carriage Builders National Association. " 



" I find Good Roads an excellent magazine, well calcu- 
lated to wield a powerful influence toward the building of good 
roads. It is handsomely gotten up and cannot fail to be read 
with intense interest. I send clipping from the Madison Co. 
Leader to show that the subject of having good roads here is 
being quite vigorously agitated." — L. W. Grisivold, Bouckville^ 
N. Y. 



PRIZES FOR GOOD MULE CARTS. 

A CHANCE FOR YANKEE INVENTION TO HELP OUT THE ANGLO- 
INDIAN ARMY. 

AN important notice has just been issued by the British 
Secretary of State for India, which is of special interest 
to an inventive people like Americans. Rewards are 
offered by the British Government for the production of designs 
and models best adapted for mule carts for the transport use 
of the British Army in India. The awards are to be made 
after a practical test in India of a full-sized specimen by a jury 
consisting- of the Quartermaster-General of the Army of India, 
and five other military and technical officials. There are five 
prizes, the first being $3,750, the second $2,500, the third 
$1,875, fourth $1,250, and the fifth $625. The object desired 
by this competition is the production of a design, accompanied 
in all cases by a working model, for a military transport cart 
adapted to conditions which make the use of interchangeable 
metal parts for all important portions of the cart absolutely 
indispensable. Intending competitors wishing for the fullest 
details as to the kind of cart required are directed to apply to 
the Director-General of Stores, India Office, Westminster, 
London, S. W. , England, or to the Secretary to the Govern- 
ment of India, Military Department, Calcutta, British India. 
Foreign competitors may obtain further information on ap- 
plication to the Secretaries of British Embassies or Legations 
at their respective capitals, but are recommended to apply to 
London or Calcutta. The competition closes on September 30, 
1893, by which time all designs and models must have reached 
Calcutta, which is twenty-four days from London. 

One of the main sources of trouble in British military opera- 
tions in Asia has always been transportation, and on several 
occasions important strategical movements have been rendered 
nugatory by the failure of the transport service. This is true 
not only of special campaign work beyond the Indian frontier, 
but also of operations in India itself. The character of the 
country to be contended with is plainly suggested by the ex- 
plicit details given as to the construction of the vehicles in the 
Government notice. The object is evidently to design a military 
transport cart for a mountainous country, with absolutely no 
local resources in the way of skilled labor or constructive 
material. It must be equal to the roughest handling, as the 
existing unmetalled roads in India are steep, narrow and rough. 
Although throughout the Indian empire there are many good 
roads, there are whole kingdoms without a yard of macadamized 

263 



264 PRIZES FOR GOOD MULE CARTS. 

road. It is apparently with a view to opening out new lines 
of travel that the authorities propose to strengthen their trans- 
port facilities, as the " instructions " set forth that " carts would 
further be largely employed on unbridged and unmetalled 
tracks newly opened along hillsides and stony river beds to 
meet the exigencies of military operations. " The carts are to 
be made almost entirely of metal. As the effects of rough 
handling and jolting on loose joints and fittings, and bad work- 
manship generally, combined with the difficulty of making- 
efficient and timely repairs, have in times past been found to be 
the main causes of transport carts breaking down, machine 
boring and turning with perfect fit and interchangeability of 
parts is absolutely insisted on, so that every broken part in any 
cart can be immediately replaced by a similar part, without 
any shaping, fitting, or skilled labor whatever. The necessity 
of this restriction as to material is peremptory when the abnor- 
mally dry air, the scorching sun, the freezing winds, and the 
frequent variations in temperature of from 185° above to 15° 
below zero (Fahrenheit) are taken into consideration. No 
matter how well seasoned wood may be, it shrinks and warps in 
such a way that its use, except, perhaps, in the poles or shafts, 
floor boards and sides, is absolutely debarred. A side light on 
the thieving propensities of the native laborer and camp follower 
is derived from the strong injunction to dispense with wood, 
even in the secondary parts, "as it is liable to be stolen and 
burnt as fuel." 

While no restrictions are placed upon the use of any metals 
whatever, designers are warned that for such parts as tires, 
forgings, boxes, etc., which it may require specially skilled 
labor to manipulate without injury from overheating or burning, 
mild steel, wrought, cast, and malleable cast iron, copper, and 
brass are preferable to special qualities of steel, phosphorus, 
and Uchatius bronze, and are, moreover, more familiar to native 
workmen. As the merits of a design will be largely judged 
from its prime cost, competitors arc recommended to consider 
how far, light and strong, but possibly very expensive, metals 
should be used in place of commoner material, having special 
regard to the importance, in the matter of durability, of the ^ 
cart itself not being unduly light with reference to the load it 
has to carry. The weights quoted for the cart are 656 English 
pounds as a maximum and 492 pounds as a minimum, but a 
designer can make a lighter cart provided it be of sufficient 
strength. It is evident that the carts are to be worked entirely 
by natives, as "the mules are to be led by a man on foot, a 
driving seat being inadmissible. No kind of overhead cover- 
ing is necessary. Laden carts will practically never be driven 
faster on level g-round than at four miles an hour. As carts 
will often be loaded in railway trains by night, special import- 



PRIZES FOR GOOD MULE CARTS. 265 

ance attaches to ease and rapidity in dismantling and re-erecting 
the carts, and to facilities for the compact railway packing of 
constituent parts. This would indicate the use of removable 
poles or shafts. Great stress will be laid upon facilities for 
tightening up parts on the march, and for replacing tires, 
spokes, etc. , with ease and rapidity and without skilled labor. 
The importance of the subject is shown by the magnitude 
of the prizes and the fact that the competition is thrown open 
to the whole world. It will be strange indeed if American 
inventive genius, which can knock up a wheelbarrow out of a 
piece of iron tube, and finds watches for the English army and 
range finders for the Italian and other European navies, should 
not rise to the opportunity and vindicate its world-wide reputa- 
tion by carrying off the first prize. — New York Sun. 



$100 {gold) in prizes for photographs of American roads. See 
full page announcement in hack advertising pages of this number. 
Noiv is the seasoti to compete. Full particulars and competitor s 
blanks supplied on application to the editor of Good Roads. 



Read the page in this number entitled ' ' A fe%v important lines to 
you from the Editor. 



"We wish to congratulate you on your very interesting 
Illinois issue." — Gormuliy &= Jeffery Manufacturing Company, 
Chicago, III. 



" The country is indebted to the L. A. W. — League of 
American Wheelmen— for a movement in behalf of good roads 
that cannot fail to prove of immense benefit. The literature on 
the subject, coming altogether from the wheelmen, is volumi- 
nous and exhaustive. " — Republican Journal, Belfast, Me. 



" Good Roads is ably edited by a forcible writer who knows 
whereof he speaks. The name tells the object, and it should 
meet with hearty support from the wheelmen of the country. " — 
Herald, Stockton, Cal. 



"Good Roads will aim to educate the people up to the 
duty required of them in this line of work. It is neatly printed, 
well illustrated and quite worthy of praise." — Colorado Farjuer 
and Rocky Mountaifi Fruit Groiver. 



TO MY FELLOW-MEMBERS OF THE L. A. W. 




For fifteen months we have 
been collecting the names and 
addresses of thousands of road 
officers, county and town officers, 
prominent citizens, merchants, 
farmers and officers of trade- 
societies and granges in every 
state of the Union. 

These are the i?ien who should 
read Good Roads and whose support 
must be won before the public roads 
can be improved. 

For fifteen months we have 
been sending Good Roads maga- 
zine to thousands of members of 
the L. A. W. The number sent 
to League members during the 
present month will be about 
33,000. 

These ine7nbers are all convinced 
of the need of better roads and every copy of Good Roads sent to 
a League member is wasted, unless used by that member to extend the 
work. 

You and I are both League members. Let us consider a 
proposition. 

If you will sign and send to me a postal card giving me authority 
to send your copies of Good Roads to different persons selected 
within your state (whose names and addresses I take from lists in 
this office), they will be distributed in the best possible manner, 
without expense or trouble to you, with some possible benefit to the 
magazine and with the greatest certainty of good results for 

THE movement. 

If you prefer to keep these magazines and are yet willing to aid 
our enlarged circulation, send me the sura of fifty cents (or any 
larger sum that you may see fit to contribute), towards subscrip- 
tions for road officers and other officials in your state. For each 
fifty cents received Good Roads will send the magazine for twelve 
months to road officers in the state where the contributor resides. 

I make this proposition, (i), to insure an enlarged circulation for 
Good Roads and to extend its influence ; (2), to relieve many Leagne 
members from the expense and trouble of sending the magazine by 
mail to other persons from month to month. (The postage on each 
copy posted by subscribers will be about three cents during the 
coming year or thirty-six cents for the entire year, not counting cost 
of wrappers and time and trouble of mailing). 

We intend to place GOOD ROADS in the hands of 100,000 
READERS each month during the present year, and to print 
and distribute thousands of practical pamphlets on road- 
making IN every state of the union, we want your aid now. 

lo 7fu^ ystiif- -^^t^y f^ ^K.c^^'^A.c^ x-t^ ^^^^-^ Fratemallv vours 



Isaac B. Potter. 



THE ROAD IMPROVEMENT FUND FOR '95. 

CONTINUED SUCCESS OF THE PROJECT FOR EXTENDING LEAGUE 

WORK MORE CONTRIBUTIONS AND MORE ENCOURAGEMENT 

A BOUNTIFUL ASSURANCE OF THE INTEREST OF LEAGUE MEM- 
BERS IN THE WORK OF THE BUREAU THE LIST CONTINUED 

FROM LAST MONTH. 

THE good work goes on. From all directions come responses 
from League members, and from other readers of Good 
Roads, expressing an interest in the work for better 
roads, and enclosing contributions to aid the cause. Read the 
last foregoing page entitled " A Few Lines to You from the 
Editor." It discloses the object of this fund and sets forth 
sufficient reasons why every League member should contribute 
to its increase. Every League member can afford to contribute 
iomething to this fund, and a small amount from each makes a 
large sum in the aggregate. Read the page referred to, and 
read it carefully. 

Another thing : we want the name and address of every 
road officer in the United States. Go to the office of your town 
clerk or county clerk and get a list of these officers (the ones 
last elected) and send the names and addresses carefully and 
plainly written to Good Roads, Potter Building, New York City. 

In addition to the contributions acknowledged in the April 
number of Good Roads the following were received on or 
before April 20. All others received ii)ill be acknowledged in suc- 
ceeding numbers of Good Roads. 

FROM FRIENDS OF THE L. A. W. 

a H. Overman $1,000.00 A. G. Elliott, Philadelphia, Pa $1.00 

J. A. C. Wright, Rochester, N. Y 20.00 J. H. Halt, Philadelphia, Pa 50 

Hart Cycle Company, Philadelphia, Pa 10.00 F. M. Wells, BensonUurst, N. Y 50 

E. R. Morris, Philadelphia, Pa 1.00 

SI 033 00 

FROM L. A. W. MEMBERS. 

Previously acknowledged $229.50 W. C. Zinnel, X. Y. City $1.00 

Dr. F. W. Oliver, Rahwav, N. J 5.50 W S. Bull, Buffalo, N. Y 1.00 

Dr. F. A. Kinch, Jr., Westfield, N. J 6 00 H. S. Rivenburgh, Hudson, N. Y 1.00 

G. F. Chavel, Buffalo, .V. Y 6.00 B. F. Ferris, Peekskill, N. Y 1 00 

J. F. Simous, Philadelplua, Pa 5.00 E. V. Sidell, Ponghkeei)ie, N. Y 1.00 

B. N. Meeds, Washington, D. C 5.00 J. F. Braver, Rochester, N. Y 1.00 

G. B. Thorn, N. Y. City 2.00 L. D. Haiaken, Sag IlMrbor, K. Y 1.00 

W. H. Veysey, V. Y. City 2 00 W. A. Butler, Syracuse, N. Y 1.00 

Rev. M. J. Welsh, N. Y. City 2 00 J. A. Drowne, Canaan 4 Corners, N. Y 1.00 

J. F. Kentana, Brooklyn, N. Y 2.00 S. Levy, Philadelphia, Pa 1.00 

W. C. Deming, Westchester, N. Y 2.00 A. Lodyguine, Pittsburg, Pa 100 

K. M. Brower, Philadelphia, Pa 2.00 A. C. McAlpine, Warren, Pa 1 00 

W. Randolph, Media, Pa 2 00 P. Hunter, Eddvsto'svn, Pa 1.00 

F. H. Clemons, Scranton, Pa 2.00 C. Finger, Pliiladflpliia, Pa 1.00 

W. H. DuBois, Bayonne, N. J 2 00 E. E. Filler, PliiliHUl|)lii;i. Pa 1.00 

A. Amende, Englevvood, N. J 2.00 H. C. Keelv. Phlladelpliia, Pa l.oo 

J. VauHarding, Kuthertord, N. .1 2.00 H. R. Lewis. I'lilla(lcl})liia, Pa 1.00 

F. C. Childs, Hostou, Mass 2 00 W. Lee, Philad-lpliia, Pa 1.00 

G. C. Reney.SagHarbiir, N. \ 1.60 J. G. Moeller, I'lnludclphia, Pa 100 

E. E. Dliuon, Tuxedo Park, N. V 1.00 A. A. Norris, Pliiladelphla, Pa 1.00 

267 



2 68 THE ROAD IMPROVEMENT EUND EOR 'gj. 



G. N. Osborne, Philadelphia, Pa $1.00 

W. J. Scott, Philadelphia, Pa 1.00 

W. Y. Warner, Philadelphia, Pa 1.00 

E. C. Zelluer, Philadelphia, Pa 1.00 

G. Freshnell, Philadelphia, Pa 1.00 

W. J. Kenderdine, Philadelphia, Pa 1.00 

Prof. E. H. Johnson, Chester, Pa 1 00 

F. Ashton, Easton, Pa 1.00 

M. G. Morris, Germantown, Pa. 1.00 

F. C. Brede, Germantown, Pa 1.00 

Dr. T. H. Carmichael, Germantown, Pa.. . 1.00 
James Armstrong, Greenburgli, Pa 1.00 

D. S. Drake, Huntingdon, Pa 1 00 

B. Hallowell, Jr., Laasdowne, Pa 1.00 

C. P. Du Shane, New Castle, Pa 1.00 

I, P. Knips, Norristown, Pa 1.00 

A. R. Darragh, Pittsburg. Pa 1.00 

E. C. Fownes, Pittsburg, Pa 1.00 

J. F. Johnston, Pittsburgh, Pa 1 00 

W. L. Williams, Ridgeway, Pa 1.00 

J. W. Doncaster, Rochester, Pa 1.00 

E. A. Hermans, Scranton, Pa 1.00 

L. W. Dennisou, Warren, Pa 1.00 

F. A. Deams, Wellsboro, Pa 1.00 

J. F. Neill, West Philadelphia, Pa 1.00 

F. A. Kessler, Matamoras, Pa 1.00 

S. Munnell, Jr., Morganza, Pa 1.00 

A. L Rinard, Catawtssa, Pa 1.00 

L. M. Speer, Mapelton Depot, Pa 1 .00 

H. W. Leeds, Atlantic City, N. J 1.00 

W. H. Hutr, Beverly, N. J 1.00 

D. P. Doremus, Closter, N. J 1.00 

J. H. Bartholomew, E. Orange, N. J 1.00 

W. Lemraon, Englewood, N. J 1.00 

L. Prendeuthal, Englewood, N. J 1.00 

G. Vice, Hackensack, N. J 1.00 

C. E. Westervelt, Jamesburg, N. J l.t-O 

C. H. Lindsley, Orange, N. J 1.00 

A. D. Cook, Princeton, N. J 1 00 

W. C. Squier, Rahway, N. J 1.00 

J. W. Cocke, Roselle, N. J . 1 oO 

T. T. Berdan, Roselle, N. J l.UO 

J. Hankins, Neshanic Station, N. J 1.00 

C. W. Wilkius, Wenonah, N. J 1 00 

L. A. W. No. 609 1.00 

Anonymous, Philadelphia, Pa 1.00 

Anonymous, Di.xmont, Pa 1 oO 

R. S. Michael, EUesslie, Md 1.00 

J. H. Reich, Pme Orchard, Md 1.00 

C. R. Carroll, Chicago, 111 1.00 

0. J. Snow, Syracuse, N. Y 75 

J. Bernhardt, Dunkirk, N. Y 75 

G. Pope, Brooklyn, N. Y 75 

C. Schock, Mr uht Joy, Pa 75 

F. J. Shephard, Burtalo, N. Y .50 

Dr. G. F. Bartlett, Buffalo, N. Y .50 

B. F. Wells, Flatbush, N. Y .50 

A. Falconer, Jamestown, N. Y 50 

C. H. Stanton, Norwich, N. Y 50 

E. N. Smith, Roxville Center, N. Y 50 

R. Crossdale, Syracuse, N. Y 50 

H. Bucher, Jr. College Point, N. Y -50 

G. B. Dawsen, Brooklyn, N. Y 50 

G. G. Bauer, New Rochelle, N. Y 50 

W. J. House, Ovid, N. Y 50 

1. J. Kelsey, (Jueens, N. Y 50 

G. J. Bair, Philadelphia, Pa 50 

C. Bodichimer, Philadelphia, Pa 50 

W. N. Itenney, Philadelpha, Pa .50 

E. H. Herl>ein, Philadelphia, Pa 50 

C. T. Harrop, Philadelpliia, I'a 50 

E. Y. HartslKiriie, Pliiladi'lpliiii, Pa 50 

G. C, Jiihusuu, I'hihKlrlpliia, Pa 50 

Total !■ kom L. A. W. Members 



W. H. Key, Philadelphia, Pa $o 

G. Y. MacCracken, Philadelphia, Pa 

E. W. Sharp, Philadelphia, Pa 

A. B. Tomliuson, Philadelphia, Pa 

R. B. Twining, Philadelphia, Pa 

J. H. Taylor, Philadelphia, Pa 

F. Ware, Philadelphia, Pa 

C. Walter, Jr., Philadelphia, Pa 

F. P. Reader, Philadelphia, Pa 

H. W. Scattergodd, Philadelphia, Pa 

C. F. Mosser, Philadelphia, Pa 

R. H Grim, Bever, Pa 

P. S. Rhoads, Bellefonte, Pa 

N. S. Anderson, Conshohocken, Pa 

E. P. Grimm, Franklin, Pa 

L. M. Buehler, Gettysburg, Pa 

G. M. Forney, Harrisburg, Pa 

A. Dunlop, Honesdale. Pa 

J. Maklin, Mc Vey town. Pa 

Dr. H. L. Smedley, Media, Pa 

A. 0. Hotchkiss, Meadville, Pa 

B. Galbraigh, Milton, Pa 

H. C. Whisler, New Brighton, Pa 

S. Y. Ramage, Oil City, Pa 

W. E. Colbert, Oil City, Pa. 

S. B. Hughes, Pittsburg, Pa 

K. T. Lange, Pittsburg, Pa 

H. Sterrett, Pittsl jurg. Pa 

W. E. Schmertz, Pittsburg, Pa 

J. G. McElveen, Pittsburg. Pa 

W. M. McClade, Scranton, Pa 

N. E. Rice, Scranton, Pa 

A. C Croff. Sellersville, Pa 

Dr. F. C. Pierce, Smethport, Pa 

P. B. Fleming, Shippensburg, Pa 

W. S. Bond, York, Pa 

J. H. Cothery, Camden, Pa 

H M. Irvin, Curwensville, Pa 

J. A. Frank, Curwensville, Pa 

J. K. Herr, f^lizabethtown, Pa 

R. M. Ziegler, Mt. Airy, Pa 

A. P. French, Susquehanna, Pa 

S. B. Murray, Mifflintown, Pa 

H. O. Young, Plymouth Meeting, Pa 

One of the Owls, Bordentown, N. J 

A. J. Milliette, Camden, N. J 

J. F. Morton, E'izabeth, N. J 

Miss C. Hall, Elizabeth, N.J 

G. H, Burger, Jersey City, N. J 

T. Whitaker, Mill ville, N. J 

R. B. Boyd, New Brunswick, N. J 

E. S. Campbell, New Brunswick, N. J 

F. B. Fitch, Passaic, N. J 

E. B. Mitchell, Passaic, N. J 

J. T. Fritts, Plainfleld, N. J 

R. Pound, Plaintleld, N. J 

H. Szlapka, Trenton, N. J 

C. H. Anderson, ^'iueland, N. J 

A. Cliir, Vineland, N. J 

J. W. Brulon, Baltimore, Md 

S. C. Adler, Baltimore, Md 

A. C. Place, Taunton, Mass 

A. F. S-irgent, Jr., Maiden, Mass 

C. Balsley, Dayton ,0 

Anonyiiibus, Brooklyn, N .Y 

Anonymous, Hudson. N. Y 

Anonymous, Syracuse, N . Y 

Anonymous, Philadelphia, Pa 

Anonymous, Harrisburg, Pa 

Anonymous, N. Y. City 

F. F. Lockwood, N. Y. City 

J. Bower, Allentown, Pa 



RECAPITULATION. 



FKO.VI FlUENDS OF THE L. A. W .. .$1,033.00 



From L. A. W. Membeks 1399.50 



Grand Total $1,432.50 



0^1 i°v'lr [''v^lr I'n^ o/ f 



W. 

Th. 

Fr. 

Sa. 

S. 

M. 

Tu. 

W. 

Th. 

Fr. 

Sa. 

S. 

M. 

Tu. 

W. 

Th. 

Fr. 

Sa. 

S. 

M. 

Tu. 

W. 







I?'"""" Lo^o' ^'f' job" <-b^<j 
Serd 



M. 


1 


Big CMcago ExDositioii opens, Extremely windy. Also 


Tu. 


2 


loving Day. Is it cheaper to move or to pay rent ^ 


W. 


3 


Moon in Apogee. Wind up your incuMtor and 


Th. 


4 


Wean tlie Calf. loses, liow it rains ' 


Fr. 


5 


"LaHor-tar^ system invented, B. C. 8527. " It isn't 


Sa. 


6 


dead yet. Hut it smells to Heaven." (Elliott.) 


S. 


7 


Circus Season opens. For particulars see 


M. 


8 


small Mils. Now wasli sheep. 


Tu. 


9 


BaseHall m full swing. Don't Mil tlie Umpire. 



10 

II 

12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 



Showery. Plant your Petunias and Hollyhocks. 
Several farmers lost in Central New Jersey mud, 1890. 
Their graves are unmarked. 'Tis a he 



Go to church. Study the text "A prudent m; 
well to his going.' Dig dandelions and 
make your spring hitters. 
Warmer. Don't loaf m the sunshine. 
It will give you the -■ spring fever." 
Revolutionary war hegan, 1775. We fit and fit 

20 , and won at last, and here we are ; mud and all. 

21 Go to church again. Study text No. 2, " A merciful 

22 j man regardelh the life of his heast." Warm. 

23 Shed your liver psd and pack it in camphor. 



24 
25 
26 
27 
28 
29 
30 
31 



Queen Victoria horn. 1819; hut let that pass, 
Sheridan's ride at Winchester, '62. The road was i 
Showery. Strawherries in fashion. Go slow. 
John Calvin died, 1564. His chariot ol faith was a 



rigid, spnngless, iroii-tired, 

hut he raised a powerful disturhance. 

Decoration Day. Road races in order, hut a trifle 

Don't steal the road, Giod Roads, $2 a year. 



26g 







"The way to resume," said Horace 
Greele}-, "is to resume." And a similar 
brief, practical direction should now be ap- 
plied to the proposition for the building of 
better roads. The way to make better 
roads is to make them. There is nothing 
difficult or mysterious about it. Hundreds 
of miles of good roads are built in other 
countries every year ; their value is demon- 
strated, their methods of construction are 
simple, and hundreds of American engi- 
neers are well qualified to build as good 
roads as the world ever knew. We have the 
fattest treasury and the most boundless re- 
sources of all the nations on earth — and the 
worst roads. Let us have better ones, and 
let us go about it at once. 



Some of the states seem to be getting 
things confused. Their legislatures have 
not yet learned the difference between the 
road question and a scheme to prohibit the 
free sale of liquor. Half a dozen bona fide 
propositions have been introduced by these 
intelligent law making bodies providing for 
" local option " in the matter of improving 
the roads within their several counties. A 
local option scheme may be supported by 
plausible argument, so far as it refers to the 
sale of raw whiskey, for the drinking of 
whiskey is largely a personal matter and its 
effects are mainly traceable to the aliment- 
ary canal of the toper who imbibes it. If 
the influence of the whiskey gets beyond 
the limits of his individual person, it is gen- 
erally confined to the immediate community 
of which he is the social ornament. 

But it is not so with the road question. 
The common highway belongs, in its use, 
to all mankind, and the right of every per- 
son to travel it is fundamental. Its condi- 
tion for good or ill affects the entire state, 
and any scheme which looks to its improve- 
ment should be treated by the best rules of 
economic and scientific statecraft. More- 
over, there is between the road systems of 



the several counties an inseparable connec- 
tion which condemns any desultory and un- 
certain policy by which improvement is 
encouraged on the part of thrifty and enter- 
prising citizens and miserable mudways 
tolerated among the slovenly and shiftless 
ones of the neighboring county. There 
should be a central bureau in every state; 
an overseeing head or directing power tO' 
insure uniformity of plan and to supply in- 
formation to all citizens who might see fit 
to apply. 

The construction of improved highways 
should be compulsory, and a law prescribing 
that each county having a population per 
square mile in excess of a certain fixed 
number should construct a mileage of good 
roads in proportion to its population, would 
be wisely in order. With such a law and 
with ample provision for the raising of 
money on long terms of credit at low rates- 
of interest, the ball would be set rolling in 
earnest, and ten years would see the 
construction of the inain highways in a 
permanent and solid manner. 



An important item of appropriation was 
included in the recent act of the Fifty-Second 
Congress providing for the Department 
of Agriculture for the fiscal year ending- 
June 30, 1894. It is included in the follow- 
ing paragraph : 

"To enable the Secretary of Agriculture 
to make inquiries in regard to the system 
of road management throughout the United 
States, to make investigations as to the best 
method of road making, to prepare publi- 
cations on this subject supplied for distribu- 
tion, and to enable him to assist the Agri- 
cultural Colleges and Experiment Stations, 
in disseminating information on this sub- 
ject, $10,000." 

It is largely due to the splendid and per- 
sistent efforts of Col. Albert A. Pope, of 
Boston, that this appropriation has been. 
secured. It will doubtless lead to further 
provisions of the same kind in future bills. 



THE EDITOR'S TABLE. 



271 



The season is at hand when the practical 
side of road making will receive its due 
attention and the knowledge and energy 
acquired by the Winter's agitation will be 
called into play. It is not necessary, much 
less is it possible, to build macadam and 
telford roads through all of the farming 
districts, and if the country path-masters 
could be made to understand the great dif- 
ference in results which follow different 
methods of "working the road," and that 
good drainage and good machinery will to- 
gether accomplish wonders without an ex- 
travagant expenditure of funds, the solution 
of the country road question would be vastly 
progressed. Every country road district 
should have at least one good road machine 
or grader. It will do the work of thirty or 
more men when the conditions are such as 
to give the machine half a chance; it costs 
but a few hundred dollars, will save thou- 
sands, makes a better road than is commonly 
made by manual labor, needs but few re- 
pairs and rarely gets out of order. More- 
over, it cuts out the roots from the weedy 
patches along the roadside and forms a 
gutter which receives and carries off the 
surface water and, if faithfully employed, 
will more than pay for itself in a single 
season. 

Then, too, in the matter of gravel and 
stone, a few hours' exploration in most 
neighborhoods will bring to light plenty of 
material that is vastly superior for road- 
making purposes to that found in the lines 
of the adjacent roadways. Most of this 
material has rested in its original bed for 
ages, and is substantially worthless for any 
purpose aside from the work of the road 
maker. If gravel, it should be clean, sharp 
and gritty, and if not naturally of this qual- 
ity it should be cleaned as fully as possible 
by passing it through a cheap screen with 
moderately coarse meshes. Before being 
put in the road, unless the original soil is of 
a dry, sandy or porous nature, a line of 
three-inch drain-tile should be laid beneath 
the roadway, and about four feet deep, if 
possible, for although this is not commonly 
regarded as necessary according to the es- 
tablished American practice, it adds vastly 
to the permanence of the roadway and in- 
sures its dryness at times when the gravel 
would otherwise disappear in the soft mud 
beneath. 



Where stone of fair quality can be easily 
obtained, a macadam road is neither very 
costly nor very difficult of construction. It 
is a common notion among farmers that the 
construction of a road on the macadam plan 
is a complicated, difficult and expensive 
undertaking. Nothing could be further 
from the truth. A few intelligent farmers, 
equipped with a few hundred dollars' worth 
of machinery, can make a macadam road 
as permanent and efficient as could be 
desired. The same engine that drives a 
steam thresher will operate a stone-crusher, 
and stone-crushers are becoming not only 
popular but indispensable to the road-making 
outfit of every intelligent rural community. 
Great quantities of field stone can be selected 
from among the harder bowlders which lie 
so abundantly upon the surface in many of 
our counties, and if each farmer who now 
works out his road tax in the old-fashioned 
way, would contribute a few dollars to the 
purchase of a crusher, and give a little of 
his time to the hauling of stone to the town 
stone heap, he would be both amazed and 
gratified at the speed with which the stone- 
breaker would convert those bowlders into 
great heaps of road metal, ripe and ready 
for a place in the improved roadway. A 
practical attempt at this kind of improve- 
ment in towns where the wealth of the com- 
munity is not sufficient 1.0 warrant expensive 
work under the direction of an engineer, 
will lead to the most salutary results, and 
by an object lesson prove to the users of 
public highways that the biggest tax ever 
imposed upon the rural population of the 
country has been the tax of the mud 
road. 



The World's Congress Auxiliary of the 
Columbian Exposition, a most useful and 
promising organization, has sent out a large 
number of letters announcing that a Good 
Roads Congress has been assigned to the 
Department of Agriculture for the latter 
part of the month of October next. The 
specific object of this Congress, as stated in 
the letter, is to advance the public interest 
in the improvement of roads and to develop 
the most practical systems of improved 
roads for all countries. The committee 
having this matter in charge sends a general 
invitation to the friends of good roads to 
suggest such features in the programme of 
exercises as may be deemed best qualified to 
make the meeting an interesting and effect- 
ive one. Readers desiring to gain a more 
intimate knowledge of the proposed Roads 
Congress at Chicago, may obtain printed 
information by addressing Theodore 
Butterworth, Chairman, 184 Clark Street, 
Chicago, 111. 




"Sivad" (Niagara Falls, N. Y.) — Mr. Os- 
trom's article on bridge building, which 
begins in this number of Good Roads, will 
doubtless contain all the technical informa- 
tion called for in your letter. If, after its 
perusal, you are still in the dark, write us 
and we will endeavor to aid you. 

"J. B. S." (Sandusky, Ohio). — i. A maca- 
dam road is scarcely suited to support heavy 
traffic in the business streets of a large 
city, and its use in such places has been 
generally abandoned for a more durable and 
permanent form of pavement. It is prob- 
ably the best form of road for country and 
suburban traffic and is used to good advan- 
tage in residence streets in many localities. 
2. You are quite astray in j-our knowledge 
of asphalt pavements. All things con- 
sidered, asphalt pavements are the best in 
the world, and if properly put down and 
cared for, will carry any amount and any 
kind of highway traffic to which they may 
be subjected. 

"James" (Lexington, Ky.) — We shall be- 
gin an article on road-making machinery in 
an early number, and it will treat exten- 
sively of both rollers and crushers, giving 
all the facts you require. Send us your full 
name and address and we will send you 
printed information issued by manufacturers. 

"F. Fuller" (Chicago, 111.)— "The Gos- 
pel of Good Roads " is out of print, and it is 
not decided whether a new edition will be 
published during the present year. The de- 
mand for pamphlets has been very great, 
and we have been compelled to disappoint 
many applicants who would aid us in the 
distribution of the pamphlet literature of 
road making. 

"M. B. S." (Eau Claire. Wis.)— We are 
just informed that Massachusetts has passed 
a law regarding the use of wagon tires on 
the public roads of the state, though we 
not yet received a copy. The law recently 
passed by the New York Legislature does 



not refer to the width of wagon tires to be 
used on public roads. We shall publish 
copies of the New York and Massachusetts- 
laws in an early number of Good Roads. 

" System " (Worcester, Mass.) — The weight 
of broken stone depends on the kind of 
stone in question and the degree of fineness 
to which the breaking process has reduced 
it, A cubic foot of trap rock solid will 
weigh between i8o and 190 pounds while the 
same stone when quarried, broken roughly 
and thrown in piles will weigh a trifle 
over 100 pounds per cubic foot. Sandstone 
solid will weigh about 151 pounds per 
cubic foot, limestone between 160 and 170, 
and granite about 170. The weight per 
cubic foot of a given specimen may be as- 
certained without hewing the piece into- 
any regular form, as follows : Fill some 
vessel of known capacity with water, and 
then place in the water the sample of stone 
of which the weight is required. Measure 
the amount of water that overflows the edge 
of the vessel and this amount will be equal 
to the cubical contents of the stone sample 
placed in the vessel. Weigh the water that 
was forced outside of the vessel, and multi- 
ply this weight by the specific gravity of 
the stone. The result will be the actual 
weight of the stone sample, and having al- 
ready ascertained its cubical contents, its- 
weight per cubic foot is easily determined. 

"F. & G." (Detroit, Mich.)— Stone-crush- 
ers can be run by any power that can be 
made applicable to the running of heavy 
machinery in other cases. There is no 
reason why a wind-mill should not be used, 
if of sufficient size to generate the necessary 
power; but there are many worthless wind- 
mills in the market and only a few good ones. 
A steam engine is always the most reliable, 
being portable, easily operated, sufficient 
and constant m power and possessed of 
every quality needed to the practical run- 
ning of machinery. 



QUERIES AND ANSWERS. 



" Hydraulics" (Montpelier, Vt.) — Your 
question refers to a matter that is scarcely 
within the purview of the subjects of which 
Good Roads aims to treat, and an answer 
would involve the use of higher mathemati- 
cal formulas which would be out of place in 
these pages. Send us your full name and 
address for answer by mail. 



"F. S. S." (Scranton, Pa.)— The person 
you name has not contributed any article to 
the pages of Good Roads, You have evi- 
dently seen the subject treated by that 
author in some other publication. 



"Osborne" (Freehold, N. J.)— The best 
bicycle record for twenty-four hours is a 
trifle over 414 miles, and was made in Eng- 
land last year we believe. 



"Ed." (Lynchburg, Va ) — The best way 
to excite local interest in the improvement 
of your highways is to first enlist the editors 
of your local papers and secure their advo- 
cacy of your cause. If they are lukewarm 
at the outset, write a series of articles over 
your own signature and induce the papers 
to publish them. In this way you will reach 
many persons who will in one way or an- 
other manifest a desire to help you. Good 
R0.4.DS will publish an article on local or- 
ganization before long. 



"K. Sisson" (Montpelier, Vt.) — A road 
commission has already been provided for 
and appointed by Governor Fuller in your 
state. You can doubtless obtain full in- 
formation by addressing Honorable J. H, 
Goulding, Secretary of Civil and Military 
Affairs, Brattleboro. 



" M. G. J." (Portsmouth, N. H.)— A good 
way to protect the trunk of a shade tree 
near the edge of the sidewalk is to encircle it 
with a light curbstone, set not too deeply in 
the ground, and allowed to project about four 
inches above the surrounding pavement. 
If the expense of cutting the curbstone in 
circular form is too great, you can use 
short, straight pieces of stone or selected 



boulders of fairly uniform size, and set these 
in the circumference of the circle surround- 
ing the tree, the diameter being about four 
feet. This will prevent pedestrians from 
walking on the earth at the foot of the tree 
and will tend to keep the earth at that point 
soft and permit the free entrance of moisture 
and air about the roots. A square or circular 
"tree box " of wood or iron built in the 
usual way should also encircle the tree and 
protect its trunk for a distance of about 
five or six feet above the ground. 



"X. Y. Z." (Massillon, Ohio).— We shall 
publish an Ohio number of Good Roads as 
soon as matter in preparation for that num- 
ber is completed. Certainly during the 
present year. 

" Seaforth" (New York City). — You can 
see stone-crushers in practical operation by 
visiting the quarries of the New Jersey 
Trap Rock Company at Snake Hill, N. J., 
during the month of May and during the 
succeeding months of Summer. 



" Oscar G." (Warren, Pa.) — Plank roads 
are commonly made by laying a flooring of 
three-inch planks across the line of the road- 
way; the planks being from 8 to 10 feet 
long and from 8 inches in width upwards. 
These planks are laid on two parallel sills 
which are about 4 x 12 in size and laid flat- 
wise about four feet apart in the clear. The 
sills should be as long as possible and are 
generally not less than 15 to 20 feet. They 
should be carefully and firmly imbedded in 
the earth, so as to secure a uniform bearing 
for the sills and planks. The soil beneath 
the plank road should be well drained and the 
sills so laid that the end of each sill will 
come opposite the centre of the sill on the 
other side, or, as we commonly say, so that 
the sills will " break joints." It is not gen- 
erally necessary to spike the planks to the 
sills, and if the planks are sound, carefully 
selected, well seasoned and laid so as to 
have a firm, even bearing upon the sills and 
soil beneath, spiking will be entirely un- 
necessary. We have in hand an article on 
plank roads and it will appear in Good 
Roads sometime in the future, though it is 
impossible to fix the date now. 



^'iIll^'iii^^'iii^llipiiiLS 








oHtract Wotes 






ROADS AND STREETS. 

OHIO. — Portsmouth.— Brick paving is to be 
begun here on an extensive scale, about 20,380 
square yards of vitrified brick being used, with 
sandstone curbing. The estimated cost of the 
work (3,234 feet) will be $40,650. Further informa- 
tion may be had of the City Engineer, R. A. 
Bryan. 

NEW YORK.— Rochester.— It has been ordered 
that about $100,000 be expended on street paving 
in this city. 

Bids will shortly be asked for asphalt paving and 
Medina stone paving. 

Greenbush. — Two streets are to be paved with 
granite blocks, by vote of the village trustees. 

Hudson. — Warren Street is to be paved and bid.s 
will be asked by the street commissioners. 

UTAH.— S.\LT L.-\KE City.— Estimates, etc., 
have been prepared by the city engineer for new 
pavements on several of the streets of this city. 
Bids will probably be asked for in a short time. 

OREGON. — SALEM. — Several streets of this city 
are to be paved, and plans have been prepared by 
the City Engineer, Mr. Culver. 

ILLINOIS.— Ch.\RLESTON.— Bids will be ad- 
vertised for the work of paving in this city. Ad- 
dress the city council for further information. 

LOUISIANA.— New Orleans.— About twenty- 
five streets of this city will be paved, the plans for 
which have been prepared. Bids will be adver- 
tised. 

NEW JERSEY.— Atlantic City.— It is pro- 
posed by the city to have a considerable amount 
of paving done at an early date. Any further in- 
formation may be had of the city clerk. 

FLORIDA.— Jacksonville.— It has been de- 
cided to lay 25,000 yards of vitrified brick roads in 
this town during the Summer. Bids will probably 
be asked for. 

PENNSYLVANIA.— Huntingdon.— It is under 
consideration of the city council whether to spend 
the sum of $50,000 in street paving or not. 

WISCONSIN.— Fond du Lac— It is contem- 
plated to have street paving done this season, and 
if the proposition is carried out, bids will be 
asked for in the near future. Any further infor- 
mation needed may be received from the City 
Engineer, E. B. Parsons. 

Racine.— Twelve streets are to be paved, by 
resolution of the city council. 

WEST VIRGINIA.— Wheeling.— Among the 
estimates made by the city engineer for work to 
be done this coming season, one for brick paving 
is to cost about $85,000. 

MAINE.— LEWISTON.— Contracts will be let 
shortly for paving blocks to cost in the neighbor- 
hood of $25,000. All information may be received 
of the street committee of this place. 



'"^f^" 




IOWA.— Marshalltown.— Bids are asked for 
27,000 yards of brick paving by the city council. 
Further particulars may be had of the latter. 

MISSOURI.— Kansas City.— It is suggested by 
the city engineer that about ten iniles of cedar 
block paving should be constructed this year. 

SEWERS. 

NEW YORK.— Flushing.— Bids will be received 
by the board of trustees until May 10 for 9,500 
lineal feet of g to 24-inch sewers. For further 
information address G. A. Roullier, Village 
Engineer. 

Fort Plain. — A system of sewers is to be con- 
structed and bids will be received for the work 
until May 13 by the sewer commissioners. 

Rochester. — A new sewer is to be built, for 
which plans and specifications have been prepared. 
Bids will probably be asked for. 

Watertovvn. — Bids will soon be asked for 10,000 
feet of 8 to 24-inch pipe sewers. The plans, etc., 
have already been prepared. 

CALIFORNIA.— Benicia.— Bids are asked for 
eight blocks of lo-inch pipe sewers. Address II. 
K. White, City Clerk. 

NORTH DAKOTA.— Fargo.— It is proposed to 
lay about 3^ miles of additional sewers in this 
place, and bids will soon be asked for the w^ork of 
construction. J. T. Graves, City Engineer. 

MISSOURI. — Independence. — A system of 
sewers is to be constructed and the city engineer ot 
this town has been directed to prepare plans and 
surveys for the proposed work. Bids will be 
asked for in a short time. 

KENTUCKY.— Ashland.— Bids will be received 
until May 18, by the city clerk, for 4,500 feet of 
24-inch drain tile sewers. 



BRIDGES. 

MISSOURI.— Kansas City.— It has been advised 
by the City Engineer to erect a new bridge at Bluff 
Street. Further developments will be transmitted 
to the public later. 

OHIO. — Cincinnati.— It is under the considera- 
tion of one of the railways to construct viaducts at 
Wood Street. 

ALABAMA. MONTGOMERY. An iron draw- 
bridge is to be constructed near this town over 
the Alabama River, and bids, specifications and 
plans are being received. Information may be 
had of C. E. Hails, secretary. 

MINNESOTA.— MiNNE.APOLIS.— This city has au- 
thority (a bill having been passed by the Minnesota 
legislature) to issue bonds to the amount of $300,000 
for building a wagon bridge across the Mississippi 
River, at the foot of Sixth Avenue. 



RECENT PATENTS. 

In this department ^\e shall print from time to time brief descriptive notes of 
recent patented inventions relating to roads, streets, drainag-e, bridges and wheeled 
vehicles. 




WHEELED EXCAVATOR AND CARRIER. MAECrs E. 
Cook, Patentee, Walliiigtuid, Couu. In a wheeled excava- 
tor and carrier, the coiubination with I he trucks thereof, of 
an arched frame, scoop-supports combined with tlie said 
frame, a scoop suspended from the said supports, a driven 
shaft jourualed liithesaid frame at the rear end thereof, 
two cams respectively mounted on the ends oftlie said shaft, 
and having segmental racks: links connecting the said cams 
with the scoop at points thci'con in front of its siisiiension 
points, a driving-shaft liaving gear-wheels meshing into the 
segmental racks of the cams, and an operaiing-lever 
mounted on the said driving shaft for actuating tlie same. 




FURNACE FOR BURNING GARBAGE, ETC, William 
McClave, Patentee, Scranton, Pa. A furnace having, in 
combination, a stack mounted on its top, a central column 
of refractory material extending up from its bottom, a 
main lateral combustion chamber, a circular combustion 
chamber in the tjase of the stack, and a suitable system of 
hot air cliannel-ways for supplying air to facilitate com- 
Irastion, and charging jiassages tor the introduction of 
garbage or dead animal matter, or nightsoil and the like, 
into the main combustion chamber. 




DITCHING MACHINE. Gottfried W. Decket!, Dunfoi th, 
m. In a ditchlngmachine, the combination with the truck, 
of an inclined auger supported therefrom, means for rotat- 
ing said auger and means for imparting a longitudinal le- 
ciprocatlng movement to said auger. 



ROAD-SCRAPER. Pai'L Rlanthard, Arnandville, La. 
In a road-sci-apcr tlie comluiiation with a central drat't- 
tongue. ascraiiing-blade coiniected therewith, and provided 
upon its rear side with pairs of vertically opposite keepers, 
a pair of caster-wheels liavmg their sh inks located for re- 
ciprocation in the keepers, a bar connecting the same, a 
lever liaving a lower rearwardly bend end fulcrumed on the 
draft-ton If ue, a yoke coimecting the lever at its rear ex- 
tremity with the connecting bar, and means for securing 
the lever in either a rearward or forward position. 



lll.'liLO 




NEVER LACKS INSF^IRATION. 

The poet often struggles for 

Ideas without avail. 
The novelist gets sluggish and 

His efforts often fail. 
The playwright finds it very hard 

To think up something new; 
And the journalist gets weary ere 

His work is half-way through. 
But there's one whose thoughts can cover 

All the foolscap on the shelf — 
He's the actor who is writing up 

A notice of himself. —Judge. 

The undertaker elevated his eyebrows 
inquiringly. The doctor who had just 
come from the fine house around the corner 
shook his head decidedly and passed on. 

A GENIUS. 

Bill MacGavern was a "genius " in a quiet sort of 

way; 
Some fine morning he'd be famous (so his mother 

used to say), 
He could fix a clock and fiddle, and a lot of other 

things, 
And he made himself a "gitar," and could twang 

upon the strings. 

He could pick out " Annie Laurie " and the chords 
of "Belle Mahone," 

And would sit and sing at evening in a soothing 
undertone, 

With his dreamy gaze directed to a pale senescent 
star. 

While he milked the mournful music from his prim- 
itive guitar. 

Well, the years went by, and somehow Bill re- 
mained about the same. 

Though his mother died believing he was on the 
road to fame. 

Bill was full of dreams and notions, but achieve- 
ments seemed to lag; 

Bill was fond of Alice Holeman, but he married 
'Mantha Bragg. 

St'll he picks out " Annie Laurie," and the chords 

of "Belle Mahone," 
And he sings them to the babies in a soothing 

undertone; 
And perhaps, sometimes at evening, as he twangs 

his old guitar, 
William's vision is directed to a pale senescent 

star. 
— Albert Bigelow Paine in Harper' s Weekly. 



ONCE WAS ENOUGH. 

A young gentleman, who lately left his 
home in France, having exhausted his 
credit, telegraphed to his parents: 

" Your son was killed this morning by a 
falling chimney. "What shall we do with 
his remains ? " 

In reply a check was sent for five hundred 
francs, with the request — "Bury them." 
The young gentleman pocketed the money 
and had an elaborate spree. When in a 
condition for writing, he sent his father the 
following note: 

" I have just learned that an infamous 
scoundrel named Nortier sent you a ficti- 
tious account of my death and swindled you 
out of five hundred francs. He also bor- 
rowed two hundred and fifty francs of me 
and left the country. I write to inform you 
that I am still alive and long to see the 
parental roof again. I am in somewhat 
reduced circumstances, the accumulations 
of the last five years having been lost — a 
disastrous stock speculation —and if you 
would only spare me five hundred francs I 
would be ever thankful for your favor. Give 
my love to all." 

A week or so later the young man re- 
reived the following dignified letter from 
his outraged parent: 

" My Dear Son — I have buried you once, 
and that is the end of it. I decline to have 
any transactions with a ghost. Yours in 
the flesh, 

Father." 



"These firemen must be a frivolous set," 
said Mrs. Dumpling, who was reading a 
paper. " Why so ? " "I read in the paper 
that after the fire was under control the 
firemen played all night on the ruins. Why 
didn't they go home and go to bed like 
sensible men, instead of romping about like 
children ?" 




Good Roads. 

Vol. 3. June, 1893. No. 6. 

NEW JERSEY'S PROGRESS. 
By Hon. Edward Burrough, 

President New Jersey State Board of Agriculture, and President of New Jersey 
State Road Improvement Association. 

EYOND the field of politics, there is no 
question that engages so much atten- 
tion throughout the country as the 
road question in its various bearings. 
The depression in the price of farm 
products and farm land necessitates a 
lessening of the cost of production, and 
the saving in time and labor in drawing 
a load to or from market is an import- 
ant item. To illustrate this more fully, I will say that before 
the building of the New Jersey turnpikes, 25 baskets of 
potatoes were considered a fair load from the farm I now 
occupy, to market. After the turnpike was built, 50 to 60 
baskets were considered no more of a load than were the 25 a few 
years previous. And now, since the stone road has been built, 
our load is 85 or 100 baskets; and during the past Winter our 
team has carted over 90 loads of manure from Philadelphia, 
several of which I weighed and found 6,869 ^^^ 7)3°° pounds 
clear of the wagon, which weighed alone 2,200 pounds, a com- 
bined weight of about 4>^ tons. Many of these loads were 
drawn from the city to the point of leaving the stone road with 
only two horses, and the result has been the saving of over 
$100 in my manure bill. 

That farmers should be relieved of a portion of the burden 
of maintaining the public roads is a reasonable demand, and is 
heartily concurred in by the best citizens of our cities and towns. 
Hence the question naturally arises how shall this be accom- 
plished, and the answer that first came was by state and county 
aid — next, how shall this aid be applied? After consulting the 
laws of other states, it was thought that as the properties imme- 
diately fronting on the roads receiving state aid would be 
greatly enhanced in value, it was deemed proper that these 
property owners and applicants for the improvements should 
pay a portion of the expense, and Judge Lanning was em- 
ployed to draft a law embracing three interested parties, viz : 
The property owners.^ the county and the State; as the provisions 
of this law is set out in the seventh section, I will quote it, 
as it will show more clearly the working of the law. [Read 
Section VI T. of Amefidment to Law of i8gi. ) 2^^ 



278 



NEW JERSEY'S PROGRESS. 









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View of New Jersey Mud Road in Important Section of Camden Co. 

From photograph by Albert C. Middleton 

"Twenty-five baskets of potatoes were considered a fair load from 
farm to marliet." 



7. And be it enacted. That whenever there shall be presented 
to the board of chosen freeholders of any county a petition 
signed by the owners of at least tivo-thirds of the lands and real 
estate fronting or bordering on any public road or section of 
road in such county, not being less than one mile in length, 
praying the board to cause such road or section to be improved 
under this act, and setting forth that they are willing that the 
peculiar benefits conferred on the lands fronting or bordering 
on said road or section shall be assessed thereon, in proportion 
to the benefits conferred, to an amount not exceeding ten per 
centum of the entire cost of the improvement, it shall be the 
duty of the board to cause such improvement to be made, 
etc. 

Section 4 also provides : 

4. And be it enacted. That one-third of the cost of all roads 
constructed in this state under this act shall be paid for out of 
the state treasury, provided that the amount so paid shall not 
in any one year exceed the sum of seventy-five thousand 
dollars; if one-third of such cost shall exceed said sum, the said 
seventy-five thousand dollars shall be apportioned by the Gover- 
nor and the President of the State Board of Aericulture amongst 



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28o NEW JERSEY'S PROGRESS. 




A New Jersey Toll Road. 

From photograph by Albert C. Middleton. 

" After the turnpike was built, 50 or 60 baskets were considered a 
fair load." 

View on Camden, Ellisburgh and Marlton Turnpike, near Camden. 
A poorly kept telford road. Toll charges two cents per mile per horse, 
one way, and each wheelman one cent per mile for the luxury of riding 
through mud four inches deep. Persons making photographs of this 
road are threatened with prosecution. 

the counties of the state in proportion to the cost of roads con- 
structed therein for such year, as shown by the statements of 
costs filed in the office of the President of the State Board of 
Agriculture ; the Governor and the President of the State Board 
of Agriculture shall, betweea December fifteenth and thirty-first 
in each year, certify to the state Comptroller the amount to be 
paid to each county for such year, and the state Comptroller 
shall thereupon draw his warrants in favor of the respective 
county. 

At the annual meeting in 1S92, we were instructed to com- 
pare this law with those of other states, for the purpose of 



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2 8 2 NE W J ERSE Y 'S PRO GRESS. 

incorporating any advantageous provisions that might be sug- 
gested. Accordingly the laws of many of the states were 
examined ; and, although improved macadam and telford roads 
existed in Massachusetts, Connecticut and Pennsylvania, there 
was no law upon their statute books giving direct aid from the 
state to foster the building of county roads. Their roads had 
all been built by the local authorities. And the New Jersey 
law was the first law of the kind in the Union, and the roads 
built under its provisions are the first roads built by state aid 
in the United States. 

We passed the law in 1891, but it is silent as to the depth 
of the material and the width of the roadway. It tells what 
kind of a road it must be ; it must be a permanent stone road. 
This law was on the books for a year before it became opera- 
tive. In 1892 it was placed under the direction of the State 
Board of Agriculture, who put it in practical operation, and it 
soon became popular. There were applications from all over the 
state for roads to be built under its provisions. 

It was necessary, of course, to have some rules to govern 
this matter. The Governor and I decided that no road was to 
be less than ten feet wide, and they were all to be properly 
graded. He sent me over every road to determine what was 
necessary. I consulted the property owners as to their opinion 
of the width of the road. Some wanted it ten feet, some fifteen 
and others twenty feet wide, as the law was flexible. We could 
not suit them all ; and decided that for an ordinary road twelve 
feet in width would answer very well. 

For a good road where there is a sandy bottom, a macadam 
road properly put down and nine or ten inches thick, will bear 
the burden and wear well ; but on clayey soils we should in- 
sist on a telford road. A sandy bottom will be found to be the 
best road bed. The next thing to engage our attention is the 
cost, and it is well worthy of consideration, but while consider- 
ing it do not look continually into the large end of the tele- 
scope ; reverse it and calculate the saving in time, wear and 
tear of wagons and horses, and the comfort to be derived from 
traveling on a good road at all seasons of the year. But to return 
to the cost of constructing these modern roads. I have seen a 
great many figures, and have made some myself, but I am forced 
to the conclusion by practical experience that the only way to 
find out the cost of these roads is to get contractors to offer 
bids for building them : they have resources and advantages 
that we cannot estimate ; but in order to give some idea of the 
actual cost of such roads, I will mention a few bids upon which 
contracts have been awarded. On three roads in Burlington 
County the bids were, for telford road, 89 cents, 92 cents and 
95 cents per square yard. In Middlesex County the bids for 
macadam roads were $1.19 per lineal foot for a ten-foot roadway. 



A^£IF JERSEY'S PROGRESS. 283 

$1.00 per lineal foot for a fourteen-foot roadway, and $1.09 per 
lineal foot for a twelve-foot roadway. These roads were all 9 
inches thick ; the contractor's price varied as to the location, 
and it is safe to say that these figures will not vary much any- 
where in the state within five miles from a railroad station, or 
water navigation wharf. One of our counties has issued 
$450,000 of 4 per cent, bonds, and put down about 60 miles of 
stone roads averaging 16 feet in width, and although they pay 
the taxes to meet the interest on these bonds ^ their tax rate is now 
LOWER than it was before the roads were built. 

I will venture in conclusion to call your attention to the de- 
mand for permanent roads. The laws that I have mentioned 
have led to greatly improved highways in Essex and Union 
Counties and have cost a great deal of money: in some in- 
stances $200,000 to a township. I am not ready to advocate any 
such outlay in any township in poorer sections, but the demand 
for solid roads will have to be met sooner or later. There are in 
most townships roads, or portions of roads that receive the 
greatest percentage of trade, consequently are a continual source 
of expense. To remedy this it is proposed in some instances to 
put down a mile or so of stone road on the most costly portions 
of their leading thoroughfares. In Chester and Cinnaminism, 
townships of Burlington County, they have put down about ten 
miles of stone road covering the worst places on the most 
traveled roads first. They are bonding the township to raise the 
money, claiming that the interest on the bonds will not amount 
to any more than the money they are annually expending on 
these same roads by trying to keep them in order in the old 
way. All the expense is borne by the township. In other por- 
tions of Burlington County and in Gloucester, Mercer, Middle- 
sex and Camden Counties, state aid will be employed. This 
movement is growing so rapidly that nearly every mail brings 
me letters of inquiry concerning the new law and its applica- 
tion; and before the sun set on the 31st of December, 1892, the 
first public road in the Union receiving State aid in its construc- 
tion had been laid. 

This system, has now been inaugurated and it must neces- 
sarily be continued, and will be of lasting benefit to the state 
as well as to the traveling public; the example of New Jersey 
will be followed by other states, and a better system of roads 
will be found throughout the country. I should not be sur- 
prised if, before the beginning of the 20th century, the national 
government would be found contributing to the construction 
of our country roads. Napoleon I. inaugurated the building of 
roads by the government of France to facilitate the movement 
of his armies. Napoleon III. continued the same, and France 
to-day is annually expending over $18,000,000 on its public 
roads, and its whole territory is only three times larger than 



284 JV£W JERSEY'S FEOGRESS. 

the State of New York. What France is doing- for her roads 
could in a measure be done by our general government, by giv- 
ing to the states for road improvements, the internal revenue 
on whiskey, tobacco and oleomargerine, and the taxes on these 
commodities could well be increased without damage to the 
communities. 



Sioo {gold) in prizes for photographs of American roads. See 
full page announcement in back advertising pages of this number. 
Now is the season to compete. Full particulars and competitor' s 
blanks supplied on application to the editor of Good Roads. 



Read the page in this number entitled ' ' A few importa?it lines to 
you from the Editor. ' ' 



"Good Roads is doing a valuable service in shedding more 
light upon this great and vital question. Published under the 
auspices of the American Wheelman, it is not for profit, but 
for the spread of knowledge upon the subjects of better high- 
ways. The founding of such a magazine — and a high class one 
at that — indicates an awakening sentiment in the minds of the 
American people to our present execrable and barbarous 
methods of laying out and maintaining our country ways. " — 
Reporter and Falcon [Somerville, Tenn.) 



" Good Roads is brim full of pleas and arguments for better 
thoroughfares. " — Morning Herald, Utica, N. V. 



" You are doing a grand work for the country at large and 
making for yourself and for the L. A. W. (of which I have the 
honor to be an old member, No. 1015) an immortal record." — 
If. J. Griffith, Ogden, Utah. 



"Good Roads is the title of an elegant little magazine just 
started under the editorial guidance of Isaac B. Potter and 
published by the League Roads Improvement Bureau, Potter 
Building, New York. 

"In view of the wretched condition of our American public 
roads a large portion of the year there would seem to be an 
ample field for Good Roads. May it fully perform the good 
work it sets out to do and come out onto good roads in the near 
future." — The Western Farmer. 



THE FAMOUS ROADS OF UNION COUNTY. 



WHAT THEY HAVE DONE IN THREE YEARS AND WHAT THEY ARE 

STILL DOING. 

"By Chas. C. Mc'Bnde, 

Vice-Tresideiit of the U^ew Jersey State T^oad Improvement Association and 
Editor of the Elizabeth Daily Journal. 

THE telford and macadam roads of Union County, New- 
Jersey, are properly called famous; for not in the 
history of American road making have forty miles of 
public road been more widely advertised than these, nor has 
any other object lesson in road building had more interested 

observers from the standpoint 
of commercial convenience and 
advantage, or from that of 
financial economy and success. 
Not a state in the Union but 
has in some way heard of these 
roads. Governors have referred 
to them in their messages. 
Members of Congress have 
pointed to them as examples of 
superb and successful road 
making to be followed by their 
constitutents ; legislators have 
given force and point to their 
arguments by quoting from the 
law under which these roads 
were built or by reading in the 
halls of legislation extracts 
from writers who have made 
these superb highways their 
theme ; and it is safe to say that comparatively few articles of 
importance on the subject of permanent road building have 
been written and printed within the past two years without 
some reference to the Union County roads. 

Two years age it was the privilege of the writer to contribute 
an article to road literature. It was a brief history of the 
movement w^hich resulted in the Union County roads, with a 
few facts going to show how advantageous and satisfactory 
they were to all classes of people in the county. It was written 
only a month or two after the last piece of road in the system 
had been completed, and reflected not only the energy and 
enthusiasm, but also somewhat of the expectations of those 




Charles C. McBride. 



28s 



286 THE FAMOUS ROADS OF UNION COUNTY. 




Unimproved. 

From photograph. 

Scene on dirt road in Union Co., N. J., one and a half miles from 
Roselle, on Springfield Road. In March, 1892, this road was impassable 
for loaded teams, and the empty was^'on here shown was drawn, in some 
places, with much difficulty. 

who had, at last, seen the successful and permanent realizations 
of long years of hard work in the interests of road improve- 
ment. 

It is a source of great personal satisfaction, but is more 
valuable as conclusive evidence of the marvelous interest in 
good roads awakened within the past few years, that the story 
of our roads has, in whole or in part, been republished, re- 
printed and distributed in pamphlets, in newspapers or in 
circulars, in nearly every state in the Union ; and the writer 
has given no little time to answering letters from different 
sections of the country, asking for further details with reference 
to these magnificent highways. 

In point of widespread, effective and valuable advertising, 
the Union County roads have been entirely successful, and this 
feature has helped to make them the best investment, finan- 
cially, Union County ever made. 

The design of the present article is to answer questions 
which seem to be in many minds: "How have the roads in 
Union County paid? " " How much are the taxes increased? " 



THE FAMOUS ROADS OF UNION COUNTY. 287 

*' Are the farmers overburdened? " " What has been the effect 
upon property valuations?" "Would the people of Union 
County spend so much money in such costly roads if they had 
to do it over again? " 

Let us indulge in a little resume : 

In 1889 the road act, commonly known as the Miller law — 
from Senator Miller of Union who introduced it — was enacted 
by the legislature and signed by Governor Green. It provided 
that the board of chosen freeholders might "acquire, improve, 
maintain and assume full and exclusive control of any public 
road or roads or parts thereof in the county" * * with 
power to improve the same, such roads to be thereafter known 
as "county roads." That the said board might cause such 
roads to be "graded, paved with telford, macadamized or 
otherwise improved with stone" * * "and to keep the 
same constantly in good condition." That "one-third the 
expense of paving or otherwise improving any county road 
shall be paid by the cities, towns, townships or boroughs in 
and through which any such pavement or improvement shall 
be made " in amounts proportionate to the cost in each city, 
town, township and borough, the remaining two-thirds to be 
paid by the county at large. To make this scheme effective 
the law provided for the issue of bonds to the amount of 
$300,000 and for raising $50,000 more by direct tax. 

The board of freeholders issued all the bonds allowed and 
levied a direct tax of $25,000 for two successive years. The 
bonds were sold in a lump at a slight premium ; they bear 
interest at four per cent. 

And now, after the roads have been built two years — some 
of them nearly three years — what have been the results? What 
have they done for Union County ? These questions call for 
figures. 

In 1887, two years before the roads were built, the county 
tax-rate, not including school, township or any other tax, 
was .60. In 1892, three years after the expenditure of 
$350,000 for roads, it was .59. 

In this connection the following table of tax valuations is 
highly interesting. It is taken from the official returns of the 
tax assessors. It tells a story worth studying : 

Real Estate. Personal Prop'ty. Liabilities. Total. 

1888 $24,347,870 $4,007,340 $753,610 $27,601,600 

1889 24,608,800 4,181, 7gi 844,591 27,946,000 

1890 26,121,025 4.483,333 842,858 29,761,500 

1891 27,210,140 4,716,305 935,980 30,990,465 

1892 28,810,970 4,886,270 927,770 31,769,470 

The total valuation of property on the assessors' books in- 
creased from $27,946,000 in 1889, the year the roads were com.- 
menced, to $31,769,470 in 1892, two years after they were fin- 
ished; an increase of nearly $4,000,000. 



288 THE FAMOUS ROADS OF UNION COUNTY. 





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THE FAMOUS ROADS OF UNION COUNTY. 289 

Was this increase all due to the county roads? 

It would be folly to make such a claim, but the rate of in- 
crease before the roads were built and the rates after they 
were built show they had something to do with it. 

How much? 

This is a difficult question to answer accurately, but there 
are some facts at hand which throw light on the subject. 

The system of roads in this county consists of three main 
lines and two lateral lines. They are shown in the accompany- 
ing map which is reproduced by courtesy of Mr. F. A. Dun- 
ham, of Plainfield, under whose engineering skill the famous 
roads were graded and built. 

The three main roads, it will be seen by the map, branch 
out like the spokes of a- wheel, having the city of Elizabeth as 
a hub. One runs directly south, to Linden and Rahway, five 
miles. Another runs due west, touching Roselle, Cranford, 
Westfield, Fanwood and ending at Plainfield, twelve miles. 
The third extends northwest to Union, Springfield, Summit and 
New Providence, ten miles. 

One lateral road connects Rahway and Westfield, five miles, 
and another runs across the hills from Scotch Plains to Spring- 
field, about six miles. Each of these roads traverses a 
beautiful section of rolling country; those running through 
the northwestern part of the county affording some of the most 
beautiful drives in the state, at the same time connecting with 
the splendid macadam and telford systems in Essex and Morris 
Counties. 

On the Central Railroad of New Jersey, which runs parallel 
with the county road between Elizabeth and Plainfield, twelve 
miles, no less than four new stations have been built since the 
county roads were completed. These stations do not appear 
on the map herewith printed, because they did not exist when 
the roads were laid out. They accommodate the property 
owners of four new places, Lorraine, Aldene, Garwood and 
Graceland, all laid out and more or less built up since the 
county roads were constructed ; and it is correct to say that 
these places would scarcely be in existence to-day had it not 
been for these improved highways. 

The fact of the matter is simply this : the rural property in 
Union County was not, prior to 1888, on the market at all. It was 
held, of course, at nominal value, but there were no purchasers. 
The roads, before being improved, were so bad at times that 
grand juries brought presentments and found indictments 
against the road authorities on the very thoroughfares now so 
famous, and the property along them was simply inaccessible 
at certain seasons of the year. The moment the roads were 
completed every foot of this property came into market, and 
prices went up with marvelous rapidity, but not to such an ex- 
tent as to create fictitious values. 



290 THE FAMOUS ROADS OF UNION COUNTY. 

Here are some of the instances in proof: 

In 1888 the property on the road from Elizabeth to Plain- 
field — commonly known as Westfield Avenue — was offered 
for sale at $10 per front foot; some of it within the city limits, 
sewered, curbed and improved. As soon as this county road 
was finished, it went up to $30, and is rapidly being built up. 

Senator John R. McPherson purchased about one hundred 
and twenty-five acres just outside the city line, and contem- 
plates opening new streets, paving and improving them and 
building on them a large number of fine houses at once. 

Between the Senator's property and Lorraine are two farms. 
One was bought for $6,000 just before the roads were built; no 
improvements have been since put upon it, and the owner de- 
clines $30,000 for it. It contains twenty acres. The owner of 
the second farm has been offered over $1,000 an acre for it, 
but declines to sell at that price. 

Next comes Lorraine, the first of the new railroad stations. 
In August, 1 89 1, a tract of thirty- six acres was bought by a 
syndicate for $14,000. It has been -divided up into building 
lots and sold for about $55,000, and about twenty-five cottages, 
some of them very pretty, now stand on these lots. Three 
acres adjoining this tract were sold for $2,000 after property 
began to feel the effects of the roads, and have since been sold 
again at an advance of three hundred per cent. 

On the south side of the railroad track another tract of 
thirty-six acres was opened up last year. It was bought for 
$21,000. It is divided into lots selling at $150 to $200 each, 
and will probably net the owners $80,000. 

The second station was built to accommodate property 
owners of Aldene, just west of Roselle. This tract was a farm 
of about sixty acres, and was bought for $150 an acre after the 
roads were built ; and the price was then considered big. It 
has since been sold off in building lots, realizing about $1,500 
per acre, and the capitalists have purchased two hundred more 
acres in the same locality, and are realizing on it at about the 
same ratio. Houses are being built on both tracts, and the 
prospects favor the rapid improvement of all the lots. 

The third new station is at Garwood, between Cranford and 
Westfield. This will commend itself to many more forcibly than 
the localities already mentioned, because it is not a " city lot " 
venture, but is a large manufacturing enterprise. At this 
place, which hitherto was practically unmarketable land, the 
Hall Signal Company and the American Steel Car Wheel Com- 
pany bought an extensive tract. They first built their large 
factories and are now about to erect eighty dwelling houses for 
occupancy by their employees. Some of the houses are al- 
ready built. This is absolutely a new manufacturing village, 
and the factories will probably be started with a full complement 



THE FAMOUS ROADS OF UNION COUNTY. 291 




IMPROVFD. 

From photograph. 

Scene on new county road (telford) between Elizabeth and Plainfield, 
N. J. An immense wagon traffic is carried on over this road since its 
completion two years ago, and one team can easily haul a load of four 
tons over its surface. 

of hands some time this month. This double plant is 
estimated to be worth $500,000. The selection of this location 
may fairly be credited to the good roads. Its value is much 
greater than the total cost of the roads themselves. 

The fourth new station is Graceland. It is between West- 
field and Fanwood. The prices paid for the tract and the 
present value have not been obtained, and as actual figures and 
not guess work are desired, the statistics of Graceland must be 
omitted. But it is proper to say that the place is beautifully 
laid out, and fine suburban dwelling houses are being built 
upon it. 

The road between Elizabeth and Rahway also furnishes its 
example of property appreciation by reason of the magnificent 
roads. 

Half-way between Elizabeth and Linden is a tract of four 
hundred acres. Before these roads were built it could not be sold 
for $50 an acre. It was used as farm land, and the taxes could 
hardly be collected from it. It formerly belonged to a syndicate, 
of which Andrew Carnegie is reported to have been one, but in 
1872 so little value was attached to it that it was sold for 
$11,000 under sheriff's sale, and bought in by Hon. Amos Clark, 



292 THE FAMOUS ROADS OF UNION COUNTY. 




riii: Rich Mud of Essex. 

From photograph by Mr. C. W. Baldwir.. 
Need for improvement here. View of road between Montclair and 
Paterson, N. J., looking northward toward Great Notch Hotel. A 
fertile, populous country, and a bad highway. 

Member of Congress, who held the mortgage on it. It has, 
within the past six months, been sold for $120,000, and is all 
laid out ready to be opened up and placed upon the market 
this coming Summer. The good roads did it. 

The road from Elizabeth to Summit furnishes several ex- 
amples similar in kind if not in degree. 

Twenty acres on this road — which is known as Morris 
Avenue — have recently been bought for $18,000. They will 
during the present season be laid out in half-acre plots and sold 
under such conditions as will not only pay the investors well, 
but will establish a park of wealthy citizens and add materially 
to the tax values of the county. 

At Springfield a tract has been opened up by New York 
parties, and streets have already been laid out in this historic 
old battle ground of the R.e volution ary War; a town that has 
hardly dreamed of a new street for the past century. 

As an evidence of the pleasure and profit of traveling over 
these splendid roads, it may be stated that a stage line making 
several trips a day has been established between Springfield 
and Elizabeth, and is doing a good business. Before the new 
roads were built this would have been wholly impracticable, 
particularly during the wet seasons. 



THE FAMOUS ROADS OF UNION COUNTY. 293 

These are all particular instances and some of them may 
seem to be spasmodic, but it can be said in sincerity that all 
along the lines of these roads the spirit of permanent, substantial 
and healthy improvement has been manifest ever since they 
were completed. Dwelling houses have been remodeled, 
fences rejuvenated and painted or have been taken away alto- 
gether in accordance with the more modern idea. The lawns 
and shrubbery are kept in better order than formerly and there 
is an air of enterprise never before so noticeable. And why? 
Simply because the roads are travelled much more than they 
were three years ago and people dwelling along the lines are 
not so isolated as in former years. They are, in fact, brought 
nearer to the cities, in touch with more active places, in more 
intimate relations, commercial and social, with city people, and 
the contact has resulted in progress, improvements and ad- 
vantages all around. 

In the towns and cities existing before the roads were built 
there has been a marked increase of private enterprise and im- 
provement. Very noticeable has this been in the towns of 
Roselle and Cranford, though not a place through which these 
magnificent roads run but has felt the thrill of new enterprise. 

These instances by no means exhaust the list, but they 
serve to show one fact very clearly : the roads have already 
brought into the county actual cash enough to pay for them- 
selves many times over, and they have been finished only two 
years. 

Another feature that has been entirely the result of good 
roads : 

It is a fact that few, if any, counties the size of Union and 
having so many large cities, had formerly so few carriages and 
so few road horses. They were practically useless because the 
roads were too often impassable. Owners of horses and 
carriages had to take their drives when they could, and not 
when they would. 

Now the roads are thronged with carriages ; and not only 
with those owned in Union County, but those owned elsewhere, 
and thus every foot of land comes under the eyes of possible 
purchasers who find these charming drives a constant invitation 
to locate on them. The new taxable wealth of this county 
which is represented by the horses and carriages acquired since 
the roads were built, and because they were built, would go far 
toward equaling the whole cost of the roads. Some estimate that 
they already exceed this cost. 

Within the past month an agent representing several of the 
largest carriage manufactories has been endeavoring to secure 
a suitable location in this county from which to supply the new 
and hitherto unknown trade in carriages and wagons of all 
kinds. As a result a carriage repository has been put 



2 94 THE FAMOUS ROADS OF UNION COUNTY. 

up in Elizabeth, an institution unknown here before the 
good roads were built. 

And now with reference to the farmers : 

I have left this excellent class of citizens for the last because 
it is to them that all appeals for good roads must ultimately- 
come. If they oppose good roads, good roads will not be 
built outside of the large cities and towns. 

The farmers of Union County represented by the Union 
County Board of Agriculture were among the very first to agi- 
tate for good roads in this section of the state. Away back in 
the days of the old and respected "Farmers' Club" founded 
over thirty years ago, the improvement of the public roads 
was often discussed and many of the suggestions are recorded 
in the official reports from the county as embodied in the reports 
of the State Board of Agriculture. 

And so, in order to get the views of the farmers themselves 
I attended their recent annual meeting. It was held in the 
Court House at the county seat, and was attended by farmers 
from nearly all the townships in the county. The questions 
were put before them fairly : What effects have the new roads 
had, and of what advantage are they? 

The president of the board referred at once to a farm of one 
hundred acres for which there was no sale before the roads were 
built, but now it is held at $20,000. 

The ex-president, a venerable man who has been farming 
in Union County all his life, said that without a doubt the roads 
had "far exceeded all expectation in point of increasing the 
property valuations throughout the county. " Farmers in the 
southern part of the state, he said, were inquiring with refer- 
ence to this point, and he believed that by reason of these roads, 
property along them was worth from one hundred to two 
hundred per cent, more than it was before they were built. 

A general statement of opinions as to the value of these 
roads at once followed. The names and addresses of those 
making the statements could readily be given if necessary, but 
all who spoke were genuine farmers, either living on and work- 
ing their own farms or running farms leased by them. One 
remarked that the advertising alone was worth the cost of the 
roads because it brought so much new taxable property into 
the county. Another said there were three ways in which 
these roads were beneficial. They increased the value of real 
estate, they are worth their cost in the satisfaction which people 
take in riding and driving over them ; they are worth all they 
cost in the saving of harness, of wagons and of horseflesh. 
They had paid for themselves over and over again, urged an- 
other, in the taxable property they had already brought into 
the county. 

" They have done more for us," reiterated the president, 
" than we ever said they would do," 



THE FAMOUS ROADS OF UNION COUNTY. 295 

As to the taxes, one and all said, without reservation, that 
they were not burdensome, and that the saving in wear and 
tear of harness and horses far exceeded any extra cost they had 
been called upon to pay. This remark referred of course to 
the direct tax of $25,000 levied the first two years, for since 
then the county tax is less than it was before the roads were 
built. 

When asked if under any consideration they would go back 
to the old mud roads, the answer was prompt, emphatic and 
unanimous, "No." 

One fact in connection with this phase of the matter is 
worthy of consideration. Essex County had stone roads several 
years before Union County built them. They extended from 
Newark to the Union County line. The result was that all 
farmers and produce dealers within reasonable distance of the 
Essex roads carted all their farm and garden products to the 
Essex County market, instead of driving through the mud to 
the Union County market. No one could blame them; they 
went where they could go with least trouble to themselves and 
least damage to their teams. In consequence, the wholesale 
dealers at Elizabeth were obliged to go to Newark, buy the 
Union County products which had been taken there and bring 
them back to Union County to retail, at increased prices of 
course. Not all the Union farmers are coming to their own 
county market as yet, for it takes years to divert traffic from an 
old channel into a new one, but the change is slowly coming 
about, through these good roads, to the mutual advantage of 
producer, middleman and consumer. 

The Union County roads are rightly called famous. They 
are famous throughout the United States, they are famous to 
every citizen of this county. They have increased our wealth, 
enlarged our commercial relations, built up new industries, and 
new places of residence, brought into market locations practically 
unknown and inaccessible, and have diffused a new spirit of 
enterprise and progress throughout the whole county. 

They were built in faith and what some men considered 
exaggerated expectations, but they have, in every respect, 
more than realized every promise. There is not a man in the 
county, of sound mind and reasoning faculties, who would 
return to the old roads if this were possible. They are as 
beautiful as they are useful and they have demonstrated to the 
supreme satisfaction of all whose lines have fallen within the 
pleasant borders of our county that they have been the best in- 
vestment the county ever made. 

And they have only begun to exercise their beneficial 
influences. They are permanent, they are an unceasing joy, 
and they are daily increasing our wealth and decreasing our 
tax rates. 



NEW JERSEY ROAD LEGISLATION. 




By Hon. Franklin Dye, Secretary of New Jersey State Board of 

Agriculture. 

.^■~ — . XE of the primary objects of a public highway is to 
facilitate travel. For a large portion of every year 
how many of our roads do this ? Alas, experience 
says but few. 

We have made more progress in every other 
line of refined civilization than in the construction, 
repairing and beautifying of our public highways. 

The first roads in the Colony of New Jersey were 

built under grant of King George, and they still 

bear the evidence of wise construction. Colonial and early State 

legislation for opening and maintaining ordinary public roads 

seem to have been very crude and inexplicit. 

The width, maximum and minimum, of the road was 

defined. And the manner of 
opening or "laying out" a 
road stated, and the method of 
raising money to ' ' work the 
roads " was prescribed, but the 
more importartt matters of 
grading, draining, material to 
be used in its construction, 
time of working and repairing 
were all left to the discretion 
of the persons in charge, and 
that important official was the 
"road overseer." He seems 
to have come up as a necessary 
concomitant to the road itself. 
That provision of the Road 
Law which authorizes the legal 
voters of the township to elect, 
at the annual town meeting, ' ' as 
HON. i-K\\kLi\ Dye. many overseers of highways 

as they shall deem necessary or convenient," is a feature that 
has been continued in the law ever since the year 1798. And 
that official was necessary as matters formerly stood ; but the 
arrangement under which he was compelled to work necessarily 
deprived the road of a township or county of a comprehensive, 
systematic construction and management necessary to a contin- 
uous good road. Each " overseer " was supreme in his district, 

296 




NEW JERSEY ROAD LEGISLATION. 297 




The Road Overseer's Masterpiece. 

From photograph by Mr. AJbert C. Middleton. 
View of important road in Southwestern New Jersey, leading 
directly to Philadelphia Ferry, which is but a short distance away. Much 
used by farmers when in passable condition. 

and as a result the roads were " worked " at any and all seasons 
of the year most convenient to him and his constituents who 
had the right to "work out their taxes" on the roads. How 
was it possible to have roads as good as they might otherwise 
have been, under such a subdivided system of control. As 
showing the legislation on the points noticed I quote from the 
law passed February 9, 18 18, which appears to be the first 



298 jvjSjv jersey road legislation. 

general road law of the state. That law has 41 sections. 
Section 14 reads: " And be it enacted, That the township com- 
mittee . . . are hereby authorized and directed to assign 
and appoint, in writing, to the overseers of the highways re- 
specting their several limits and divisions of the highways 
within such township, for opening, clearing out, working, 
amendment and repair; and the said overseers are hereby 
commanded to observe and confine themselves to such assign- 
ment." It will be seen that this law recognized the "over- 
seer " as being already established, and it made it compulsory 
on the part of the township committee to assign him his district, 
and so jealous was he of his territory, the law prohibited him 
from trespassing on the district of the overseer adjoining. How 
could a comprehensive, continuous system of road building be 
accomplished with such restrictions ? It could not, nor has it 
yet been done. 

Laws, passed subsequent to the one referred to, have been 
chiefly supplemental to it, until a few years ago, when a 
new line of road legislation was entered upon by our legisla- 
ture, which will be referred to presently. But the older enact- 
ments reveal two things. First, that the people were im- 
pressed with the need of better roads. Second, that legislatures 
through the years endeavored to meet the demand by granting 
the numerous laws, amendments and repealers that adorn our 
statute books. There are now over sixty general acts of the 
legislature relating exclusively to roads, and when to these 
we add the special township acts, and the various provisions in 
sundry general acts that in one way and another affect the road 
laws, it will be seen that they must be somewhat intricate, and 
to a superficial observer quite inexplicable. Very many of 
these enactments of past legislatures are now obsolete or an- 
nulled. 

In granting permission to companies to build and operate 
turnpike roads, the early legislation was far more specific than 
was the case with the common road legislation of the same 
period. Turnpike companies were required to form in the 
middle of the road a "space or artificial road " of certain width, 
"the centre of which shall be raised fifteen inches, at least, 
above the sides, rising towards the middle by a gradual arch, 
which artificial road shall be drained by ditches and subterrane- 
ous passages of a sufficient depth to carry off the water, and 
shall be sufficiently bedded or faced with stone gravel or other 
hard substance, so as to secure a dry and solid foundation for 
the same, and twenty feet thereof shall be faced with gravel or 
broken stone, so as to form a firm and even surface, and in its 
progress no part of it shall rise above an angle of more than 
three degrees with the plane of the horizon." (From an act of 
1 8 16.) Such requirements as those were wise, and could they 



JV£JF JERSEY ROAD LEGISLATION. 299 

have been applied in the construction of our common roads 
from the beginning of our state history until the present time, 
what a system of good roads would prevail over the whole 
state! But the prospect for better, even good roads is now 
more encouraging. Our people are awake to the necessity of 
better roads, as never before, and they are willing to bear a 
just proportion of necessary taxation for road improvement, 
where such taxation is consistent with the requirements of 
population, and the taxable property is able to bear the ex- 




Neglected Stkeet Work. 

From photograph taken March, 1892. 

View of Cumberland Street, Westfield, N. J., showing condition ot 
clay loam roadway after Spring rains. 

pense without being burdened by it. In the agitation of the 
subject of improved roads, the farmers of the state, through 
the State Board of Agriculture, have taken an early and earnest 
part. In 1874 the subject was referred to as follows : "There 
is a want felt throughout our whole state for better roads, and 
a conviction that the old method of making and repairing roads 
by a personal service is expensive and inadequate to accomplish 
its object properly. The old laws require that the road to be 
worked be divided into small districts, each under an overseer, 
to whom is committed the whole planning and direction of the 
work to be done, and who is not guided or restrained by any 



300 uV£JF JERSEY ROAD LEGISLATION. 

plans which may be for the interests of other districts, or for 
the best interests of his own district in years to come. The 
importance of having" good roads is appreciated by all, but it is 
not easy to devise any detailed plan which will suit the circum- 
stances of the thinly settled portions of the state and of those 
which are densely populated and highly improved; or which 
shall provide for the accommodation of the traveler and protect 
the tax-payers in their rights. Much has to be learned by ex- 
perience, and probably we shall only reach the ends we aim at 
by repeated attempts and partial success." From the above 
statement it must be seen that the piecemeal system of manage- 
ment as divided among so many " overseers, " who were clothed 
with absolute power, was considered a hindrance to perfect 
road building and maintenance. That the whole subject is 
surrounded with difificulties is admitted also in the above ex- 
tract, and the "repeated attempts" have since that time, we 
are glad to say, culminated in advanced legislation upon the 
subject. 

Again, in 1881, the State Board of Agriculture appointed a 
committee of three, consisting of Wm. S. Taylor, Edward 
Burrough and Phineas Jones, " to look into the subject of road 
making " and report thereon. In their report the committee 
in opening say, " There is nothing redounds more to the credit 
of the community than a judicious system and practice of pub- 
lic road making; there is nothing that affords more genuine 
pleasure to the traveler than a wide, smooth and well graded 
road bed, and aside from the pleasure thus afforded, and the 
beauty of the landscape, there is a continued pecuniary ad- 
vantage arising to the patrons of such a roadway, in the saving 
of time, labor, wear and tear of vehicles, condition and delivery 
of merchandise, to say nothing of an easy conscience and the 
absence of an outflow of adjectives both loud and profane. If 
the foregoing are not sufficient reasons for improved highways, 
the direct increase in the value of properties fronting on and 
lying adjacent to such highways, and the increase in the taxable 
property of the state and county are undisputed proofs of the 
wisdom of encouraging an improved, and, as near as practicable, 
a uniform system of road making, not only throughout a county 
but throughout the whole state." Those words seem almost 
prophetic in view of the experience in Union County and of 
recent road legislation. 

In 1886 Wm. M. Lanning, Esq., of Trenton, who had given 
much time to the consideration of the subject of road laws and 
road improvement, delivered a paper of much value on the 
" Care of Roads " at the annual meeting of the State Board. 
At the annual meeting in 1887, the paper of Judge Lanning 
was discussed and the whole question considered, looking to 
some needed legislation. That discussion covers over thirty 



JV£IF JERSEY ROAD LEGISLATION. 301 

pages of the report for that year. But the subject was not 
dropped there. It has been continued with such interest that a 
permanent committee was appointed by the Board then, which 
has been continued until the present time. The work of the 
road committee is to examine existing road laws and recommend 
such new legislation as may be deemed wise, and their work 
has been very helpful and valuable in the way of general 
enlightenment and legislation. Two laws at least are the 
direct result of the agitation of the subject by the State Board 
of Agriculture. 

These laws are Chapter 84, known as the "Township Road 
Law," approved March 12, 1891, which places the control of 
the roads in the hands of the town committee ; substantially 
abolishing the old "overseer" system. It also abolishes the 
feature of "working out the taxes," although it does not pro- 
hibit the town committee or their appointee from employing 
farmers with their teams to do work on the roads. 

This is considered an important step in advance, enabling, 
as it does, town committees to institute such a plan of road 
improvement as shall cover a whole township, by which means 
grading, draining and working can all be done in such a way, 
and at such a time as will give the best results to the whole town- 
ship. 

But a later law, passed in 1891, amended and made effective 
in 1892, and known as the "State Aid Law," is another stride 
forward and it is an advanced counterpart of the preceding 
law. It, as well as the preceding, was devised by the committee 
named, and provides a more extended plan of management and 
control than the former. That covers all roads in a given town- 
ship under one controlling power, this places the road to be 
improved under county management, whether it be but one 
mile in length or extends through a whole county, as the case 
maybe; and it makes all such roads "county roads" forever, 
to be improved and kept in repair by the designated county 
officers. This law being new, will no doubt be amended as 
occasion may require so as to make it more effective and 
popular. 



$100 {gold) in prizes for photographs of American roads. See 
full page announcement in back advertising pages of this number. 
Now is the season to compete. Full particulars and competitor s blanks 
supplied on application to the editor of Good Roads. 



Read the page in this iiu/nber entitled ' ' A feiv important lines to 
you from the Editor. 




THEF\0/JDSr5TEM 



^Union CouNjy. 



New Jersey. 



By F. A. Dunham, C. E., Engineer in Charge. 

"The public roads of a locality indicate the degree of its civilization." 

Gov. Beaver. 

THE cities and towns situated in Union County, N. J., among 
which are Elizabeth, Rahway, Plainfield, Roselle, Cran- 
ford, Westfield, Fanwood, Summit, New Providence 
and Springfield, besides a number of smaller places, comprise 
some of the most popular of the suburbs of New York, all of 

them being easily accessible to it, 
and from thirty to sixty minutes 
distant by train. 

While this facility of com- 
munication between the towns 
and the metropolis by means 
of the radiating lines of railway 
was all that could be desired, 
the highways between the dif- 
ferent towns and villages were, 
until recently, almost entirely 
unimproved. 

The sights that greeted the 
seekers for suburban homes 
when they ventured into Union 
County on their spring house 
hunting expeditions were not 
reassuring: furniture vans 
abandoned in mud hub-deep; 
hay wagons wdth loads capsized 
and wheels broken by the bowlders which had been placed in 
the road to "improve " it, and vehicles of lighter weight making 
their way painfully at a snail's pace over the roads, or rather 
through them. 

That any of these seekers should have persevered in the face 
of such a forbidding reception, speaks well for the general at- 
tractiveness of the locality ; that their number would be im- 




F. A. Dunham, C. E. 



THE ROAD SYSTEM OF UNION COUNTY. 303 




SCENE ON SOUTH AVENUE, FANWOOD TOWNSHIP, N. J. 

From photograph by A. J. Gavett. 

The road shown here is a telford road included in the Union County system. 



mensely increased by the construction of good roads could be 
safely predicted, and this prediction has been abundantly ful- 
filled. 

Notwithstanding the bad condition of the roads at that time, 
there was a large amount of travel on them, not only between 
the different cities and villages within the county, but also 
across its territory between places miles outside of it, Newark 
in particular receiving a large amount of hay which was hauled 
over the Union County highways. This heavy traffic, which 
would naturally be much increased by the proposed improve- 
ments, indicated the necessity of a substantial and permanent 
form of pavement. 

The need of better roads had long been recognized and ad- 
vocated by leading men of the county, among whom should be 
specially mentioned the Hon. Chauncey B, Ripley, LL. D., 
of Westfield, N. J., whose addresses and contributions to the 
press on the subject of improved roads were of great value in 
creating and educating public opinion on this subject. 

Mr. Ripley's services in the good cause did not cease with 
the completion of the Union County roads, for he has since im- 
proved every opportunity to promote the work in which he has 
taken so deep an interest. 

The first definite and decided step in the new movement 
was taken in the Winter of 1888-89, when, in response to an in- 
vitation of the Hon. Wm. T. West of Roselle, a conference of 
prominent citizens from all parts of the county was held at the 
court house in Elizabeth, to formulate a definite, practical and 
■expeditious plan of action in reference to county roads. 




p ^ 

^ a 
2 2 

> 
< 



THE ROAD SYSTEM OF UNION COUNTY. 305 

This meeting- was attended by representatives from all the 
cities and most of the townships in the count)', and was organ- 
ized by the selection of Mr. West as chairman, and Mr. A. B. 
Carleton, of Elizabeth, as secretary. 

The sentiment was unanimous that something must be done 
to improve our roads, which had become so bad that the grand 
jury, at this time in session, made a presentment to the court 
concerning the condition of the roads and more especially those 
leading to Rahway, Plainfield and Summit, stating that they 
were, in inany places, almost impassable to vehicles of any 
kind, and that the public interests demanded that these roads 
should be repaired and put in good condition at once, "so that 
the people of the county might be permitted to pass over the 
same without damage to themselves or to their vehicles." This 
was the condition that confronted the citizens who met on the 
tenth of January, 1889, to discuss and solve the road problem. 

The sense of the meeting was unanimous that the old way 
of caring for the roads under district road overseers was an ex- 
pensive failure, and the plan was strongly advocated of placing 
the main highways in charge of the county authorities, and im- 
proving the same by the use of stone or gravel. 

The chairman was authorized to appoint a ccmmittee of 
five to draft a bill for presentation to the legislature embodying 
these ideas, and the following gentlemen were named: Hon. 
Frank Bergen, Hon. Wm. H. Corbin, Hon. A. B. Carleton, 
Hon. Job Male, Hon. J. L. Crowell and the chairman. 

This committee, under the leadership of Mr. Bergen, drafted 
a bill and reported the same to a public meeting called for the 
purpose, which met at the court house on the second of Febru- 
ary. The bill was read section by section, fully discussed and 
finally adopted, practically without alteration. The chairman 
immediately appointed a committee to wait on the legislature, 
which was then in session, and urge the enactment of the bill. 
This was a matter presenting greater difficulties than were at 
first apprehended ; the representatives of Union Count)^ were 
earnest and united, standing as one man in favor of the bill, 
but under the state constitution forbidding special legislation, 
it could only be adopted as a general law equally applicable to 
all parts of the state. 

It was admitted that Union County needed and should have 
such road improvements as were called for by the bill, consider- 
ing her close proximity to New York, and the unrivalled rail- 
road facilities she offered to home seekers from the overflowing 
population of the metropolis ; but it was claimed that North 
Jersey and South Jersey, one with its natural stone and the 
other with its sand and gravel roads, did not need any such 
legislation, and much difficulty was experienc^ed in securing the 
support of the representatives from these districts. It was 



3o6 THE ROAD SYSTEM OF UNION COUNTY. 

fortunate that the bill had been so framed that its advocates 
were able to show that the provisions of the act were not man- 
datory, but that it was left optional with the several boards of 
freeholders to take action under the law or not, as they deemed 
the requirements of their constituencies demanded. 

The bill was first introduced in the Senate by the Hon. Jas. 
L. Miller, of Westfield, whose intense earnestness and inde- 
fatigable zeal in the cause of improved roads cannot be too 
highly appreciated ; Mr. Miller never lost sight of the bill, 
either in Senate or House, until it was finally enacted into a 
law. 

The bill as originally drawn asked for the right to expend 
$300,000, but this amount was cut down by the legislature to 
$150,000 and the friends of the bill accepted the amendment on 
the ground that " a half loaf was better than no bread." 

The bill passed the last House on the i8th of March, 1889, 
about 10 P. M., greatly to the joy of a large and interested 
delegation present from all parts of the county. The members 
of the delegation at once visited Governor Green in his room in 
the State House, and were assured of his signature before they 
left for home. The next day, March 19, 1889, ever memorable 
in the history of road improvement, the governor affixed his 
signature, and good roads bocame a possibility throughout the 
State of New Jersey. 

The Board of Freeholders of Union County took action 
under the new law at once, selected the roads to be improved 
(which, by the way, were the same ones which had, a few 
months before, been presented by the grand jury as impassable 
to vehicles and dangerous to life) and appointed the writer 
to be engineer of the proposed improvement. 

On May 23, descriptions of the different roads, and a map 
showing their location, were filed in the county clerk's office ; 
surveys of the roads so designated were made, and plans and 
specifications prepared for as many roads as could be improved 
for the reduced amount authorized by the legislature. 

Proposals were invited, and on September 3, 1889, contracts 
were signed for the improvement of St. George's Avenue, from 
Elizabeth to Rahway, Morris Avenue through Union Township, 
North and South Avenues through Westfield Township, and 
South Avenue through Fanwood Township. Work was com- 
menced on these roads in October, 1889, and the result was so 
satisfactory that the people were convinced of the necessity of 
completing the system. 

An appeal was made to the next legislature for the right 
to expend the additional amount of $150,000, and so great was 
the non-partisan pressure brought to bear on the law-making 
power, that the bill- was amended without difficulty, giving 
boards of freeholders the right to issue bonds not exceeding 



THE ROAD SYSTEM OE UNION COUNTY. 307 

the sum of $300,000, and to raise an additional $25,000 per year 
by direct tax. 

During the Winter and following Spring, surveys were 
made and specifications prepared for the remaining roads, and 
the work of constructing them was commenced during the 
Summer of 1890. 

These roads were North Avenue through the townships of 
Cranford and Union, making with those already under con- 
struction a continuous road from Plainfield to Elizabeth ; West- 
field Avenue, Bayway and West Jersey Streets within the city 
limits of Elizabeth ; Morris and Springfield Avenues, through 
the townships of Springfield, Summit and New Providence, 
completing the road from Elizabeth to New Providence: 
Mountain Avenue and the Springfield Road through the town- 
ships of Fanwood, Westfield and Springfield, running from the 
old village of Scotch Plains to connect with the Morris Avenue 
Road at the equally ancient town of Springfield, and Central 
Avenue, Westfield Road, Brandt's Lane and Westfield Avenue, 
through the townships of Westfield and Clark, and the City of 
Rahway, a total of 35 i^^o miles. The location of these roads is 
shown by heavy lines on the map on page 288 of this copy of 
Good Roads. 

A statement is here annexed showing the length of each 
section of the county roads, together with the amount and con- 
tract price of the different classes of work, and the total cost 
and cost per mile of each section. This shows the total cost of 
the roads, exclusive of engineering and inspection, to be $313,- 
934.12 or an average of $8,756.64 per mile. 

SURVEYS. 

All the roads were carefully located and mapped, and accu- 
rate levels were taken and profiles made for establishing the 
grades ; particular care being taken with this part of the work, 
as it was considered of the greatest importance. On the earlier 
roads some quite heavy earthwork was done both in excavation 
and embankment, in order to reduce the steep grades as much 
as possible ; on the later contracts, however, it was considered 
advisable to reduce the cost of the earthwork, and in order to do 
this, grades were established which necessarily followed more 
nearly the general surface of the old roads. Sufficient grading 
was always done, however, to insure adequate inclination for 
drainage. 

The benefits to be secured by expending even a very moder- 
ate amount of money in improving the grade of roads about to 
be paved are not appreciated as they should be. Hills and hol- 
lows which might have been improved at a very slight ex- 
pense are often left in the road to be a continual detriment to 
its usefulness ; it should be remembered that it is not expected 



3o8 THE ROAD SYSTEM OF UNION COUNTY 





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nor desired to make a level road, but 
that often only a small amount of earth 
need be taken from the top of a hill 
and added to the hollow at its foot, 
to convert a bad hilly road into a good 
one with easy grades. This result is 
plainly shown on the accompanying 
profile of a hilly section of Morris 
Avenue. 

We should also bear in mind that 
this expense of grading, once in- 
curred, is forever done with, while 
if the need of grading should be 
realized after the completion of the 
pavement, all the work done upon 
the latter would have to be sacrificed. 
Sometimes the road is too 
level, allowing the water to 
settle at slight depressions 
and saturate the sub-grade; 
it is then imperative to cut 
or fill (or both) as may be 
found most expedient, in 
order to give a sufficient fall 
in the gutters to carry the 
water to the nearest stream. 
Under-drains are also re- 
quired in such places to re- 
lieve the subsoil of water. 
This matter of securing a dry 
foundation for the pavement 
is really the most important 
end to be gained by grad- 
ing, as the pavement may 
be constructed and 
permanently main- 
tained on grades of 
very inconvenient 
steepness; but if the 
drainage is neglect- 
ed, the existence of 
the pavement itself 
is imperiled. 

These steep 
grades, however, 
are not only incon- 
venient, but very 
expensive to those 
using them, and the 
engineer is called 



THE ROAD SYSTEM OF UNION COUNTY. 309 

upon in such cases to decide whether the probable loss from the 
decreased loads which can be hauled, would not justify a con- 
siderable expenditure in earth-work to secure a more economical 
grade. 

CONSTRUCTION. 

Before the contractors commenced w^ork on any road, grade 
stakes were set, defining the pavement and gutter lines, and 
copies of the profiles were also furnished to the foreman on the 
work. 

The rough grading was then done, and the sub-grade care- 
fully excavated to the proper depth and curvature, and rolled 
with a roller weighing at least five tons, until the earth w^as 
thoroughly compacted so as to form a uniformly solid founda- 
tion for the pavement. Any material incapable of being thus 
consolidated w^as removed and replaced by suitable earth or 
gravel. Stakes were then set at the proper grade for the pave- 
ment, and the height of the sub-grade was tested bv the 
inspector and corrected if necessary. 







CenerAl Character of Stones usedyor Tefford Foundatiorf 

The total depth of pavement was generally twelve inches, 
with the exceptions elsewhere noted. On some of the roads the 
telford foundation was not laid under the entire width of the 
pavement, but a strip two feet in width on each side consisted 
of the macadam stone only. This is showm on the accompany- 
ing plan of the cross-sections used for the pavement of the 
different roads. Under-drains similar to the section shown 
herewith w^ere laid w^herever required by the engineer to 
relieve the sub-grade of w^ater, and to fit it for rolling and 
consolidation. 

Many culverts were repaired and new ones constructed in 
advance of the work of paving; several small bridges were also 
rebuilt at this time in order to avoid future disturbance of the 
pavement. 

The cost of these bridges and culverts was not included in 
the county road appropriation, but was paid from a special fund 
provided for this purpose. 

The telford foundation consisted of trap rock on most of the 
roads, a hard granulite or similar stone being used on the 
others. The stones were of the general wedge shape shown in 
the illustration, set on their bases, and placed side by side with 
their lonsfest dimensions transverse to the line of the road. 



3IO THE ROAD SYSTEM OF UNION COUNTY. 




Gener<3il Appee^rKMice of Te/ford. 
before Wed^in^, 

The stones were at least eight inches deep, the base being from 
eight to twelve inches in length and not less than four inches 
in width. After a sufficient length of this foundation had been 
laid, all projecting points of stone were broken off with ham- 
mers, and smaller stones, spalls and chips were wedged and 
hammered into every opening until the whole was made a rigid 
mass of stone. This process of knapping was continued until 
all points above grade were broken off, the low places filled 
with stone and the telford presented a sufficiently even surface 
at the proper grade. 

The foundation was then rolled thoroughly, the roller used 
weighing at least five tons. In the construction of the later 
roads, a thin layer of clay was spread over the telford previous to 
the rolling, to prevent the screenings (which were to be applied 
later) from sifting through the foundation, and also to form a 
cushion for the macadam stone. 

In the townships of Summit, Westfield and Fanwood, some 
macadamizing had been done previously, and this work was 
utilized to some extent as a foundation for the new pavement. 
In Summit no telford was used, but two courses of macadam 
stone, four and two inches deep, respectively, were placed on 
the road, after bringing up all depressions to the established 
sub-grade with coarse broken stone. On North Avenue, 
Westfield Township, a length of nearly a mile of pavement, 
three and one-half inches deep, was laid on the old macadam 
road, after picking the surface, and widening where necessary. 

( To be Continued. ) 




THE JERSEY ROAD. 

"By Ernest N. Bagg. 

T was years ago. Two armies lay 

Encamped at night near the "king's highway " 
Leading from Princeton to Trenton down, 
When Whigs fought fiercely the British Crown. 
'Twas a winter thaw — it was raw and damp 
To the Yankee council m Trenton camp. 
Washington's veterans shook their heads; 
" We are trapped, it seems, by the cursed 'reds; 
We must fight, — there's no other way to do! " 
• But the General calmly around him drew 
The great, grey cloak that they so well knew. 
And into the outer darkness strode 
Till he reached the fence by the Jersey road. 



That Jersey road! 'Twas a sight to see! 

The mire was up to a horse's knee, 

As the British knew, when on yonder 

steep 
In their tents they sank into peaceful 

sleep. 
And dreamed of victory won with ease 
On the morrow with raw recruits like 

these. 

In front, — the enemy, fixed and fast; 
Around, — deep roads that could not be 

passed ; 
Behind, — the Delaware, wild and black 
Like an angered snake, was in his track. 
The patriot army could not go back ! 
Was Washington crushed by the awful 

load? 
Nay. — He knelt and prayed by the Jersey 

road ! 





^ History tells what happened 
then; 
How, right in the view of his 

anxious men 
The sleet storm ceased, and the 

stars came forth 
With a sharp wind out of the 

ice-bound north; 
How, almost before the prayer 
was done 
^g^ The answer came, and escape 
N was won ! 

How, out of reach of the frowning 

hosts 
The handful of patriots moved 
like ghosts. 



^^^ 



Leaving their fires to burn till day; 

The British thinking the rebels lay 

In the jaws of battle, an easy prey; 

Nor dreamed the truth that the morning showed 

How Heaven had hardened the Jersey road ! 



312 



THE JERSEY ROAD. 







Thus God with his children in peril deals. 

Their forty cannon with muffled wheels 

Over the hard ground safely rolled 

And never a sound their passing told ! 

When the', ight of that bitter morning broke 

Amazed Cornwallis from sleep awoke 

To find the " foxes " had made their flight 

Like phantoms, borne on the wings of night ; 

While the distant guns on the frosty air 

Bade him for rescue at once prepare, 

For all his forces were needed there I 

And they plied their horses with whip and goad 

In their headlong haste o'er the Jersey road' 

Side by side in the dust they lie ; 

For Whig and Tory and War must die ! 

The heroes of old would oft declare 

That opened way was an answered prayer. 

Do not you see in the episode. 

The favor of God for the perfect road? 










THE BIRTHPLACE OF AMERICAN ROAD IMPROVEMENT. 



A HISTORY AND DESCRIPTION OF THE CELEBRATED ROADS 
OF ESSEX COUNTY, N. j. 

^y James Owen, C. E. , Engineer in Charge. 

IT is probably safe to say that the pioneer movement for road 
improvement in the State of New Jersey and even in the 
United States, based on modern ideas and modern methods, 
was in Essex County, New Jersey. The conditions for such a 
movement were favorable. With a large city for a nucleus, 
with suburbs adjoining, having a wealthy population willing to 

spend its money for the best to 
be had, and with a rural pop- 
ulation beyond, anxious to 
have a ready means of com- 
munication for the delivery 
and sale of produce, there was 
still to be found throughout 
this important district the most 
execrable roads in the entire 
country. Curiously enough 
the movement sprang up to 
counteract a movement for an 
entirely different object. At 
that time (about theyear 1867), 
Central Park in New York City 
had become an established 
fact ; Prospect Park, Brooklyn, 
was becoming so, and a few 
of the enthusiastic admirers of 
nature in the city of New York 
started out to secure the same 
park development in their own suburban domain. The sober 
business men, however, knowing the condition of the roads at 
that time, and thinking parks a luxury and good roads a neces- 
sity, put their heads together, and the result was the passage of 
an act constituting the Essex Public Road Board, in March, 1868. 
This act gave, or proposed to give full and ample powers to lay 
out and improve the highways of the county wherever it was 
deemed best and wisest. It must not be supposed, however, 
that there was easy sailing for the good ship as yet. When the 
community found that such an act was passed and that the 
board, the chairman of which was Llewellyn S. Haskell, the 
originator of Llewellyn Park, Orange, meant business, protest 




James Owen, C. E. 



314 



AMERICAN ROAD IMPROVEMENT. 



:"f= 



•-] 




The Essex County Road System. 

View of Park Avenue, Orange, N. J., looking east from High Street. 

From photograph. 

and murmtiring-s arose from all sides. Meetings were held de- 
nouncing the Board and the law, declaring it a usurpation on the 
rights of the people and a monstrosity to be abolished with all 
possible dispatch. The board, heeding the protests, and finding 
the law itself imperfect, confined its efforts in the first year, to 
formulating a plan of improvement showing a system of main 
avenues radiating from the city, Newark, to all the regions 
around. The spread of this information among the citizens, and 
the fact that all the roads were bad, caused a reaction, and in the 
following year the law was amended, and instead of giving the 
board free and full powers to go where it would and lay out 
roads where it thought best, the legislature designated six 
certain avenues radiating from the city of Newark, to which a 
seventh was afterwards added. 

To properly appreciate the proposed system it must be 
understood that Essex County was about twelve miles square, 
with the Passaic River bordering on the eastern and western 
sides, with the city of Newark, having now a population of about 
200,000 people, on the extreme eastern boundary, a cluster of 
suburbs immediately contiguous, consisting of East, West, South 
Orange, and the city of Orange, and Bloomfield and 
Montclair, now containing a population of about 60,000 



AMERICAN ROAD IMPROVEMENT. 315 




An Unimproved Road in EbbLx CouNr\, N J 
View of South Orange Avenue, between First and Second Mountains. 
From photograph. 

people. Through the centre of the county run north 
and south two parallel trap rock ridges known as the 
First and Second Mountains, and beyond these mountains is a 
rural population of about 60,000 people. It will be seen, then, 
that the population consists of three kinds, urban, surburban 
and rural, all in their own way wishing and wanting good means 
of communication, but fearful of the expenses and resenting 
somewhat the interjection of an outside authority, namely, the 
country, into what had been sacredly considered till then a 
matter of local effort and local energy ; and the deduction drawn 
from such a condition of affairs was that the less the effort and 
energy the worse were the roads, and the thought may be 
enunciated here that one great difificulty that continuously 
arises in road improvement is the picture occasioned by placing 
an ou tside body in control of what has been previously considered 
a purely local affair. Such a practice was of course absolutely 
necessary, as, except in rare occasions, the different townships 
refused absolutely to depart from the beaten track of mud, dust 
and mire, and only by outside ideas and outside influence could 
any movement for the better be initiated. 

So, on the basis of these radiating avenues starting from ■ 
Newark and supplying communication to all the different towns 



31 6 AMERICAN ROAD IMPROVEMENT. 

and villages in the county, was the work started. They were 
as follows : Washington Avenue, from Newark through Belle- 
ville; Franklin to the county line; Bloomfield Avenue from 
Newark through Bloomfield, Montclair, Verona and Caldwell 
to the county line ; Park Avenue from Newark through East 
Orange, Orange, West Orange, Livingstone to the county line ; 
Central Avenue from Newark through East Orange ; Orange 
to West Orange ; South Orange Avenue from Newark through 
South Orange to the county line ; Springfield Avenue from 
Newark through Irvington and Milburn to the county line ; 
Frelinghuysen Avenue from Newark to Elizabeth. This 
system as laid out gave general satisfaction and when finished 
would comprise a length of about forty-five miles. All this 
discussion and digestion of course took time, and it was not till 
the Fall of 1870 that the first sod was cut to initiate the 
future era of road making. No elaborate celebration took 
place to note the event; but on an early misty morning the 
engineer in charge of the work designated the spot, and the 
laborer with his spade, without any appreciation of the import- 
ance of the occasion, incidentally proceeded to dig, and from 
that day to this this same man or his successor has continued 
the digging for the same purpose, and will probably continue so 
to do until iron and steam are substituted for flesh and bone in 
ihe millenium to come. 

It must be remembered that no thought or heed had been 
given publicly to any further attempt at improvement than 
that of grading new roads or widening and grading old roads ; 
but the necessity for something further than an ordinary earth 
highway was apparent to the dullest mind, so the legislature 
was asked and power was given to the Essex Public Road 
Board to pave, according to the telford process, the roads under 
their care. This was in 187 1, and the board then proceeded to 
take steps for the construction of the pavement, and in doing so 
began to wander into unknown fields and, from the necessities 
of the case, had to initiate a practice which, whether good or bad, 
time and experience would only prove. The problem was one of 
moment and its success was accordingly a cause for elation. In 
1866 the writer was an assistant engineer in Brooklyn park, 
and superintended for a time the construction of the telford 
roads there. These roads were modeled on the plan of the 
drives and roadways of Central Park, New York, from plans 
and specifications drawn by Wm. H. Grant, C. E., and the 
result of Mr. Grant's work in Central Park justified their adop- 
tion in Prospect Park. These roadways were, however, some- 
what luxurious in their aspirations and were built about as 
.follows: The roadway was excavated to depth of twenty-eight 
inches below grade, and twelve inches of sand was spread there- 
on ; then a foundation course of laree stone laid close and well 



AMERICAN ROAD IMPROVEMENT. 

if" 



317 





K^'~-^ 



The Essex County Road System. 

View of telford road in vicinity of Montclair, N. J., near the residence of 
Mr. Thomas Russell. From photograph. 

chipped in, then four inches of broken stone and on top four 
inches of Hudson River gravel. These roads were built to 
ensure a good smooth driveway, and for that they were success- 
ful ; but their cost debarred their use for any extensive suburban: 
or rural development, so when the writer was appointed engineer 
of the Essex Public Road Board in 1868, and the pavement 
question came to be considered, the practice he should adopt 
and follow, as may be readily conceived, was one of vital im- 
portance. If the roads were too costly their extensive use was 
debarred. If constructed with poor results the same fate 
would befall them. It must be remembered that there was no 
previous experience to govern the case. Successful European 
practice was no real guide by reason of varying climatic condi- 
tions, and the deplorable condition of the local roads where mac- 
adamizing had been attempted, gave a warning sign to efforts in 
the direction of these roads, and the non-existence of good 
telford roads of any but those of great depth, gave no clue to 
the capabilities of those made of less depth and in an excep- 
tionally bad soil. And it may be said without mental strain 
or consciousness of evasion, that the natural soil of New Jersey 
is exceptionally bad. This may be bad grammar, but it 
gives a glimmering of the idea. Authors have diffused their 
poetical subtleties on almost every conceivable subject of im- 
port in the civilized world. Poems of laudation and poems of 



3i8 AMERICAN ROAD IMPROVEMENT. 

commendalion have been on tap at all times and at all moments ; 
but the road question seems not to have attracted the poetical 
mind. Yet a parody on Dante's Inferno might at that time 
have been very timely on New Jersey roads: The soft sensu- 
ousness of the soothing mud exerted a placid influence on the 
impatient mind. The knobby excrecence of the projecting- 
bowlder evaporated incipient dyspepsia into the circumambient 
air and the gentle microbe, mixed with the diffusive summer- 
time dust, gave an enchanting vista of an unseen world partly 
imaginative and partly delusive. 

A careful consideration of all these contingencies led to the 
adoption of a twelve-inch telford pavement as the standard for 
the work to be done. The results have shown the conclusion 
then arrived at to be about right, and subsequent experience 
and practice have shown that the margin of safety has not been 
overreached by reductions to ten inches and even eight inches. 
Any thickness less than that leads to doubt and uncertainty, 
partial successes, frequent failures and, to what is more important, 
a waste of money. The war waged in England sixty years ago 
between Macadam and his thin roads and Telford and his thick 
roads has been transplanted to these shores ; but, while the fight 
waxes now somewhat furiously, the climatic conditions in this 
country are quietly and irresistably rendering a verdict in favor 
of the telford roads, which the further extension of the road 
system and the larger experience ensuing therefrom will doubt- 
less corroborate. The advocates of macadam claim that they 
can get along under certain conditions and get good results. 
The advocates of telford claim that they get good results under all 
conditions and it takes no great judicial mind to see that in the 
end the always right should prevail over the occasiofial right. 

It ma)' perhaps be extraneous to this article to go deeply 
into the merits of thin or thick pavements; but as Essex County 
is pre-eminently a telford county, few specimens of macadam 
existing, the present condition of the Essex County roads is an 
object lesson not to be ignored or lightly passed aside. 

To return to the Road Board from 1872 to i88i, the work 
was carried along with more or less vigor as the financial con- 
dition of the varying periods warranted, and in 1881 extensions 
and further construction practically came to an end. Of the 
forty-five miles originally contemplated, about thirty-eight miles 
were completed, and there being then no demand for further ex- 
tension, the regions unsupplied being poor and unable or un- 
willing to pay their share, it was considered wiser not to attempt 
any hardship on any locality. 

These avenues were designed and constructed as main ar- 
terial thoroughfares in accordance with the intent of the 
original law. The widths varied from eighty feet to one hun- 
dred feet, as the conditions and circumstances then dictated. 



AMERICAN ROAD IMPROVEMENT. 



319 




T—T 



1 





The Essex County Road System. 
View of Northfield Road (telford), West Orange, N. J., looking east- 
ward to top of First Mountain. From photograph. 

Experience now shows that none were too wide as was then 
prophesied, and that nothing less than one hundred feet would 
have been wisdom and foresight. The grades were established 
mainly with regard to travel, with only incidental considerations 
to local exigencies, and the pavement was laid to a width of 
twenty feet in the centre ; this being considered all that was 
necessary for through communication, the law giving power to 
the board to pave to the full width of the roadway, if the 
property owners petitioned for it and were willing to "pony up " 
th&wherewithal. From 1 88 1 to date, spasmodic extensions were 
made to the original work, and even last year a mile and a half 
was built in the extreme southwest corner of the county. The 
organization of the board is still kept up for the repairs of the 
avenues, and the community being educated to the necessity of 
such repairs, and the economical practice of the repair work being 
now thoroughly crystallized, the roads are kept in good condi- 
tion consistent with their original good construction, and the peo- 
ple will tolerate no backsliding in the matter, and if any tendency 
should be noted of reversion to the original condition a howl 
would be heard reverberating from the Orange Hills that would 
crack the tympanum of even the most case-hardened and 
pachydermacious public official. 



320 AMERICAN ROAD IMPROVEMENT. 

The cost of the Essex County road improvements amounted 
in the aggregate to $1,700,000; about $1,000,000 for construc- 
tion and $700,000 for right of way. For the payment of this 
amount county bonds were issued, and of the original issue of 
bonds only about $150,000 remain unpaid with a sinking fund 
of $50,000 on hand to pay them. 

It may be said that the work of the Essex Road Board as a 
creative body is done. The roads, as they are, stand as a memorial 
to the different members of the board during its period of ex- 
istence, and in good times or bad, with a sentiment behind them 
of endorsement at one time and of opposition at another, the 
members stood together and slowly and surely weaved the fab- 
ric of the web of inter-communication with honor to themselves 
and vdth final satisfaction to their constitutents. Never at any 
time has the dread whisper of wrong-doing hovered over the 
actions of the board, and during times when corruption seemed 
rampant and the ramifications of political chicanery seemed to 
penetrate the inmost recesses of the body politic of the country 
at large, the members of the board went on with their work 
quietly,unostentatiously and honestly ; in a few words, they filled 
the bill. Good roads were a necessity, good roads had to be 
had and good roads were obtained. 

The writer served as engineer for the board during the pe- 
riod of construction, and is now officially connected with it, ser- 
ving during a period of twenty-five years, a fact somewhat 
unparalleled in official and professional records. It must not 
be supposed that during the period alluded to in the foregoing 
remarks the rest of Essex County remained idle or inert. In 
the county were two cities, eight suburban townships and three 
rural townships, and it can be readily seen that a movement for 
so good an end could not but be infectious. The city of Orange 
had commenced to telfordize its streets even before the road 
board, and laid a sixteen-inch telford pavement on its main 
street. This is the only sixteen-inch pavement in the limits of 
the county. Afterwards finding that a depth of twelve inches 
gave satisfactory results, the authorities reduced the depth of 
their roads accordingly and during the period of twenty-five 
years that has elapsed since the initiation of their work, the city 
of Orange has actually paved three-quarters of its streets with 
telford pavement from curb line to line. The cost of this work 
has not been made a general tax on the community, but has been 
assessed on the property fronting on improvement in accord- 
ance with the generally accepted city practice. 

( To he Concluded next Month. ) 



HIGHWAY BRIDGES. 

( Continued. ) 
By John N. Ostroni, 

tMcm. cyJmer. Soc. C. E.; Mem. IVesteni Soc. C. E. 

III. 

FOUNDATIONS CONTINUED TEMPORARY WORK IN CASE OF " WASH- 
OUT " BENTS OF DIFFERENT KINDS; SILLS, PILES AND DOWEL 

FASTENINGS PERMANENT FOUNDATIONS; PRELIMINARY SOUND- 
INGS NECESSITY OF A GOOD FOUNDATION COFFER-DAMS 

A SIMPLE AND EFFICIENT METHOD OF CONSTRUCTION. 

Foundations Continued — Frame Bents. — Probably the simplest 
and most effective style of temporary foundation is that familiar 
old standby the frame-bent, with mud-sill or its twin brother 
resting on piles, and the subject is so familiar to most people 
that the method of constructing it might almost be Treated 
as a self-evident proposition ; but since these chapters are in- 
tended for those who are supposed to know as little about design 
and the strength of materials as a lawyer knows about amputat- 
ing a leg, a short description may after all be worth the space 
given to it. 

Let us suppose that a freshet has swept away a bridge 
on one of our well traveled roads, and that the scene of the wash- 
out is one where the banks are too steep and soft, or the water 
too deep, or all combined, to permit of fording. The people will 
expect us to repair the crossing at once, so that travel and trade 
may go on, without the necessity of driving a long distance 
around in order to reach points on opposite sides of the stream. 
You have been elected to meet just such an emergency and it 
therefore stands you in hand to inforin yourself fully before- 
hand of all the secrets of the art. How shall we go about it? 
The frame-bent is our quickest remedy, and if material is at 
hand it need not take us but a few hours to provide a crossing 
over which teams may pass in safety. 

How to Proceed in Case of a Washout. — And this is the way we 
should do it. For the sake of having a practical case, let us 
assume the bridge was thirty feet long and that the height from 
bottom of stream to surface of roadway (which we determine 
by running down a pole in the deepest point) is fifteen 
feet. Now let us look around for some square timber, and 
suppose we find a supply of it twelve inches by twelve 
inches by twelve feet long and also a lot of two-inch 
plank eighteen feet long. Let us also hunt up a few heavy 



HIGHWA Y BRIDGES. 



spike ; and having found these, with our ordi- 
nary hammer-axe and saw we are ready for 
work. We ought to have at least four men. 
If we can get six or eight it will hasten 
the work ; but more than eight cannot 
be used to advantage, as they would be 
in one another's way. We begin 
by laying three of the twelve- 
foot timbers on the ground near 
the edge of the bank, 
about four feet apart and 
parallel to each other, 
forming what we 
shall hereafter call 
posts ; we then 
place a - 
gainst the 
opposite 
ends two 




^jts 



Figure to. - 

Showing 
common 
form of 
frame bent 
made with twelve- 
inch timbers toe- 
nailed together and 
cross-braced diag- ^^ 

onally with two- 
inch plank spiked to 
timbers wherever crossing or 
lapping on timber. 

other timbers, one of 
which we call a cap and the 
other a mud-sill. Now be- 
fore going any further with 
the work, let us "add up " to 
see if the height is going to be 
right. A one-foot mud-sill, 
twelve-foot post and one-foot cap 
make fourteen feet, and on top of 
will come a one-foot joist and a 



^^ 



HIGHWAY BRIDGES. 



323 



inch floor plank, making fifteen feet two inches, which is near 
en6ugh to the required fifteen feet for our purpose. 

We are now ready to toe-nail the cap and sill to the ends of 
posts, which being done we will lay diagonally across the bent 
from corner to corner a two-inch plank, so that it will strike 
all five timbers, as shown in the illustration (Fig. 10) and if 
one plank is not long enough, splice on another. We now bring 
on our spike and securely fasten the diagonal plank in place, 




Figure h. 
Showing frame-bent 
in place, with stakes on 
sides of sill to prevent 
sliding. Stakes on one side of the 
sill are usually driven to prevent the 
bottom of the bent from "kicking 
out " when bti ig up-ended in place. 
The sill is placed against these stakes 
which prevent sliding of the bent, 
while the top of the bent is raised to 
its full height. The stakes shown 
in the figure, on both sides of the sill, 
are necessary only in rare cases and 
may generally be omitted. In this figure the flooring and guard timbers have been 
partially broken off to show arrangement of floor joist. 

driving two spikes at every intersection of brace, post, cap and 
sill, as shown in the picture. Then we spike on another brace 
running across the other diagonal, and when this is done the 
bent is ready to be pat in place. It makes a better job to turn 
the bent Over and spike the second brace on the opposite side ; 
but this requires considerable work and is unnecessary. Indeed , 
if the water is shallow and the current sluggish, the second 
brace may be omitted entirely. Now we slide the bent down 
the bank into the water and tow or pole into such a position 
that the end which is to form the mud-sill shall be in the middle 
of the stream and parallel with the current. Then we sink the 



324 



HIGHWA Y BRIDGES. 



mud-sill end by piling on rocks or old iron, and drive down 
two heavy iron bars or stout wooden stakes, to prevent kicking 
out sidewise. At this point a light hand tackle would come in 
nicely, and if we are lucky enough to have one we can fasten it 
to the cap in the usual manner and "up-end "the bent, holding 
it from turning clear over by a guy line previously fastened to 




Figure 12. 
Showing method of connecting cap, posts and sills by dowel fastening. 

the cap and pulling in the opposite direction. If the tackle is 
wanting, then a square lift with a lot of men and pike poles as 
in olden times will enable us to do the work. As soon as the 
bent is up-ended, we lay across the two-inch plank for floor joist, 
spacing them two feet apart, with one end resting on the shore 
and the other on the cap. As soon as this is done we lay cross- 
wise of the joist a course of the two-inch plank in hand for a 
floor; after which we can pass over the joist and floor from the 
centre of the bridge to build the second half. This completes 



HIGHWA V BRIDGES. 



325 



the bulk of our temporary bridge ; but it is well to lay a line 
of square timber, or a pile of plank over the outside joist at each 
side of the roadway to hold down the floor and act as a wheel 
guard ; and we shall probably have to grade up the earth a little 




Figure 13. 
Part of frame bent (diagonal plank braces omitted), showing piles 
cut off to sustain sill, and method of fastening cap, posts, sill and piles 
bv use of dowels. 



at both ends before teams can pass from the earth roadway on 
to the plank flooring of the bridge. 

You see we have assumed all along that the lumber in 
stock was of a convenient size and that we could build our bridge 
without cutting it. As the square timber was only twelve feet 
long the cap was made that length, and therefore the roadway 



326 



HIGHWA Y BRIDGES. 



would be only about ten feet wide in the clear between guard 
timbers, as laid down, and the eighteen feet floor plank would 
project beyond the guard timbers each side for a distance of 
three feet. Now, while a ten-foot roadway will answer as a 
makeshift for the passage of a single wagon, if we have material 
for a cap and sill seventeen feet long we can make a fourteen- 
foot roadway in almost the same time, and this width will be 
ample for any temporary bridge. The time required to do a 
job of this kind ought not to be more than one day, and two 
days should be ample even when green hands are employed. 

It will sometimes be impossible to get lumber of any kind 
at once, and in such case, if woods are near by, we can make the 
bent and the joists of logs and the floor of small sticks about 







Figure 14. 
Section through part of cap and post, showing method of framing, 
doweling and spiking. 

four inches in diameter, in regular corduroy style, a make- 
shift which has carried many a pioneer and numerous army 
trains. 

In case we wish to put up a temporary bent to stay in 
place until it rots out, more care is required than I have out- 
lined above. The cap and sill, composed of twelve-inch by 
twelve-inch timber (seventeen feet long for a fourteen-foot 
roadway), should be securely fastened to the twelve-inch by 
twelve-inch posts by iron dowels three-quarter inch diameter by 
twelve inches long. And, by the way, let me explain here and now 
that a dowel, though resembling a drift bolt in appearance, and 
acting essentially in the same way, is put in place differently. 
The drift bolt is generally used where several layers are to be 
fastened together one on top of the other, where the work goes 
on course after course, and where there is no objection to hav- 
ing the iron bolt come clear up through the timber. Now, with 



HIGHWA V BRIDGES. 



327 



the bent there is serious objection to this, for if the hole is 
bored entirely through the cap, the water will soak down 
through the timber and along the auger hole and cause the 
timber to rot. It is therefore customary to bore the cap from 
the bottom side, in the centre of the portion bearing against each 
post, the auger hole extending about half-way through, say six 
inches for a twelve-inch dowel. Also bore endwise six inches 
deep into the centre of each post using a five-eighths inch auger. 
Now drive the three three-quarter inch dowels into cap and three 
into the mud-sill, leaving each dowel projecting six inches. Then 




N ^ N K 




. .^ . , . - \\ ^-^ \\ 

x^\V-\\\>xX\\\\\\\\\>.N,V 




Figure 15. 
Section through part of post, sill and ]Mle, showing method of fram- 
ing, doweling and spiking. 

enter the ends of the projecting dowels into the corresponding 
holes in the ends of the three posts and drive together tightly with 
a maul at both ends. After this lay on a two-inch by twelve-inch 
diagonal brace and securely fasten with three-eighths inch boat 
spikes six inches long, two at each intersection, as shown in the 
drawing (Fig. 11). Then we turn over the bent and fit on the 
opposite brace, or fit it when the bent is up-ended. This sort of a 
bent is best adapted for use in sluggish streams and shallow water, 
and in such cases it is effective; but we must be sure to get a 
level and uniformlv firm bearing for the mud-sill; otherwise 



3 2 8 HIGH IV A Y BE IB GES. 

the bent may settle unevenly and make a slanting floor, like a 
roof, to our bridge. 

In meandering streams with soft bottoms, we must be care- 
ful not to 1-and one end of our bent on a sunken log, stump or 
bowlder, and the other end in mud, for if we do, our labor will 
have been in vain ; and this can be avoided by careful sounding 
with a pole, for by this means we can locate any submerged 
body in our way. If the bottom is rock, gravel or clay, the 
mud-sill can be omitted entirely, relying for support simply on 
the square ends of the three posts; and indeed, this is always 
advisable when there is any doubt of securing an even bearing 
for the mud-sill. 

A Bent Resting on Piles. — In cases of very soft bottom, it is best 
to drive three piles about seven feet apart (for a fourteen-foot 
roadway) and saw them off just above the water line, forming a 
support for the frame-bent, which differs from the one alread)'' 
described only in the following details of construction. We use 
the same cap, three posts and two diagonal plank braces as be- 
fore, and bore holes in the base of each post as in the top. 
Then we lay the mud-sill on top of the evenly sawed off piles and 
bore a five-eighths inch hole down through the sill and into the 
centre of each pile six inches. Drive in now a three-quarter inch 
dowel, twenty-four inches long in each case, and let it project six 
inches above the top. Then we up-end the bent, slipping the 
holes in post-feet over the projecting dowels and driving 
down tight with mauls. After fastening the loose ends of the 
diagonal braces to the mud-sill and exterior post-feet, with boat 
spike as before, we have a solid bent that is good for about ten 
years, if not carried out by heavy flood-trash or ice ; and it is 
vain to expect a single line of piles to withstand such unusual 
pressure, althoirgh, if we plank both sides of the piles and the 
bent solidly from top to bottom and then fill around the piles 
with heavy stone up the water line, it will take quite a flood- 
jam and pretty heavy ice to sweep such a support away. 

( To be Continued. ) 



$ioo {gold) in prizes for photographs of American roads. See 
full page announcement in back advertising pages of this number. 
Now is the season to compete. Full particulars and competitor s blanks 
supplied on application to the editor of Good Roads. 



Read the page in this number entitled ' ' A few important lines to 
you from the Editor.'' 



TO THE WHEELMEN OF NEW JERSEY. 

By T)!'. G. Carletoii Brown, 

Chief Consul, Ncic Jersey T)ivisiou, L. tA. IV. 

THE editor has asked me to address a few words to the wheel- 
men of my state, and I gladly do so because his invitation 
accords with my wish. The wheelmen of New Jersey have 
f,or years carried on a zealous and persistent campaign for the im- 
provement of our roads, and the splendid success of which this 

copy of Good Roads gives evi- 
dence is, in no small degree, 
due to their efforts. There is no 
lesson like an object lesson, and 
the wonderful results which 
have followed road improve- 
ment in some of the counties 
of New Jersey have inspired 
other counties and other states 
to follow their example. 

The provision for state aid 
contained in our road law has 
had a most salutary effect, and 
I am informed by Mr. Burrough, 
president of the State Board of 
Agriculture, that the amount of 
the state appropriation for the 
present year has been exhaust 
ed, and that several times the 
amount of that appropriation 
could have been used. 
But we have only just begun. Thousands of fertile acres in 
our beautiful state are still surrounded by a network of mud 
roads, and that, too, in districts which can scarcely afford to be 
handicapped by these conditions. Let me ask you to help, with 
all your might, this educational work. Send the names of road 
officers, town and county officers, in your neighborhood to the 
editor of Good Roads, and either send your copy of the magazine 
to one of these officers or send a postal card to the editor request- 
ing him to do so. Take an active part in all meetings relating to 
road improvement. Encourage an increase of membership in the 
League of American Wheelmen, and thus enhance its working 
force. Enlist, if possible, the interest and efforts of your local 
editor, and secure the publication in his paper of articles per- 
taining to improvement of your local highways. In the matter 
of this work Good Roads will aid you if you will write to the 
editor. 

I have said all that need be said and I heartily mean all that 
is here written. I congratulate you and thank yoi: for all that 
has been done. The time and the opportunity are ours. Let i:s 
command them. 




Dk G. Caule 1 (jx Brown. 



TO MY FELLOW-MEMBERS OF THE L. A. W. 




For fifteen months we have 
been collecting the names and 
addresses of thousands of road 
officers, county and town officers, 
prominent citizens, merchants, 
farmers and officers of trade- 
societies and granges in every 
state of the Union. 

These are the men who should 
read Good Roads «;;/^ 7v hose support 
fnust be won before the public roads 
can be improved. 

For fifteen months we have 
been sending Good Roads maga- 
zine to thousands of members of 
the L. A. W. The number sent 
to League members during the 
present month will be about 
35,000. 

21iese ineinbers are all convinced 
of the need of better roads and every copy of Good Roads sent to 
a League member is wasted, unless used by that member to extend the 
work. 

You and I are both League members. Let us consider a 
proposition. 

If you will sign and send to me a postal card giving me authority 
to send your copies of Good Roads to different persons selected 
within your state (whose names and addresses I take from lists in 
this office), they will be distributed in the best possible manner, 
without expense or trouble to you, with some possible benefit to the 
magazine and with the greatest certainty of good results for 

THE movement. 

If you prefer to keep these magazines and are yet willing to aid 
our enlarged circulation, send me the sum of fifty cents (or any 
larger sum that you may see fit to contribute), towards subscrip- 
tions for road officers and other officials in your state. For each 
fifty cents received Good Roads will send the magazine for twelve 
mo7iths to road officers in the state where the contributor resides. 

I make this proposition, (i), to insure an enlarged circulation for 
Good Roads and to extend its influence ; (2), to reheve many League 
members from the expense and trouble of sending the magazine by 
mail to other persons from month to month. (The postage on each 
copy posted by subscribers will be about three cents during the 
coming year or thirty-six cents for the entire year, not counting cost 
of wrappers and time and trouble of mailing). 

We intend to place GOOD ROADS in the hands of 100,000 
READERS each month during the present year, and to print 

AND distribute THOUSANDS OF PRACTICAL PAMPHLETS ON ROAD- 
MAKING IN every state of the union. we WANT YOUR AID NOW. 






Fraternally yours, 

Isaac B. Potter. 



THE ROAD IMPROVEMENT FUND FOR '93. 

CONTRIBUTIONS STILL COMING IN — CONTINUED INTEREST SHOWN BV LEAGUE 
MEMBERS — THE OBJECT AND AMOUNT OF FUND OBTAINED — FURTHER LIST OF 
CONTRIBUTORS AND AMOUNTS RECEIVED. 

READ the last preceding page. Read it twice if necessary. Send us the 
names of all the road officers, county and town officers in your vicinity, 
with addresses plainly written. Send the Editor a postal card telling him 
to send your magazine (if you are a League member) to one of the road c)fficers 
of your state. If you prefer not to do this, send fifty cents or some greater 
amount to pay the expense of enlarging the circulation of Good Roads in the 
right direction. 

The following additional amounts have been received since the publica- 
tion of the May number. All other contributions 7inll be acknoivlcdged in 
succeeding numbers of GOOD ROADS: 

FROM FRIENDS OF THE L. A. W. 



A. H. Overman (President, Overman 

Wheel Co.) $1,000.00 

J. A. C. Wri^rht, Rochester, N. Y 20.00 

Hart Cycle Company, I'hilndelphia, Pa.. 10.00 
E. R. Morris, Philadelphia, Pa 1.00 



A. G. Elliott, Philadelphia, I^i Sl.OO 

J. H. Halt, Philadelphi:!, Pa 50 

P. M. Welis, Kensoiihurst, N. V .5u 

Algona Cyclers, Algona, Iowa le.oo 



FROM L. A. W. MEMBERS. 



$1,049.00 



Previously acknowledged 

J. H. Snyder, Norristowa. Pa 

S. H. Sargent, Newark, N. J 

C. E. Bull, Syracuse, N. Y 

S. A. Streepy, Nazareth, Pa 

Anonymous, Dorchester, Mass 

J. U. Turner, New York City 

J. Martin, Philadelphia, Pa 

E. W. Beck, Greensburgh, Fa , 

0. T. Marowsky, Wilmerding, Pa... 

R. N. Bande, Louisville, Ky 

O. L. Broadbeiit, Philadelphia, Pa... 

A. H. Bullard, Natick, Mass 

C. C. Houmage, New York City 

H J. Parker, New York City 

L. Debo, Buttalo, NY 

J.J. Ehrlick, Buffalo, N. Y 

0. H. Hanensteiti, Buffalo, N. Y 

E. L. Day, Dunkirk, N. Y 

W. R. Lansing, Rochester. N. Y 

R. A. Fones, Y'onkers, N. Y 

W. Kite, Jr, Philadelphia, Pa 

N. W. Wagner, Philadelphia, Pa. ... 

H. A. Lewis, Philadelphia, Pa 

(i. B. Halberstadt, Philadelphia, Pa. 

J. T. Wrigley, Philadelphia, Pa 

G. E. Stratton, Altoona, Pa 

A. McAlpine, Bradford, Pa 

H. Drake, East on. Pa.. . . 

H. F. Stearns, Erie. Pa 

A. F. Brown, East Smethport, Pa 

W. S. Lambert, Honesdale, Pa 

E. G. Zern, Lehighton, Pa 

H. S. Mercer, Pittsburg, Pa 

W. M. Stieren, Pittsburg. Pa 

J. W. Hansen, Scottdaie, Pa , 

F. E. Jones, Abington, Pa 

J. Wilde, East Orange, N. J 

C. V. Tuthill, Jersey City, N. J 

V,. O. Chase, Newark, N.J 

F. Hand, Patterson, N. J 

A. S. Allen, Patterson, N. J 

B. King, Rah way, N. J 

F. E. Langstroth, Newark, N. J 

W. S. Hills, Baltimore, Md 

S. B. Howser, Baltimore, Md 



,..$.: 



;99..50 G. R. Vickers, Jr., Baltimore, Md 

10.00 E. von Ness, Baltimore, Md 

10.00 W. A. Moore, Norwalk, Ohio 

5.00 L. B. Baker, Nenekauue, Wis 

5.00 A. C. Pembroke, Salt Lake Citv, L'tali.. . 

5.00 E. A. Si-htieider, Covinston, Ky 

2.00 A. A. Burnand, Leadville, Col 

2.00 H. H. Gladding, New Haven, Conn 

2.00 J. W. Brevfogle, New Albany, Ind 

2.00 L. A. W. No. 5016, Alleghany, I'a 

2.00 W. U. Musser, New York CUy 

1.50 I. H. Tilft, New York City 

1.50 W. C. Edwards, Rochester, N. Y 

1.00 L I'arshall, Chemung, N. Y 

1.00 C. H. McBride, Alplaus, N. Y 

100 W. D. Carriithers, Philadelphia, Pa 

1.00 M. F. Looo, Philadelphia, Pa 

1.00 E. P. Knipe, Norristown, Pa 

1.00 W. D. Baker, Selingsgrove, i'a 

1.00 H. Keen. Rutledge, Pa 

1.00 A. F. Bellinger, Elizabeth, N. J 

1.00 Dr. H. L. Iredell, New Brunswick, N. J. . 

1.00 J. Kidd, Patterson, N.J 

1.00 J. H. Noyes, Orange, N. J 

1.00 L. M. Wainwright, Indianapo.is, Ind ... 

1.00 C. L Hall, Baltimore, Md 

1.00 J. M. (ilenn, Baltimore, Md 

1.00 M. J. Geraghty, Baltimore. Md 

1.00 W. Lamping, Baltimore, Md 

1.00 C. W. Leach, Baltimore, Md 

1.00 W. W. Search, Baltimore, Md . . 

l.CO H. Thomas, Baltimore. Md 

1.00 H. M. Hutson. Frostburg. Md 

1.00 R. F. Goodi ich, Girard. (hio 

1.00 Mrs. L. Spangler, Dansville, 111 

1.00 R. H. Randall, Chicago, III 

1.00 R. L. Barrington, Washington, D, C 

1.00 Anonymous, Philadelphia, Pa 

1.00 Anonymous, Plainfleld, N. J 

1.00 Anonymous, Aurora, 111 

1.00 M. R. L. , Whitinsville. Mass 

1.00 I,. A. W. No. 47,964, Wilkesljarre, Pa. . . . 

1.00 W. If. Welch. Canandaigua, N. Y 

1.00 G. H Whitnev, Mechanic-sville, N. \ ... 

1.00 J. F. Keator, Philadelphia, Pa 

1.00 — 



1.00 

1.00 

1.00 

1 (10 

l.OU 

1. 00 

1.00 

1 .00 

1.00 

1.00 

.00 

.50 

.53 

50 

.50 

50 

.50 

.50 

.50 

.50 

.55 

.50 

.50 

.50 

.50 

.50 

50 

.50 

.50 

.50 

.50 

.50 

.50 

50 

.50 

.50 

.;.0 

.50 

.50 

.50 

.50 

.50 

.25 

.25 

25 



RECAPITULATION. 
From Friends of the L. A. W $1,040.00 From L. .\. W . Members. 



$.507.43 



$507.43 



Grand Total $1,556.43 



331 



JJ J I B.OARDE R5 

' l^y WANTE D 

^BEAjTIJul SCIMEBV 

I'^'M ^v, f 




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26 


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27 


W. 


28 


Th. 


29 


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30 



Pleasant. Hang out your sip for sniier lioariers. 

Donati's Comet discovered, 1858. Atterward lost in tie vnicreness, 

Raw tomatoes M eaten, 1817. Tliree doctors 

DMDed Mm out and lie snryived. 

Road macMnes invented, 1804. It will t miiMwg 

M make MittonMes. Sliowery. 

TMs is tie montli of leaves. Don't leave your 

moutli ajar at nigM. It makes you snore. 

Dickens died, 1870. He wrote tlie trutli aliott u 

and we didn't like Mm. Very warm. 

Now look out for lieavy frosts in tlie Delaware 

peacli orcMrds. Still warmer. 

Save your nennies for tlie CMcap Fair, Tnen Mnk 

'em and stay at tome. 

Martin Lntier excommuMcated, 1520. 

Strawlierry shortcake in fasMon: Buy 4 ounces of peppermint. 

No scliool to-day. Buy tlie lad a Mcycle. 

War Willi Great Britain, 1812. A million "veterans " siill survive. 

First Colonial Congress, 1754. 

Patcli up the silo, Keep tlie colt in pasture. 

Spend a day in town and get posted. Don't hlow out tlie gas. 

Lieut. Greeley rescued, 1884, The road was had 

and he couldn't get home alone. 

Horse cars invented, 1807. Don't puH the strap, 

You might ring up a fare. 

Corn Laws repealed, 1846. They were nearly as had 

as the lahor tax road law. 

Henry VIH horn, 1491 : A Coward's anniversary 

Rainy, Stay in the house and read GOOD ROADS. 

Two Dollars a year, Sample copies free. 




PITORglABlE, 



,'?^', 




Am(3N(; all the ins and outs which the roads 
question has taken to itself, there is one 
established, obvious fact that New Jersey's 
experience has raised above the plane of 
discussion, and clothed with the dignity of 
a:i axiom. It is that state aid, with a proper 
statutory regulation to govern it, is the 
quickest means of inspiring a general move- 
ment among the counties for better highways 
and for securing that uniformity and perma- 
nence in road work which the law was en- 
acted to secure. 

The law makers of New Jersey have gone 
about their business in a spirit of true states- 
manship. They reason that the public road 
is not a local institution, but the property 
and care of all the people ; that the care of 
roads in the several counties has been en- 
trusted to local management in years gone 
by, not as matter of right, but purely for 
reasons of convenience ; that the roads of 
Burlington County belong, in their use and 
enjoyment, as much ta the people of Essex 
County or to those of any other distant por- 
tion of the state, as to the, people through 
whose lands these roads were originally 
opened; that the cost of constructing im- 
proved roads at the expense of a local com- 
munity, is likely to suggest an undue burden 
and to deter an improvement in which the 
people of the state have a common interest, 
and that for geological leasons this burden 
is certain to be greater upon some counties 
that upon others. They have given force to 
these views by the enactment of a law which 
says that " One-third of the cost of all roads 
constructed in this state under this Act, shall 
be paid for out of the State Treasury," and 
as evidence that this wise enactment has led 
to good results, it may be stated here, on 
the authority of the President of ths New 
Jersey State Board of Agriculture, that the 
entire available appropriation set apart by 
the state for the purposes of this act has 
already been awarded to counties taking 
advantage of its provisions, and that several 
times the amount could have bee:i used to 
answer applications of a similar nature. 



New Jersey is not the richest state in the 
Union, but her riches are growing in propor- 
tion to the improvement of her roads, and 
prominent citizens of Union County declare 
that the enhancement of values i i that 
county alone, due to the improvement of the 
public roads, would more than pay cost of 
all the improved roads in the state. 



And directly i'l line with this reference to 
New Jersey law, it may be sLated that tlie 
road philosophy of that state is taki::g v~h t 
in other places. At a recent Kentucky Rcja 1 
Convention, held at Bowling Green, the 
able editor of the Industrial .Imerican, ]\Ir. 
H. T. Groom, delivered an address in whicli 
he said: "The building of roads increases 
the taxable wealth of both the county an 1 
the state, and each should bear a por>.;,) i of 
the cost. The lands lying adjacent tj thj 
reconstructed roads are enhanced in valuo 
and they should bear their share < f the; 
cost. * * * Every citizen is interested i i 
good government and each section should 
be made to yield its share of revenue for this 
purpose." 

This is the growing sentiment that sooner 
or later will root out the persistent and 
ignorant demand for "local control" of the 
public roads. The public road everywhere, 
by every court in Christendom, has been 
held to be as free as the air of heaven. 
The main distinction is that, as a rule, it is 
a trifle more filthy. 



No better enactment has received thj 
approval of a state governor than that 
recently signed by Governor I'Mower of 
New York, providing for the preparation 
and publication of a general road manual 
containing the highway laws of the state 
and practical information touching their 
construction and maintenance. The manual 
is now ia course of preparation, and Hon. 
N. G. Spalding, appointed by Governor 
Flower to compile this valual)le work, is 
going about his duties in a manner that 
promises rich results. The manu.-'l wid 
be distributed throughout all thet'.wnsia 
the state, and many applications for copies 
are already coming to Mr. Spalding through 
the mails, ,,, 



RECENT PATENTS. 

In this department ^ve shall print from time to time brief descriptive notes of 
recent patented inventions relating to roads, streets, drainage, bridges and wheeled 
vehicles. 




SCRAPER APPARATUS. AYilliam BrTi.KR and Henry 
G. IJiTLER, Kenosha, Wis.. Patenters. In a scraper-appar- 
atus, the combination with asiiiiportcarryingcablewindini;- 
mechanisin having a scraii'r liliing di'iini and a scraptr 
hatiling-out drum, a mast and a li^om, of a scraper, a cal)le 
connecting tlie scraper from its forward end wiih the said 
filling drum, and a cat)le connected atone end with the said 
liauli:ig-out drum, p:-issing i hence upward over a guide on the 
mast and down about the scraper-hanger over a guide nenr 
t.ie outerend of the boom and ba' k to the scraper-hanger to 
which it is fastened at its opposite end. 




ILIXMINATIXG-TILE. Jacob Jacobs, Patentee, Kew 
Y(irk. N. Y. As an improvement inilliuninatingtiies, a lens 
consisting of a plate of glass that lias upon its upper side 
several, integral, sep.iraied bosses resembling separately 
formed lenses,andhasaround its edgean upwardly extend- 
ing flange, the spaces between said'I)osses bring lilled with 
cement, and said flange acting to hold the latter in place. 



CANAL DIGGER. JOHN McMrLi.EX, nEKMAN KRrsi, ar.d 
Henry S. Wood, San Francisco, Cal., Patentees. In a diggiiig 
machine, the combination of a iraveling bridge, theendsof 
^Vhich are provided witli wheels or irucks upon wliich itis 
supported, and tracRs Ufion which it travels, a transverse 
moving carriage thereon, a digjiing P'-achlue supported on 
the moving carriage a cimxeynr licit of canvas or other 
suitable material, and a ci iivi'y(>r frame of less width than 
the belt, tile said frame iirovkled withraisede'ces whereby 
the edges thereof are turned up lo form a trough cf th'! 
upper fold of the bi-lt, intermediate of the ei.d cariyin,| 
pulleys. 




DUMPINO-WAGON. John N. Ericsson, Patentee, Chi- 
cago, 111. Filed Dec. 12, 189 i. The dumping wagon wherein 
are combined a tipping box or platform, a central tram:- 
verse pivot, side frames from which said pivot is adjustably 
supported, and rear wheels revolving on short axles secured 
to said side frames. ■ 34 










oNtract Motes b 



iiS-ii'iii&i- 



^^^- 







ROADS AND STREETS. 

ILLINOIS.— Normal.— Several larg^e contracts 
Will be awarded after the first of thij month for 
street paving in this place. The work includes 
20,000 square yards of brick paving, 8,000 cubic 
yards of grading, 7,000 lineal feet of sandslore 
curbing. Further information in regard to this 
work may be obtained of the Chairman of the 
Street Committee, Mr. E. IManley. 

KENTUCKY.— Newport.— Bids are being re- 
reived for the work of macadamizing, and also 
paving four streets with brick. Information can 
be had of the City Engineer. 

OHIO. — Dayton. — Either first-class Medina 
stone blocks. Harden blocks, Hallwood blocks, 
asphalt or brick is to be used for about 90,000 square 
yards of paving in this city. Bids are being re- 
ceived for the construction of the work. Address 
the City Comptroller. 

INDIANA.— Brazil.— Until June 20, proposals 
are asked for three contracts for flagging, etc. 
Address communications, etc., to the City Clerk of 
this town. 

NEW YORK.— Rochester.— Grand Avenue is 
to be paved with asphalt at a cost of $58,382. The 
Rochester Vulcanite Co. procured the contract. 

NEW JERSEY.— East Orange.— It is proposed 
this year to construct about two tniles of macadam 
roadways in this town. 

OHIO.— Cleveland.— The Warren-Scharf As- 
phalt Paving Co. has been awarded the contract 
for paving East Prospect Street with asphalt, with 
a ten-year guaranty. The cost was $108,600. 

JIARYLAND.— Baltimore.— One street is to be 
paved with Belgian block at an estimated cost of 
$60,000. Bids are advertised. 



SEWERS. 

VIRGINIA.— Charlottsville.— The proposed 
sewerage system is to be eighteen miles in length, 
and plans are now being prepared. 

PENNSYLVANIA.— Bradford.— It is proposed 
to lay about one mile of new sewers during the 
coming Summer. Address the City Engineer. 

MINNESOTA.— Redwood Falls. —The esti- 
mated cost of the new system of sewers for this 
place is $2o,ooo. Plans, etc., have been prepared. 

SPAIN. — Cadiz. — A competition has been begun 
in this foreign city to remain open until December 
?o, 1893, and offering $6,000 to the author of the best 
plan for a proposed system of sewers. 

ILLINOIS.— Belleville.— Plans have been di- 
rected to be prepared by Edward Field of St. Louis, 
Mo., for a, sewerage systein. Bids will probably 
be asked for when these plans are completed. 

Aurora. — It is contemplated to build about nine 
miles of sewers this Fail or next Spring. Com- 
munications may be addressed to the City Clerk. 



COLORADO.— CoLi KAio Sphings.— It is pro- 
posed to extend the sewerage system and to issue 
bonds to the amount of $35,0^0. 

VERMONT. — Rutland. — Plans are being pre- 
pared by the City Engineer for a system of sewers. 
Bids will be asked for shortly. 

MICHIGAN.— Negaunrf..— Bids are being re- 
ceived by the City Engineer for about 4.5 miles <.£ 
Band lo-inch sewers. 

Marque ITE. — UiJs have been directed to l:-o 
advertised for by the Ctj' Recorder for the woi '.; 
of laying sewers in two districts. 

WISCONSIN.— Wate:;; OWN.— It is proposed 
soon to build a system of sewers. 

NEW YORK.— Fishkill Landing.— Bids i.rc 
asked for 10,000 feet of 12-inch sewer from the Hud- 
son River to the Matteawan State nos;..ital. 

MICHIGAN.- St. Joseph.- The F.oard o; Sewer- 
age Commissioners will receive bids ur.til June 5 
for the construction of about 12.000 lineal feet of 
sewers. . Plans, specifications and- instructions 
may be seen at the office of the aforesaid board. 

INDIANA.— Terre Haute.— Surveys has been 
ordered to be prepared b}^ the City Engineer fur a 
belt sewer to drain the east, southeast and north- 
east portions of this city. The estimated cost of 
the work is $200,000 to $250,000. 

IOWA.— Des Moines.— a sewer is to be con- 
structed in Bird's Run at an estimated cost of 
$23,000. The length of the proposed sewer .is 
3,400 feet. 

MASSACHUSETTS.— Easth AW PTON.— Bids will 
soon be asked for 8,000 feet of 8-inch, and 1,200 feet 
of 10-inch pipe. 

CONNECTICUT.— New London.— Bids will 
soon be asked by the Sewer Board for about 6,000 
lineal feet of 12 to 10-inch sewers. 

BRIDGES. 

WASHINGTON.— Spokane.— It is under dis- 
cussion to build a bridge across the river at the 
foot of Post Street. 

IOWA.— Des :Moines.— The approach to the pro- 
posed new bridge over Coon River, at Eighteenth 
and Grand Avenues, will be 248 feet long, and the 
bridge proper 738 feet long. 

MINNESOTA— Marysburg. — A stone arch 
bridge is to be constructed, and bids are asked by 
the Town Clerk of this place. 

PENNSYLVANIA.- Corry.— It is proposed to 
build two bridges this Summer, one having a sixty- 
foot span and the other a twenty-foot span. For 
further particulars address City Clerk Rogers. 

ARKANSAS.— Little Rock.— W. A. Compton, 
County Judge, George L. Basham and W. B. 
Worthen, Commissioners, will receive bids at the 
office of the County Judge of Pulaski County for 
building a bridge across tlie Arkansas River at 
Broadway Street in this city. 335 




THE POWER OF BEAUTY. 

Robby — There's a new boy moved in 
around the corner. 

Father (facetiously) — have you licked him 
yet? 

Robby — Nop. 

Father — Is he too big for you ? 

Robby — N — o ; but he's got a pretty sister. 
— Biirnha}n and Phillips Fashion Review. 



PROFIT BY IT. 

Mrs. Suburban — Oh, Henry ! After passing 
through the long Winter, the ice, the sleet 
and the snow, and then to see this glorious 
Spring sunlight, these green fields, and the 
leafy trees ! • Why, one feels that it actuallj^ 
pays ! 

Henry — Yes ; you bet it pays ! Why, only 
this morning I rented this house to a city 
man for eight hundred dollars for the Sum- 
mer months, and leased a flat in the city for 
two hundred. — Puck. 



BEATING DAME NATURE. 

Drummer — It just beats all. I'm traveling 
for an umbrella house, and every place I've 
struck has been suffering from drought. 

Inventor — -I am traveling with a rainpro- 
ducing apparatus, and every town I've 
struck was knee-deep in mud. 

Drummer — I say, let's travel together. — 
New Y^ork M^eekly. 



A FREE TRANSLATION. 

• ' You saw what a tremendously long 
name the late Queen of Hawaii had, didn't 
you ?" 

' ' No, but I imagine the translation of it is 
pretty short." 

"What is it?" 

" Mud!" — Brooklyn Inspector. 



Mamma (pathetically) — What would my 
little girl do if I should die ? 

Little Flossie — I don't know; I suppose I 
should have to spank myself. 



"Bah!" sneered the Bostonian, "New 
York be hanged. It's a sviperficial town. 
There isn't anything deep about it." 

" Oh, indeed!" snapped the New Yorker. 
" It's quite evidentyou haven't seen themud 
in New York streets." — Harpers. 



" How do you pay these rammers ?" asked 
a wayfarer of a paving contractor. ' ' By the 
day," said the contractor. "You ought to 
pay them by the pound," said the wayfarer, 
"then they'd pound oftener." — Brooklyn 
Life. 

"Mamma," whispered Willie, breathlessly, 
as he followed with eager eyes the extra- 
ordinary gyrations of the gifted tragedian 
who was acting the part of Richard III, 
"What does he mean when he says: 'A 
horse ! A horse ! McKinley for a horse.' " — 
Brooklyn Life. 



Maud — Do you suppose that all the 
creatures that go out betAveen acts go to see 
real, sure-enough men ? 

May — No, indeed; most of the time it's 
only spirits. 



He (bitterly) — Pshaw! all women are 
alike. 

She — Then why in the world do you spend 
so much time trying to find the one you 
want to marry ? 



It is hard to say whether it makes a man 
madder to be awakened by his alarm clock, 
or not to hear it and to oversleep him- 
self. — Puck. 



Daughter — Mamma, the chimney sweep 
on the roof of 'the house has just kissed his 
hand to me. 

Mother — How shocking! Run at once 
into the bedroom and wash yourself. — Der 
Schalk. 336 






FEATURES 



X3S 



THAT IS, FEATURES OF SPECIAL MERIT ARE WHAT 
MAKE ONE BICYCLE STAND PRE-EMINENTLY ABOVE 
ANOTHER, THE xx xx xx xx xx xx xx 



POSSESSES MORE OF THESE 




:: OUR LINE ALSO INCLUDES :: 
THE CRYPTO GEARED ORDINARY 
THE CRYPTO FRONT DRIVING 

SAFETY 
THE KING OF SCORCHERS 
THE QUEEN OF SCORCHERS 



THAN ANY OTHER WRITE 



FOR CATALOGUE. 



The ...miiiiK 

McIntosh=liuntington Co. 

Olholesale Harduiare j>.^^ Bieyeles 

CLEVELAND, O. 
BIGELOW & DOWSE, Boston, Mass. 

SOLE AGENTS FOR THE SUNOL 
IN NEW ENGLAND 



THE KING BRIDGE CO., 



BRIDGES. 



CliEVEIiflllO, OHIO. 



VIADUCTS. 



IRON AND STEEL EYE BARS, GIRDERS AND STRUCTURAL WORK FOR BUILDINGS. 

PLANS. ESTIMATES AND SURVEYS FREE OF COST. 



h 




BRIDGE OVER THE OHIO RIVER, BETWEEN CINCINNATI. O., AND NEWPORT, KYi 

Designed and Built bv THE KING BRIDGE CO. 

^^^^^I■ mr Cantilbver Channel Spam, 520 Pbst. Totai. I<JiifOTH of Bku>ob, iti4 9itmm. 




He J. I. piott Iron WorKs 

84 to 90 Beekman St. 

NEW YORK 

311 and 313 Wabash Ave. 

CHICAGO 



Manufacturers of 



Needle, Shower and 
Shampoo Baths ^ 



^ 



And Other Sanitary 
Appliances 



Copyright, 1892, by The J. L. Mott Iron Works 
in their publications. (Reduced Cut.) 



The Columbian 

Porcelain Lined 
RoII=Rim Bath 

Illustrated Price-List Mailed on Application 



Th n "H f . is to have the various appliances set up open and accessible, and, wherever possible, 

1 ne OeSlderatUm in ^^.jtijout cabinet work, in the Columbian the Enameled Roll-Rim takes the place of a 
Modern Plumbing : wood top or capping, thereoy making it a more desirable article from a sanitary stand 
pnnt, and adding materially to its fine appearance. 




(..opyri^tu, loyi, by Ihk J. L. Mott Iron Works in their publications. (Reduced Cut.) 
Please mention "Good Roads" 



HAVING 




AS A DAILY COM FORT- BRINGING 

EXERCISE 

SHAVING 

CAN be: made the refreshing 

ENJOYABLE PART OF THE 
MORNING TOILET 

The soft, creamy lather produced by 

WILLIAMS' Shaving Stick is so 
cooling, so softening to the beard, so 
comforting to the face that it is an 
actual pleasure to apply it 



WILLIAMS' 



■Williams' Shaving Stick. 

BE SURE YOU GET 

Each stick enclosed in a beautiful case, strong, compact, attractive. Ask your Druggist 

for WILLIAMS'. If he does not have it, do not let him foist some inferior 

substitute upon you, but send 25 cents in stamps to us and receive a 

genuine WILLIAMS' SH AVI NG STICK, by return mail, 

postpaid. Address 



The J. B. WILLIAMS CO., Glastonbury. Ct., U. S. A. 

For over Half a Century makers of Fine Shaving Soaps 



IXIlarwick HXDlbcele 



Send for 

'93 Catalogue 



jTor 1893 

T ^ Will be first in Finish, Style and Construction 

The "Pilgrim" 



^ 



Highest Grade — Cushion or Pneumatic Tired, a 



road machine par excellence :: :: :: :r 

The " Priscilla " 

^ -A gracefully designed, light weight, Cushion oi 
Pneumatic tired wheel for ladies :: :: :; 

The "Ghost" 



* 



Extra light weight, Pneumatic Tired wheel foi 



racing men :: . :: :: :: :: :: 

I Warwick Cycle flanufacturing Co. 

Sprin^ield, JWass,.^^ 



Mectlfta ' ' Oood Roads ' ' 



A NEC^iiSSlTY If YOU AH£ 1 M Ttii 




MOT A NtCiiSSlTY If YOU AH£ in Ttii, HftBiT 

OF RiDinldL A RA^a^,^ ^.ftu^.^-^ H ^^ ^ 1*!^ H^'"^ Vvl^a^G^l^^ BUT if Y^J 

YoJ SHOULD S£Hd for a D£SCKiPT)V£ ciiKCjilLAR w)F THAT 
Luxurious ^IcqessitY Trit ©(^[HJIJ !!»<«>$?<» 



ibO Fifth 8v£, N&wYoKKCirr, 




W. S. BULL 



B. D. HARRIS 



Buffalo Cycle Works 

MANUFACTURERS OF 

High Grade 
Bicycles : : 

The "BUFFALO" Racer 
Scorcher and Light Roadster 



Pneumatic Sulky Wheels a Specialty 



OFFICE AND WORKS 

Kensington, " Erie " R. R. 
Buffalo, N. Y. 



•^^tt 



H. C. MARTIN & CO. 

CONTROLLING ENTIRE OUTPUT FOR '93 

588 Hain Street, - - BUFFALO, N. Y. 




Kii.»la l\h.K£I> 



Model A, IirSTLEK, for 

fast work, actual weight, 
25, 27 and 29 lbs. 

Model B, Roadster for hard 
riders, actual weipht 35 lbs. 

Model C, Roadster for ladies, 
heavy riders, act'l weight, 
35 lbs. 

Model D, Roadster eomb'n 
for general use, actual 
weight. 40 lbs. 

Model E, Special 
FEATHERWEIGHT, 
ladies', actual weight, 26, 
27 and 29 lbs. 

Model F, Tricycle for either 
sex. 

Our experience covers 
©uarteu. of a Century 
devoted entirely to cycle 
eonstruction and tells a tale. 
We commenced with the 
wooden Velocipede in Eng- 
land. Afterwards built and 
used on the roads nearly 
twenty years since, inch 
ordinarys, weighing but 27 
and 28 pounds, naturally 
placing us in a position to 
give to the American riders 
- ■ V in 1884 the first Tandem to 
^. ^Scarry lady and gentleman 
^ and in 1886 the i Irst and 
only practlcnl Lady's 
Bio vole, which was a 
MART weighing only 32 lbs. 

DARTS and LIGHTWEIGHTS are SYNONYMOUS. 

SMITH IJVHEEI. MFG. CO. 

42-50 UV. 67111 St., New York 
921 H Street, ?(. yv. Wasliing:ton, D. C. 

Agents need them to complete any line. Send for lists. 



GOOD ROADS EVERYWHERE 
.. FREE OF COST .. 

to Riders of Featherweight Helical Tube Premiers. These Roads involve 
no legislation, taxes, contracts, malaria or convict labor. If they need repair, 
which is seldom, you can do it yourself. And we will guarantee them to 
enable you to ride a 25-pound Helical Premier anywhere, with safety, ease 
and -speed. Send two 2-cent stamps for s photographs of Helical Tubing 
and Good Roads 

PREMIER CYCLE CO.. NEW YORK 




It may be to the scorchers — 
I prefer to sit upright — 
But that's a good point in 
RAMBLER BICYCLES— 
they're made both ways — 
"sit up or hump over" — suit 
yourself— they're all very com- 
fortable. 

Much valuable cycling information is open to 
you. Send for a "Book of Ramblers"— it is free. 

Cormully & Jeffery Mfg. Co., Chi- 
cago, Boston, Washington, New 
York. 

fi]LjiriJtrir^iJT[iJif|pJt/)pJ[JirilL/1iiJlnpJljir^tJ1 pJtj ^ [>J[j ] n 




GOOD ROADS 




Good Roads are coming sure 

It will take time 

Do not wait for them 

il And suffer annoyance and all the jolts and jars the 
"i flesh is heir to 



See that your wheels C^^^^^--« nP2-^^^ 

: ; : are fitted with SeddOn I IfCS 

The "Red Un" is the best 



® 



A represents the Envelope, which has a bottom (Ai) covering the spoke 

holes in the rim 
B the outer Air Chamber 
C the inner Air Chamber inflated 
D the Valve leading into inner chamber 
E E the Wire Bands 
F the Rim 




gUITABUE FOR ; ; ^^-^^ 

CYCLES 
SULKIES 
BUGGIES 
ROAD WAGONS 
BARRINETTES, Etc. 



t 



C2^t2k.Iogue Pre« 



%/%/%^ 



AMERICAN SEDDONS 
TYRE CO . 

65 Reade Street 
New York 



1 



Heirdwood Floors, 




All kinds of Hz^rtl-woocl Floors, plain and orna- 
mental, thick and thin. Any good carpenter can lay 
them. Brushes and Wax for polishing floors. 
Send for Circular "On Care of Hardwood Floors," Catalogues free. 

WOOD-A\OSAIC CO, 

17 Hibb&H St., Rochester, fi. Y. 

3 1 5 Flftft Av«., flew YopH Ci«J^ 



Ask questions: 

" Is it handsome, genuine, ac- 
curate ? 

Is it modern, with all the im- 
provements? In all sizes and 
styles for everybody ; the new, 
quick=winding Waterbury?" 

Yes-to everything. A promi- 
nent publisher writes : 

''•You made one additional 
customer, and my quick=wind= 
ing Waterbury is a better time- 
keeper than a hundred-dollar 
watch a friend of mine bought 
some months ago." 

Yet the cost ranges from $15 down to 
$4. it lias a jeweled movement, 
and is cased in dainty chatelaines, 
hunting-cases, open-faces, filled 
gold, coin-silver, etc. Every 
jeweler sells it. 



Hardy p hododendrons. 



Of all the shrubs produced by nature none can excel the rare beauty and stateliness of the Rhododen- 
drons, with their rich, glossy foliage and flowers of wondrous brilliancy ; blooming in great clusters 
of scarlet, purple and white, until one is lost in admiration. The finest varieties are the Hardy 
Catawbiense, from which our stock is specially selected. 



H ardy A zaleas. 



Next in rank to the Rhododendrons for beauty and value as decorative shrubs come the Azaleas. In 
the latter part of May and through June, every twig and branch of these beautiful plants is dressed 
with the most brilliant and fragrant flowers shaded in nearly all colors from scarlet to rose pink, white, 
orange and yellow. 



Our Special Offer: 

Six Hardy Rhododendrons, 
Six Hardy Azaleas, 
Twelve Hardy Rhododendrons, 
Twelve Hardy Azaleas, 
Fifty Hardy Rhododendrons, 
Fifty Hardy Azaleas, 

All the above are well set with buds, and will bloom this season. 

Plants packed carefully and delivered 10 any railroad leading- out of Philadelphia. 



$12.00 
$20.00 

$75-oo 



ANDORRA NURSERIES, 



WM. WARNER HARPER. 
-Manager. 



Chestnut Millf J^hiladelphia, I*ci, 

Send for our Special 1893 list of choice Hardy Trees, Shrubs, Plants, Roses and Fruit, 



It's an ArT7^rica n ! ! XHE PROGRES5» 




AND IS THE BEST VIADE WHEEL, KOR THE ><IONBY. 
28 or 30 inch Wheels, Cushion Tire, $90} Pneumatic Tire, $100. 

IfiDIA/iA BICYCLE Co., 

INDIANAPOLIS. !■». 



Ht will give tis pleasure to mall 
70U catalogues and circulars. 




Good Wheels for 

'*■ Good Roads 

Qood Wheels for 

^ Poor Roads 

SUCH ARE THE .... 

Roeid Kiogs eipd Roa.d Queers 

Equally good for all kinds of ROADS and all classes of RIDERS 

STRONG enough for the beginner an d LIGHT enough for the Scorcher 

HIGHEST GRADE wheels money and skill can produce 

FITTED EXCLUSIVELY WITH HOLLOW RIMS AND 

.-. DUNL-OR '93 RNE\J7WTPCTIC TIROS /. 

THE SENSATION OF THE YEAR 



Ask your Agent: : : : 



to show them. 



A. FEATHERSTONE 

Chicago, 111. 




Upon our 250 acres of Nursery we have every class of Trees and Plants that is hardy in a 
Northern Climate; Fruity Ornamental, Nut and Flowering. In our Catalogues, which are the most 
complete and elaborate published by any Nursery establishment in tiie world, all are accurately 
described and offered at one-half the price of tree agents. 

Lovett's Guide to Fruit Culture tells all about fruits, their merits and defects, how 
to plant, prune^ cultivate ; describes the best novelties, etc. Richly illustrated, several colored plates, 
price ID cents. 

Lovett's Manual of Ornamental Trees and Plants is authoritative as well as in- 
teresting and instructive. A model of excellence in printing and illustration. Price, with colored plates, 
15 cents. 

We successfully ship to all parts of the earth. 

J. T. LOVETT CO., Little Silver, N. J. 




I 

♦ 
♦ 
♦ 
♦ 
♦ 
♦ 
♦ 
♦ 
♦ 




AS 
FINE 
AS CAN 
BE BaiLt 



Ames & Frost Company ♦ 

302-304 Wabash Ave. T 
Chicago it 



NOT AMERICA'S ROADS, ALTHOUGH 



THEY SHOULD BE, BUT 







BICYCLES ^ 

MOST COMPLETE AND INTERESTING BICYCLE . . . 
CATALOGUE PUBLISHED— FREE UPON APPLICATION 



([lestern (Qheel (QoFks. 



Factory : ..^ 

Wells, Scbill^r, Sigel ao^ Franklin Str^^ts, 

CHICAGO, ILL., U. S. A- 




® 



f\2iii? Office ; 



250,000 SQUARE FEET FLOOR SPACE DEVOTED 
. . TO THE MANUFACTURE OF THE MOST 
. . POPULAR AND MOST COMPLETE LINE 
. . OF SAFETY BICYCLES IN AMERICA. 



® 



501 Wells Street, Cbiceigo. 

Eastern AgcDt^: 

R. L. Qo\^n)^,r) Co.,-— ^ 

35 B/VRCUAY 5TREET, fiEW YORK. 





Ope Huijdrcd Dollars 

In Gold to be Paid in Prizes eof4 Photooraipms 
OE Bad RoA-DS. 



To stimulate the collection of Thotographs to be used in showing 

the need of improved roads in the United States, I offer 

three pri:{es, aggregating $ioo in gold, as follows : 

1. One prize of $50 (gold) for the best collection of not less than three 

photographs. 

2. One prize of $30 (gold) for the second best collection of not less 

than three photographs. 

3. One prize of $20 (gold) for the third best collection of not less 

than three photographs. 



T 



HIS OFFER IS MADE SUBJECT TO THE FOLLOWING CONDITIONS AND 
SUGGESTIONS WHICH SHOULD BE OBSERVED: :: :: :: :: 



All photographs must be accompanied by the negatives, unless the latter have 
been destroyed. 

Competition will close on the first day of July, 1893, and all photographs must be 
submitted on or before that date. 

Photographs must be confined to such subjects as most strongly illustrate the un- 
fitness of the present public roads (especially the common "dirt" roads) used as public 
highways. 

To aid you by a suggestion, I would recommend the following as good subjects for 
competitive pictures : 

Photographs showing the common spectacle of the farmer's team and wagon, nub- 
deep and knee-deep in the muddy road. . . 

Photographs showing rough, rutty and muddy roads in their worst condition. 

"Stuck in the mud "photographs, showing the farmer or merchant with his loaded 
wagon vainly trying to drive his patient team and load out of the inevitable mud hole. 

Photographs showing the everyday breakdown caused by rough or muddy roads 
or steep grades. 

Photographs showing smooth, hard-surfaced roads and (if possible) teams hauling 
loads over the same. r t, j 

And other pictures illustrating the goodness of good roads and the badness of bad 
roads. Your opportunities and observation will suggest the proper thing in this line. 

Each photograph must be accompanied by a full statement of particulars, giving 
date, location, etc., by which the picture may be identified. Blanks for this purpose 
will be supplied on application. . . 

All photographs and negatives submitted must be sent marked with a fictitious 
name or pseudonym, by which the competitor is to be known until the date of award. 
Each competitor must also send a sealed envelope containing his or her real name and 
address, and marked upon the outside with the fictitious name of the competitor.^ 

All photographs and negatives submitted in this competition are to remain the 
permanent property of the League of American Wheelmen. At least ten persons must 
compete in order to insure the reward here offered. - , • 

In deciding upon the respective merits of the work submitted, the following points 
will be considered. 

1. The subject of the photograph and its force in illustrating the necessity for 
better roads. 

2. Clearness and general excellence of photographic work. 

3. Location (giving preference to those views which show bad roads in important 
counties, suburbs of large towns, etc.) 

4. Size of photograph. The question of size will be considered least and last of all. 
Any competitor may send more than three photographs if desired. The committee 
will select the three best of those submitted by each competitor. 

The prizes will be awarded before July 15, 1893, by a committee to be selected \>y 
the Executive Committee of the League of American Wheelmen. All communi- 
cations will be in every respect confidentially treated, and further information will be 
furnished on application to the undersigned, to whom all photographs and negative* 
should be sent. 

ISAAC B. POTTER, manao«. 

POTTER BUILDING, NEW YORK C8TW. 



^ w???wmy?)?? ? n? ?? ww^ww ^^ 




^^iw mrKG\/tnmrs 





OVERMAN WHEEL CO. 

NEW YORK WASHINGTON DENVER SAN FRANCISCO 



r^uuuuouuiuuuuuiuuuis^ 






FEATURES 



iTv 



THAT IS, FEATURES 


OF SPECIAL MERIT ARE WHAT 


MAKE ONE BICYCLE 


STAND PRE-EMINENTLY ABOVE 


ANOTHER THE xx 


XX XX XX XX XX XX 




POSSESSES MORE OF THESE 



:: OUR LINE ALSO INCLUDES " 

THE CRYPTO GEARED ORDINARY 
THE CRYPTO FRONT DRIVING 

SAFETY 
THE KING OF SCORCHERS 
THE QUEEN OF SCORCHERS 



THAN ANY OTHER WRITE 
FOR CATALOGUE. xx xx 

The ...iiiiiiiiu 

McIntosh= Huntington Co. 

Wholesale Hai'dmai^e p.-^ Bieyeles 

CLEVELAND, O. 
BIGELOW & DOWSE, Boston, Mass. 

SOLE AGENTS FOR THE SUNOL 
IN NEW ENGLAND 



THE KING BRIDGE CO., 



BRIDGES. 



CliEVEIiflJlD, OHIO. 



VIADUCTS. 



IRON AND STEEL EYE BARS, GIRDERS AND STRUCTURAL WORK FOR BUILDINGS. 

PLANS. ESTIMATE? AND SURVEYS FREE OF COST. 



I 




BRIDGE OVER THE OHIO RIVER, BETWEEN CINCINNATI, O., AND NEWPORT, KYj 

Designed and Built by THE KING BRIDGE CO. 

Length ©f Cantilever Channel Span, 520 Feet. Total I<ength of Brjdge, 2016 Fubt, 




*ILENTLY and swiftly it moves like a 
thought. Mounted upon the Tourist, 
time and space are annihilated, and you go where you will 
with a wish. It actually has winged feet, for with the 
Bidwell Constrictive Tire you can literally ride upon air. 
For this reason you need a 

Bidwell Ball=Bearing Cyclometer 

to convince you how far you have ridden ; because fatigue 
never attacks a Tourist rider— twenty miles are as easy as 
one. Write to us for our pamphlet on 

-AIR: ITS HARD AND SOFT SIDE" 



I 
I 



i 



-•-^-A- 



Geo. R. Bidwell Cycle Co. 

308=310 West 5 9th St ree t, N. Y. 



Factory, Colts' W est Ar mory, Hartford, Conn. 
Tire Factory, 49 and .siWest 66t h Stre et 



Sh 



«.«.... ^ AS A DAILY COMFORT-BRINGING 
A V I N G exerc.se 

SHAVING 

CAN BE MADE THE REFRESHING 
ENJOYABLE PART OF THE 
MORNING TOILET 

The soft, creamy lather produced by 

WILLIAMS' Shaving Stick is so 
cooling, so softening to the beard, so 
comforting to the face that it is an 
actual pleasure to apply it. 




Williams' Shaving Stick. 

BE SURE YOU GET 



WILLIAMS' 



Each stick enclosed in a beautiful case, strong, compact, attractive. Ask your Druggist 

for WILLIAMS' If he does not have it, do not let him foist some inferior 

substitute upon you, but send 25 cents in stamps to us and receive a 

genuine WILLIAMS' SHAVING STICK, by return mail, 

postpaid. Address 

The J. B. WILLIAMS CO., Glastonbury. Ct., U. S. A. 

For over Half a Century makers of Fine Shaving Soaps 



€i 



Built to Ride 



}f 



««•••- 



GIVES YOU A FULL DESCRIPTION OP THB 




<l 



leilo Bicycle 60. 



TOLEDO. OHIO. 



€i 



Dzvuptlcss'* 




FOR 1893 



5TANDS- 



QOOD ROADS 

OR. . . 

BAD ONES 



® 



WEIGHTS OF ROAD MACHINES, 29, 33, 35 AND 40 POUNDS 



HIGHEST GRADE THROUGHOUT 




iA£lI-SON, TV^VERS Sd OO. 



JBSKKERS OP 



L-IBERTV OVOL-ES 



55 Liberty Street, 



NEW YORK 



I THE 

I REMINGTON 



THREE PATTERNS FOR '93 



LIGHT ROADSTER 

(actual WEIGHT 32 LBS.) 

ROADSTER 

(44 LBS.) 

LADIES' WHEEL 

(42 LBS.) 



l>ICIOE^S ^1^0.00 



MATERIAL BEST OBTAINABLE = WORKMANSHIP UNSURPASSED 

Jlannesmann Tubing, Warcuiek ]^o\loux Hinis 

and a variety of the best Pneumatic Tires to select from 
SEND FOR CATALOGUE 

Remington Arms Company 

315 BROADWAY - - NEW YORK 

FACTORY AT ILION, N. Y. 



. ^ UPP05E TOQl DIb 



I 



ride a bicycle last 
— season without wear- 
^^ ' ing a uniform are 
you going to this ? We carry a large line of bicycle suits to which 
we invite your attention 

Black and Grey Jersey Bicycle Suits, $ lo oo 

Blue Black and Grey Jersey Bicycle Suits, 

Super weight, 12 oo 

Brown and Grey Corduroy Norfolk Jacket vSuits, . . 1 1 00 

Grey Mottled English Cordur'>y Suits, 10 00 

Black Cheviot Norfolk Jacket Suits, 10 00 

Blue and Black Flannel Jacket Suits, Fine quality, . . 10 00 

Oxford Mix Basket Cheviot Norfolk Jacket Suits, . . 10 00 

Our Bicycle and Athletic Catalogue will be issued about April ist. 
Write or call for one 

A. R/ITnOND 6^ C2. Nassau i- 

* - nEN'5 ^ * Fulton Streets 

OUTFITTERS New York 



XlXIlarw^ich XlXIlbeele sen... 

'93 Catalogue 

for 1893 

® Will be first in Finish, Style and Construction 

The " Pilgrim " 

^ Highest Grade — Cushion or Pneumatic Tired, a 
road machine par excellence :: :: :: :: 

The " Priscilla " 

^ A gracefully designed, light weight, Cushion or 
Pneumatic tired wheel for ladies :: :: :: 

The "Ghost" 

■ ^ Extra light weight. Pneumatic Tired wheel for 
racing men :: :: :: :: :: :: :: 

Warwick Cycle flanufacturing Co. 

Mention -Qood Roads" SpHngfield, MHSS ^ 



Cdt^oaght Iron Bridge Co. 



CKNTON, OHIO. 




• • B^st Hisibvay Bridges. • • 



PLANS AND ESTIMATES FREE. 



WRITE FOR ILLUSTRATED CATALOQUE. 



I No Medicine 



will remedy that aching 
void in your pocket when 
you find out you have not 
received full value for 
your money . ■ . ' . ' . ' . 



•'%%^%%%/%%%'%^^%%'%^« 




•^^%^%^* Credenda Pacer 

■ 



We ask nothing 
from you 

Except in exchange for full value 
received . " . ' . " . ' . ' . * . ' . 

Credenda Bicycles are 



Good as GOLD, and sell for ^^ 1 1 5.00 

^jip Catalogue Free 




'V^* 



A. Q. Spalding & Bros. 



CHICAGO 



NEW YORK 



PHILADELPHIA 



The HflHHisBOHG Doable Engine Koad Holler 'Mf;'^ 



Not only a Roller but a ROAD HACHINE 



and 20 

Weight 




Not How Cheap, but How Good. Now In ase in 

nearly one hundred cities am towne in United States. 
Send for Illustrated Catalogue. Manufactured by 

HARRISBUR& FOUNDRY & MACHINE WORKS, 

HARRISBURG, PA. 



8ELZING A.QENTS. 

W. R. FLEMING & CO.,168 Fulton St. and 203 Brcadway, 

Mair & Express Building, New York. 
MR. F. E. BAILEY, Builders' Exchange, Philadelphia, Pi. 



New Jersey Trap Rock Company 

BROKEN STONE •.• .-. •. 



FOR 



MACADAM AND TELFORD ROADS 

:: :: CONCRETE, SCREENINGS, Etc. :: :: 

Pronounced by Engineers the FINEST MATERIAL in the "World 
for ROAD MAKING 

Stands crushing test of 23,000 lbs. per cubic inch 

Quarry, Snake Hill, Seacaucus Station, D. L. & W. R. R. 
Office, No. I Montgomery Street, Jersey City 



Opposite Pennsylvania R. R. Station 



Telephone, 284 Jersey City 



Farmers, Planters, Fruit. Growers, 

GABDEKEBS, FLORISTS I 
FORTUNE 

AWAITS YOU 




STUDEBAKER "LITTLE GEM" 

One Horse Farm, Garden, Flower-Bed and Lami Sprinkler 
(Capacity 150 Gallons, 4-inch tires). Insures you a luxury of 
Srowth. of Crops never before dreamed of. Your arch enemy, 

DROUTH, COMPLETELY CONQUERED. 
The hotter the season the more abundant the crop. Nothing 
Uke It for sprinkling private roadways, for the distribution 
of liquid manure— it will not clog— or for sprinkling liquids 
for poisoning Insects. 

Write at once, mentioning this paper, for illustrated cata- 
iogrue and price list, to 

STUDEBAKER BROS. MFG CO., South Bend, Ind. 

(The Largest Vehicle Makers in the World.) 



S TUDEB AKER 

STREET, PARK A3SD TRACK 

S PRINKLERS 

Hare been adopted in nearly all the Leading CitiM 

and Towns in tlie United States, because they are 
BUILT TO STAND THE HARDEST USAGE. EASl 
TO OPEIiATE. SIMPLE TO UNDERSTAND. 
THOROUGH IN EXECUTION. 



Illustrated Catalogue upon application to 

STUDEBAKER BROS. MFG. CO. 

SOUTH BEND, INDo 




Mention GOOD ROADS, 







The FaFFel Foundry and IWaehine Go.,flnsonia,GoDD 

THE FARREL & MARSDEN CRUSHER, the standard machine for road metal; with 
or without screen, mounted or unmounted; ten sizes. Write for catalogue 
and list of cities, towns, contractors and individuals using this machine. 

8. C. NIGHTINGALE & CHILDS, 134 Pearl St., Boston, 

Kaw Kn|;l»ad Agents for the Farrel Si Marsden Stene Crasher^ and Contractors for 

Complete Macadam Road Building Plants. 

8TOR/aGE ems Ai*«D ELEVATORS FOR CRUSHED STONE. 

•TRCET SPRBNKLING WAGONS AND SWEEPERS, ROCK DRILLS. AG. 

HORSE AND STEAM ROAD ROLLERS. ENGINES AND BOILERS. 

Cmni>«tent Engineer furnished for locating and advising. Send for Cataloirite. 



If you want good dirt roads you need an AUSTIN STEEL REVERSIBLE ROAD MACHINE, It is made of better material, in 

a better manner 
and under more 
valuable patents 
than any other 
machine on the 
earth; conse- 
quently it will 
do more work 
with less power 
and will last 
longer than any 
other machine. 
It is not the 
cheapest ma- 
chine in first 
cost, as other 
machines can be 
bought for less 
money, but when 
the amount of 
work done, the 
length of time 
it will last and 

the small cost for repairs are considered, it is the cheapest machine any town can bu)'. 

If you want good stone roads you need a CHICAGO ROCK A:KD ORE^ BRHAKIER. 





A FEW POINTS IN FAVOR OF THE CHICAGO BREAKER. 1st— SIMPLICITY. Any Ordinary Laborer can manage 
it. 2d— It breaks rock into more UNIFORM SIZES WITH LESS DUST. 3d— GREAT ECONOMY IN POWER; 
say, TWO-THIRDS LESS THAN OTHERS. 4th.— ECONOMY IN PRICE, where cost of power is considered. 
5th— It is the ONLY BREAKER that can be OPERATED BY A COMMON HORSE POWER. 6lh— IT IS MORE 
DURABLE, AND COSTS 50 PER CENT. LESS FOR REPAIRS. Vth— There are no Gear Wheels or Pinions in 
this machine to break. 

If you want clean, paved streets you need an AUSTIN STKEL, STREET SWEEPER. 

Is a strong and serviceable 
machine, made of steel through- 
out, with heavy steel axles, and 
wheels especially adapted for 
rough city usage. It requires 
but two horses and a driver. 
Ordinary streets, twenty-eight 
feet between curbs, are cleaned 
in two rounds, and the dirt 
placed at the curb convenient 
for loading into wagons for re- 
moval. One machine will read- 
ily clean three miles of such 
streets after midnight. Send 
for special Street Sweeper Cata- 
logue. 

Also ROAD ROLLERS. GARBAGE CARTS, DUMP WAGONS, SCRAPERS, Etc. 




ma 



■ 



m 



Md 



wm 
mm 






I take pleasure in recommending your road machines. The two Steel Champion 
Reversible Road Machines purchased from you have done good work, both on the suburban 
streets and making nev^' roads in the parks. In construction it is very simple and not 
liable to get out of order, thereby requiring very little repairs. I believe it to be the 
most complete machine on the market for doing the kind of work above 
mentioned. 

Very respectfully, 

E. m:. bigelow, 

Cliie/, Deparhh.eiii of Public IVorhs, Pittsburgh, Pa. 



What it has done for others it will do for you. Our Catalogue tells all about it. 

ilmepiean I|oad IVIaehine Go. 



KENNETT SQUARE, PA. 



wm\ 



m 




mm 



i'ail^'yilkS/-a>,.'^aiS>^'^ili^^il^^-rilg-l'filL'---'^il^^^ 



J.H^Iiilii^.iliil' 






niE M^dT COMPLETE ENORAVIN& E,3TABLLbHMEMT IN THE COUNTRY 

JT WILL PAY YOU TO 
COMMUNICATE WITH Oi 
TO OET PRlCt^J AND 
5PEC1MEN^ op OUR 
WORK 




MENTION _ _ 



^MILWAUKEE 

/ MITCHELLS CHAM BtR 

op CMMERCE- B'LDOJ*. 

(hlCAO^ 

^^^ -7ft «;TA-rp:. «.T 



76 6TATE ^U 




/N>-iii*^,;:(o)ti'^ 



BELLEFONTAINE, O. D ' 

Highways and Municipal Work, Plans, Estimates, 
Specifications. Superintendence. CorresDot)denc« 
invited 



F. A. DUNHAVAi Civil Eo2ii7^«?r 

A.ND Expert in Road and Street Improvements. 

Engineer in Charge of the following Works : 
The Famous Union Co., N. J., Road System ; Street 
Improvements, Hasbrouck Heights, N. J.; Street 
Paving and Sewerage, Sewickley, Pa.; Street 
Improvements, Olean, N. Y. Is City Engineer of 
Plainfield, N. J , and Dunkirk, N. Y. Correspondence 
Solicited. Main Office, No. 7 Parlt Ave., Plainfield, N. J. 



WILLIAM S. BACOT, C. E., Mem. Am. Soc. C. E. 
Engineer of County Roads 

RICHMOND CO., Staten Island, N. Y. 

SPECiAiTrES: "Water-Works, Sewerage, Improvements of Roads 

Offices: 

145 BROADWAY, NEW YORK, and STAPLETON, S. I. 



2?^ o ^^ i^ ^ x> ^k IvE;^ 

HOME FOR CHRONIC DISEASES 

40 Minutes out; Harlem R. R. 

NATURE— REST— CURE. Home treatment for a 

few selected cases the year round. Terms, 

|25.00 per week and upward. 

Address, Dp. GEO. D. ClilpT 



THE FLORENCE' 



9 to 12 A. M. 



109 East 18th Street, New York 



FOREIGN Also AMEKICAN CYCLING PAPERS, 
PERIODICALS, HANI> BOOKS AND ROAD BOOKB 
FOR SALE. Send for List. 

FLETCHER & CO., 48 E. Tan Buren St., CUcago. 




•^REB - 



CROSS 






;II.U.1ETTS-»»C0.- 




A Solution for Repairinpr Cuts and Punctures in UtM"-!' ' 
Pneumatic Tires Will unite perfectly any two pieces of 
Rubber. For Sale by all Dealers or a largre tube by maU 26 
Cents. None frenuine unless it contains our Trade Mai-k, Red 
Cross. Send for CatalORue of Red Cross Handy Articles. 

Manufactured by A. U. BETTS & CO., Toledo, Ohjo. 



Cattaraugus • Bridge • Ctiorks 

JOHN N. OSTROTU^. O. E., Rroprietoh 
Highway Bridges and Foundations, Roof East t^andolpfcl, fi, V. 

I Trusses, Columns and Beams for Buildings. :: 

OLD BRIDGES EXAMINED AND REPAIRED. 
HALF SECTION*PUATE GIRDR BRIDGE*ROCK ASPHALT AND STEEL FLOOR* 



> 




Olamn Seharf Asphalt Paving Go. 

Genuine Trinidad Asphalt Pavements 



For Streets, Sidewalks, Driveways 



The Standard Pavement for . 

CHEAPNESS . . 

HEALTH . . . 
|F DURABILITY . . 
* SMOOTHNESS and 

SAFETY . . . 



IT ENHANCES THE VALUE OF PROPERTY MORE 
THAN ANY OTHER PAVEMENT 



^y Principa^l Office : 

' SI Fultoi? St., riew YorK 

SEND FOR CIRCULARS AND ESTIMATES. MENTION "gOOD ROADS" 



TDe Sicilian flsptialt Pavino Go. 

♦^^^'^/^■^/^ CONTRACTORS FOR 



SICILIAN AND GERMAN ROCK 
ASPHALT STREET PAVEMENTS 



TRINIDAD " LAKE" ASPHALT 
STREET PAVEMENTS 



LIMMER ROCK ASPHALT 
FLOORS, PAVEMENTS AND ROOFS 

FOR BREWERIES, ICE HOUSES, 
WAREHOUSES, CELLARS, STABLES, 
YARDS, SIDEWALKS, ETC. 



ZINSSER'S PATENT INSULA- 
TION FOR WALLS OF ICE 
HOUSES, ETC. 



9^^%^^^^^/^ DEALERS IN 



SICILIAN AND GERMAN ROCK ASPHALTS FOR 
STREET PAVEMENTS 



SICILIAN, LIMMER AND VORWOHLE ROCK 
ASPHALT MASTIC 



CRUDE AND REFINED TRINIDAD ASPHALT 



For Estimates and full information apply to 

Tie Siclliaii AspMlt PaYing Co., Times Building J, Y. 



Be Siamiarii Pavemem ot Hmenca 

Tbe Beirber .. 
Aspb^^lt ;; 

Pe^vipg Co. 

has now laid nearly 6,000,000 square 
yards of genuine Trinidad Asphalt pave- 
ment in S3 cities of the United States 
Wherever the pavement has been laid it 
has come to stay, and has never been dis- 
placed in favor of any other material. It is 
smooth, durable, clean, noiseless and safe. 



'^^^fe 


GENERAL OFFICES 


^^^p 


^ LE DROIT BUILDING 


^r^^-^ 


^^ WASHINGTON, D. C. 


f THE Y 


^n 


standarq\ 


l^ffl WASHINGTON BUILDING 


PAVEMENT 


^H 1 BROADWAY 
^W NEW York, N. Y. 


lAMERICA./ 

riirl 


^S Nearly 6,000,000 Sq. Yds. or 
^ 435 lineal miles in use and 
^ laid by this Company 



G. L. BOS WORTH & CO. 

AGENTS FOR . . . 

Cornpressecl ^sphz^It 

® Pzivipg BlocKs 

For Streets * 

NOTHING BETTER MADE, SANITARY, NOISELESS, THE 
EASIEST STREET TO KEEP CLEAN, CAN BE TAKEN 
UP AND RELAID AT VERY LITTLE EXPENSE. 
EVERY CITY CAN HAVE ITS OWN LABORERS PUT 
THEM DOWN. SEND FOR PRICES TO . . . 

G. L. Bo^vortb & Co. 
HoIyoHe, A*\ziss. 



PATENTS. 

SPECIALTIES for expert work: Hetallurgical 
Inventions and Interference Causes. 

We report without charge whether your in= 
vention is patentable. Send for our new book, 
"Patent Practice." 

CHAMPION & CHAMPION, 

Pacific Building, Washington, D. C. 



Save your machine by oiling it properly with the best oil can 
in the world. No leakage. Only a small quantity of oil at a 
stroke. Hanrisomely nickel-plated. Price, 25c. each. 




OUSHMAN & DENISON, 175 Ninth Avenue, New York. 



KING OF TH ^ROAD MAKERS 




ROCK BREAKER 

FOR. MACAnAm 

properly curbed. No gear wheel to break. 
Product 10 to 200 tons per day, according to 
size. Over lono in use. For coarse or fine 
crushing^. Does the work of any other 
breaker with ', the power and '.j the ex- 
pense for keeping in repair. Mounted on 
iron trucks. Only manutacturers. Corres- 
pondence solicited. Mention this paper. 

TOTTEN k HOGG FODNDBY CO. 

^fe Manufacturers of ROLLING MILL MACHINERY 

PITTSBURGH, PA. 



Gates Rock Breaker 




MACADAM IS THE BEST AND CHEAPEST ROAD METAL 
IT IS PRODUCED AT LOWEST COST IN THE 

GATES BREAKER 



Address for Catalogues and Plans 



Gates Iron Works 



136 Liberty St. 

NEW YORK 



237 Franklin St. 
BOSTON 



50 S. Clinton St., Chicago, U. S. A. 




rs 



AND 
GENERALLY, USE 

ANTI- 
STIFF 

TO STRENGTHEN THE 
MUSCLES 

It has a particularly Warm- 
ing. Comforting and Stim- 
ulating effect on all Weak 
or Stiff Muscles, quick in 
action, clean and pleasant 
in use. 

For Sale by Druggists and 
Dealers in Sporting Goods 

E. FOUGEBB & CO., sole Hoents 

26=30 N. William St., N. Y. 



PEST Cycle EN/inELS ^ - 

F. O. PIERCE & CO. 



HRE JHHDE BY 



If your local DEALER 
cannot supply them 
SEND direct for 
SAMPLE CARD-^.* 



170 Fulton Street, New York 

DRV QUICKUV inilTH K BRIL-I-IKNT CLOSS ■'■ i- ■''■ 



t 
t 

t 

i/%%/%/%/%' 



PRICES 



Black, - ■ 
Kiiby - - 
Dark Blue, 

" Green, 
Yellow, - - 



.35 



I 



,40 



Pale Blue, 
" Green, 
White, - - 
Cream, - - 
Pink, - - 



(. .50 



By Mail 
5 Cents Additional 
EASY TO APPLY j 



'%/%.'^^%^%%%%'V%'*'V%'%^^^%%^^%^%^'%^'%%%'V^'%^ 



Raleigh Cycles 




Are Ridden by Champions the World Over 
.-. Send for Catalogue .-. 



: THEY ARE THE MOST ELEGANT 

: THEY ARE THE MOST DURABLE 

: THEY ARE THE FINEST FINISHED 

: THEY ARE THE BEST DESIGNED 

: THEY ARE SCIENTIFICALLY CONSTRUCTED 

: THEY ARE THE HIGHEST GRADE 

: THEY ARE THE HIGHEST PRICED 



THE 



Raleigh Cycle Co. 



LIMITED 



Bank #' Greenwich Streets, New York 



* 
® 
® 
® 
^ 
* 
^ 
* 
* 
^ 



* 

« 
* 



* 

® 

® 
® 



Tlie Cievelanil Ppnalic Tire 

TRANSVERSE THREADS on the TREAD 
The ONLY TIRE constructed on STRICTLY SCIENTIFIC PRINCIPLES 



Fitted to the .-. •.• 

Cleveland No. 3 



our general utility wheel Q 

A 

5 
Cleveland No. 5 



Cleveland No. 4 

Light Roadster, Weight 30 lbs 



Ladies' wheel 

Used with CLEVELAND RIM, which 
permits permanent repairs in less 
than five minutes .•. •.• .•. •.• 




DUST PROOF BURWELL BEARINGS 
DETACHABLE MUD GUARDS 
BUTT-ENDED SPOKES 



farther than any other tire 

SEND FOR CATALOGUE 

H. fl. Loziei & Go. 






^ 

® 



COMMON SENSE BICYCLES. 




STRICTLY HIGH GRA.DE. 

Diamond op Drop Frames. Wheels of Hiekory Wood. 

Frames of Cold Drawn Steel Tubing, with lap joints. 
Famous steel roller bearings. The easiest running 
and cleanest bearing in the world. 



Price, 1 1-4 Cushion Tire, 
Price, 1 1-2 Cushion Tire, 
Price, 1 3-4r Pneumatic Tire, 



$ 95.00 
100.00 
110.00 



(Mention "Good Roads.") 



Send for calalogue, mentioning this paper, and have 
your questions answered. 

The Common Sense Bicycle Mfg. COo 

1219 CALLOWHILL STREET, PHILADELPHIA, PA. 



:: I^IOlirOXvE^^ s: 



Agents 
Wanieil 




Largest Stock in America 
SYLPHS, RUDGES 
OVERLANDS and 
WESTERN WHEEL 
WORKS' CYCLES 

Offer unequalled values and variety to Dealers and 
Wheelmen. All sizes and styles of wheels in stock 
and 20 to 50 per cent, saved on many patterns. Easy 
payments if desired. No matter what you want in 
the cvcle line it will pay you to write to us. Our 
Superior Inducements bring us orders from every- 
where. Send for catalogue and bargain list free. 

BOOSE, pzeBD & CO., 177 G Street, Peoria, 111. 

Manufacturers, Importers and Jobbers 



Stone Cruslier, Etc, 
CHEAP 



9x12 Dodge Crusher, (weight 8,000 lbs.) also 6 
horse portable (locomotive) Boiler and Engine, 
all in good working condition. The lot $150 
if purchased at once. 

BIGELOW, 45 »ey Street, N.Y. 




REGISTERED 

Model A, HrSTl-ER, for 

fast work, actual weight, 

25, 2T and 29 lbs. 
Model B, Roadster for hard 

riders, actual weigrht 35 lbs. 
Model C, Roadster for ladies, 

heavy riders, act'l weight, 

35 lbs. 
Model D, Roadster comb'n 

for general use, actual 

weight, 40 lbs. 
Model E, Special 

FEATHEK WEIGHT. 

ladies', actual weight, 25, 

27 and 29 lbs. 
Model F, Tricycle for either 

sex. 

Our experience coTers 
©uarter of a Ccntur^s 
devoted entirely to cycle 
eon.struction and tells a tale. 
We commenced with the 
wooden Velocipede in Eng- 
land. Afterwards built and 
used on the roads nearly 
twenty years since, inch 
ordinarys, weighing but 27 
and 28 pounds, natiiraUy 
placing us in a position to 
give to the American riders 
"T ■ V in 3884 the first Tandem to 
~;^s^^S carry lady and gentleman 
^ and in 1886 the 1 irst and 
only pr actloa 1 Lady's 
Bicycle, which was a 
DART weighing only 32 lbs. 

DARTS and LIGHTWEIGHTS are SYNONYMOUS. 

SMITH l^HEEE MFG. CO. 

42-50 ^W. 67th St., New York 
921 H Street, 3S. UV. "Wasliingrtoii, ». C. 

Agents need them to complete any line. Send for Usts. 




GENDRON CYCLES IRfi 



THE DIAMOND <S> CYCLE WRENCH 




Price, eacli, Blued, $ .75 
" Nickeled, l.OO 

LIGHTEST! NEATEST! STRONGEST I 

AND COMBINED "WITH IT 

A PERFE CT SPOK E GRIP! 

riade by GENDRON IRON WHEEL CO. 
Toledo. Chicago. New York. St. Louis. 

FOR SALE BY AXL LEADING CYCLE DEALERS. 




PRICE WITH IDEAL 
PNEUMATIC TIRES, 



$150 




W. S. BULL 



B. O. HARRIS 



Buffalo Cycle Works 

MANUFACTURERS OF 

High Gi^ade 
Bicycles : : 

The "BUFFALO" Racer 
Scorcher and Light Roadster 



Pneumatic Sulky Wheels a Specialty 



OFFICE AND WORKS 

Kensington, " Erie " R. R. 
Buffalo, N. Y. 



•%^« 



H. C. MARTIN & CO. 

CONTROLLING ENTIRE OUTPUT FOR '93 



588 riain Street, 



BUFFALO, N. Y. 



'PpmaiiG Bicycle '^SuiKyWiieeis 

WITH BALL BEARINGS 

We make nothing: 
but Wheels. Over 5 
years' experience. 

N. Y. Protection 
Strip Pneumatic 
Tires with rims to 
match, supplied to 
the trade. 

Write us for what 
you want." 




.e.WESTOH&CO. 

Jamesville, N. Y. 



EAR SYRACUSE 



Delegaites 



Coming to Chicago should 
not forget that the :: :: 



J^ONONfRQUTt 



I 



WLoutsviiiE. NEW Albany KCHICA60 hy.co.CC o 

« ' - v • • 

. IS . , 

THE SHORT LINE 

FROM 

Louisville 

and all points South :: :: :. 



To Cbice^go 



PuUrpZit) Sleeper?, 

Cb^ir Cars . . . 

a,i7<l Dining Ca^rs . . . 

017 all Trains. . . 

For full information address 

FRANK J. REED, J AS. BARKER, 

C. p. A., 232 Clark St., G. P. A., Monon Block, 
CHICAGO. 




1893 MODEL 

New /^ail 

Strziigbt Dia.njon<I PrArpc 
|fj Strictly Higb Grzi«Ie 
^ AH Drop Porgings 

M. & W. Style Pneumatics, - - $125.00 
Ounlop Detachable " ... 135.00 

No Finer Wheel Made. Send for Catalogue 



MANUFACTURERS 



Wrr). Re2vd Or Sops 

107 WasFjingtoij Street 

-^— BOSTON 



THE 




BICYCLK 



'• LIGHT, STRONG. DURABLE, 
FAST, STEADY AND SAFE. 



ALL STEEL AND HICKORY. 
IMPROVED BALL BEARINGS. 
THE BEST CHAIN ADJUSTMENT. 
VELVET HANDLE BAR. 
SELF OILING CHAIN. 
THE ONLY ELASTIC FORKS. 
A WHEEL GUARD THAT CAN'T RATTLE. 
A SPRING TEMPERED BRAKE LEVLR. 
OUR CATALOGUE TELLS THE WHOLE STORY. 



AGENTS WANTED. 



Elliott Hiekopy Gyels Go 



NEWTON. MASS. 



A\oo2ircb Bicycles 

Are the BEST for all kinds of Roads. 
FOUR. SXYI.ES AI,I. LEADERS 




Every part a scientific production from the finest 
material obtainable. We are headquarters for all 
Cycle accessories. Send for our 1893 Catalogue. 
Reliable agents wanted. 

A\on2vrcb Cycle Co. 

42,44,46,48,50 & 52 ti. Ha.l5te«a St. 

CHICAGO 




Tb« Sterling Specizil 
RozicI Rzicer 
TrzicK Wb^^l 

V«lgbt 27 Ibj. 



Jterlipsf Bicycles 

THE HIGHEST GRADE ONL-Y 

Vgyluablg Points of Aclv2vnt2v$g 

SEJHD FOR CATALOGUE 

DE^vSr' STOKE5 n^G- CO. 

A\I1_UWAUKEE /^zipufActurers 

OFFICE AND SALESROOM . . . 

293 W^b^st) Avenue 

CHICAGO 



Ha^rdwood Floors, 

Eqil-wooil IHosaic, 

Parpetrg, . . . 

Wood Carpet, . . 

BnisHes, 

wax. 




All kinds of Hz^r<l'WOo4 Floors, plain and orna- 
mental, thick and thin. Any good carpenter can lay 
them. Brushes and Wax for polishing floors. 
Send for Circular "On Care of Hardwood Floors." Catalogues free. 

WOOD-A\OSAIC CO. 

17 Hibba.r<l St., Rocbejtcr, n. Y. 

? 1 5 Piftb Av«., Wcw YorH City. 



An. 
Every=day Watch 

Runs a good many risks — if it runs 
at all — and it ought not to cost too 
much. An accurate low-priced watch 
for every day soon pays for itself by 
saving all risks on a more expensive 
one. 

Accurate time is secured by the 
jewelled bearings and remarkably close 
and uniform adjustment of the new 
quick=winding Waterbury Watch. It 
is stem-winding, stem- setting, and 
cased in coin-silver or 14-carat (filled) 
gold. Warranted for fifteen years. 

All jewellers keep the quick=winding 

Waterburv, in various styles. :; :: : : 
$4 to $15. :: :: :: ' 

Dainty Chatelaine Watches. 
Hunting=case or 
Open=face Cents' Watches. 
A Boy's \ atch. 



ETHI5 VERY POPUL \R LINE 4 



^^^mi^m.1 



\iOME\i\i D\^V^OH\) CNCU^S 

t LIST FROM $90 TO $115 



Eclipse Cycles 

FINE AS SILK, $135.00 



(NO MORE POPULAR WHEEL MADE) 



WEIGHT 38 LBS. 



Sylph Cycles 



I 




WITHOUT DOUBT 

THE FINEST $150 WHEEL 

MADE. WEIGHT 30 LBS. 

We z^r? now giving territory in VHew YorH s\n<I Wew Jersey. Write a.t one? for terrn? An<l 
liberzk^l <liscounts . * . . ' . 

CHAS. J. GODFREY 

1 1 Warren Street, , - - N«w YorH City 



It's an An^^rica o 1 ! ^HE PROGRES5» 




AND IS THE BEST N1A.DE> ^?VHEEL KOR THE MONBJY. 
28 or SO inch Wheels, Cushion Tire, $90; Bneumatic Tire, $100. 

liiDIAflA BICYCLE Co., 

INDIANAPOLIS, iMtDc 



Jft •will give us pleasure to mail 
you catalogues and circular*. 




Good Wheels for 

^* Good Roads 

Good Wheels for 

^ Poor Roads 

SUCH ARE THE .... 

Roeid Kipgs eirjcl Roeid Queers 

Equally good for all kinds of ROADS and all classes of RIDERS 

STRONG enough for the beginner and LIGHT enough for the Scorcher 

HIGHEST GRADE wheels money and skill can produce 

FITTED EXCLUSIVELY WITH HOLLOW RIMS AND 

.*. D\JNI-OF> '93 RNEWTVTMTIC TIRES .*. 

THE SENSATION OF THE YEAR 



Ask your Agent 



tp show them. 



A. FEATHER5T0NE 

Chicago, 111. 



Odi^oaght Ii^on Bmdge Co. 



lU 

J 

10 

< 

J 

01 

tc 

Q 

K 
< 

O 

GC 



CKNTON, OHIO. 




• • B^st Hi'sibvay Bridsi^s. • • 

PLANS AND ESTIMATES FREE. WRITE FOR ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE. 

NEVER MIND THE ROADS! 



BUY OWE OF THE 




^.^.AMES & FROST COMPANY 



CATALOGUE FREE. 



302 in£75BKSH KlfENWl 
CHIOMOO '5 I! 



(Ilestern Ulheel (Itorks. 



Factory :. 

Wells, Scbill^r, Sisi^l and Fr^nKHo Str^^ts, 

CHICAGO, lUL., U. S. A- 




250,000 SQUARE FEET FLOOR SPACE DEVOTED 
. . TO THE MANUFACTURE OF THE MOST 
. . POPULAR AND MOST COMPLETE LINE 
. . OF SAFETY BICYCLES IN AMERICA. 



A\2iin Office ; 



5.01 Wells Street, Cbiceigo. 

Eastern Agept^: 

35 BARCLAY 5fTREET, fiEW YORK. 



Agents 
Wanted 
Everywhere 



SYLPH 
CYCLES 
RUN 
EASY 




. . THE 30 STYLES OP . . 



and Western Wheel Works' Line of Safeties 

OF WHICH WE ARE 

Manufacturers, Importers, and General Agents, 
offer unequalled values In Safeties to AGENTS, 
DEALERS and WHEELMEN. All MAKES, New 
and Second Han<;l,and LOWEST PRICES GUAR- 
ANTEED, 

EASY PAYMENTS WITH NO EXTRA CHARGE. 

New high, medium and low priced wheels at cut 
prices. Our superior Inducements bring us orders 
regularly from every state, territory and large city in 
the United States and Canada. If you want i or 500 
cycles we can save you money. Catalogue and Bargain List free. 

ROUSE, HAZARD & CO., ""^"fc7t;%1 ^"'' 177 G St., Peoria, III. 

COMMON SENSE BICYCLES. 

STRICTLY HIGH GRT^DE. 

Diamond of Drop Fraffies. Wheels of Jliekory Wool 

Frames of Cold Drawn Steel Tubing, with lap joints. 
Famous steel roller bearings. The easiest running 
and cleanest bearing in the world. 




Price, 1 1-4 Cushion Tire, 
Price, 1 1-2 Cushion Tire, 
Price, 1 3-4 Pneumatic Tire, 



$ 95.00 
100.00 
110.00 



(Mention "Good Roads.") 



Send for catalogue, mentioning this paper, and have 
your questions answered. 

The Common Sense Bicycle Mfg. Co^ 

1219 CALLOWHILL STREET, PHILADELPHIA, PA. 



THE 
REMINGTON 



4^%%^ 



'^^/^^'^^'^^^ 



THREE PATTERNS FOR '93 



LIGHT ROADSTER 

(actual WEIGHT 32 LBS.) 

ROADSTER 

(44 LBS.) 

LADIES' WHEEL 

(42 LBS.) 



T*I«lOE^» ^l^O.OO 



MATERIAL BEST OBTAINABLE = WORKMANSHIP UNSURPASSED 



IWannesmann Tubing, Waroiiek HoUom Hims 

and a variety of the best Pneumatic Tires to select from 
SEND FOR CATALOGUE 

Remington Arms Company 

315 BROADWAY - - NEW YORK 

FACTORY AT ILION, N. Y. 



^ww?ww?wwn?wnmwi5 



Victor 
Bicycles 

For 1893. 



The world expects us to "make 
the pace" in cycle construction. 

The Victor line for 1893 will 
be where it has always been — on 

TOP. 

Riders who want the best should 
tack this fact in their hats till 
they see the new wheels. 



Overman Wheel Co. 

BOSTON. WASHINGTON. DENVER. SAN FRANCISCO. 



^UiUiUOiUiiUiUUUUUUiUiC 



GOOD ROADS 




Good Roads are coming sure 

It will take time 

Do not wait for them 

And suffer annoyance and all the jolts and jars the 
flesh is heir to 



Sec that your wheels 

: : : are fitted with 



Seddon Tires 

The "Red Un " is the best 



A represents the Envelope, which has a bottom (Ai) covering the spoke 

holes in the rim 
B the outer Air Chamber 
C the inner Air Chamber inflated 
D the Valve leading into inner chamber 
E E the Wire Bands 
F the Rim 




gUI TABLE FOR : : ; 

CYCLES 
SULKIES 
BUGGIES 
ROAD WAGONS 



%^%^ 



t 



BARRINETTES, Etc. ^ 

Cz^tZklogue Prec ^^%'% 



AMERICAN SEDDQNS 
TYRE CO . 

65 Reade Street 
New York 















(yu/f 








THE KING BRIDGE CO., 



BRIDGES. 



diEVEIiflflO, OHIO. 



VIADUCTS. 



IRON AND STEEL EYE BARS, GIRDERS AND STRUCTURAL WORK FOR BUILDINGS. 

PLANS, ESTIMATES AND SURVEYS FREE OF COST. 




BRIDGE OVER THE OHIO RIVER, BETWEEN CINCINNATI, O., AND NEWPORT, KY; 

Designed and Built by THB KING BRIDGE CO. 



I,ENGTH OF Cantilever Channel Span, 520 Feet. Total Length of Bridge, 2916 Feet. 



HAVING 




AS A DAILY COMFORT-BRINGING 

EXERCISE 

SHAVING 

CAN BE MADETh!E REFRESHING 
ENJOYABLE PART OF THE 
MORNING TOILET 

The soft, creamy lather produced by 

WILLIAMS' Shaving Stick is so 

cooling, so softening to the beard, so 
comforting to the face that it is an 
actual pleasure to apply it. 



WILLIAMS' 



Williams' Shaving Stick. 

BE SURE YOU GET 

Each stick enclosed in a beautiful case, strong, compact, attractive. Ask your Druggist 

for WILLIAMS' If he does not have it, do not let him foist some inferior 

substitute upon you, but send 25 cents in stamps to us and receive a 

genuine WILLIAMS' SH AVI NG STICK, by return mail, 

postpaid. Address 

The J. B. WILLIAMS CO., Glastonbury. Ct., U. S. A. 

For over Half a Century makers of Fine Shaving Soaps 




THE TOURIST, $150 



• LIGHT ROADSTER, 33% LBS. 

• ROADSTER, 40 LBS. 

• LADIES' TOURIST, 39 LBS. 

A bicycle that bears inspection and is made by 
the same hands that make the finest and most ex- 
pensive of fire arms. Gun steel forgings, cups, and 
cones, cut from the bar and fitted with the lightest, 
least expensive and most practicable tire in the world 
The BID'WEI^l, PNEUMIATIC for '93 .... 



GEORGE R. BIDWELL CYCLE CO. 

308-310 West 59th Street, New York 
factory, colts west armory, hartford, ct. 

SOLE EASTERN AGENTS for 

ST. NICHOLAS SAFETIES 

A complete line of eleven Bicycles. The finest 
medium grade wheel in America. 26", 28" and 30" 
wheels fitted with the Bidwell Pneumatic Tire for '93. 




varsity, $120 




^ GEUT\iE^^H 



The 

and prices 



will ride a 
gentleman's 
wheel ; strong, graceful, light, well poised, 
smoothly fitted, and well tired. Well 
tired ;— aye, there's the rub. The tire is 
the life of the wheel, the hope and com- 
fort of the rider. Cheap rubber is heavy 
and "dead"; cheap workmanship is 
clumsy and shaky. The '93 Bidwell Pneu- 
matic (always the best) is better than 
ever. It is light, lively, strong and durable. 
Can it be repaired? Yes, quickly and 
2^» easily, 

favorite with manufocturers, dealers and riders. Send for catalogue 



Gi.0. R. B\\)M4E\i\i CVCViE 00. 



Pneumatic Tire paetofy 
■49"51 West 66th St. 



308=310 W. 59th street 
New York City 



a 



Built to Ride 



ff 



-*«9^ 



GIVES YOU A FULL DESCRIPTION OF THg 



4W\\> 




TM Bicycle Go. 



TOLEDO, OHIO. 



€4 



Dzvuptless 



9f 




FOR 1893 



Stands 



GOOD ROADS 

^ OR . . . ^ 

BAD ONES 

WEIGHTS OF ROAD MACHINES, 29, 33, 35 AND 40 POUNDS 

HIGHEST GRADE THROUGHOUT 




iA^IL^SON, TV^VeRS St OO. 



* 



I-IBERTV CVOI-eS 



55 Liberty Street, 



NEW YORK 



THE enormous percentage of important victories 
achieved on the Humber last season proved 
it to be the strongest and fastest racing safety made. 
Many riders who are actually interested in the sale 
of other machines, find that in order to ensure suc- 
cess they must ride a "Humber." :: :: :: :: 

Roadsters = $175 = $200 

Road Racers = $140 = $165 

Track Racers = $170 = $190 

GALES' Pneumatic = = $100 

Sole Eastern Agents 

LUCAS & SON'S, LANTERNS 

HEADQUARTERS FOR ALL KINDS OF SUNDRIES . . . 

Schoverling, Daly & Qales 

302 Broadway and 84 Duane Street 

Send for Catalogue NeW York 




yTO CYCLISTS 

~~^\ 

WHEN you ride a Bicycle you try to select a good road to cycle over. 
When vou buy a Bicycle Suit it is equally important that vou travel 
the right road to get one. 
Cyclists' Outfitting is an important feature of our business. 

We sell Extra quality Jersey Suits in Black. Blue and Grey, handsomely 

trimmed with Mohair braid, at $io per suit. 
Brown and Grey Corduroy Norfolk Blouse Suits, $9 and $11. 
Black and Blue Cheviot Suits, $10 and $13. 
Knickerbockers are all double seated. 

Full lines of Bicvcle and Athletic Goods at less than usual prices. 
Raymond's Monthly mailed free to your address on application. 

A. RAYMOND & CO. 

- Nassau and 



:: HEN'S OUTFITTERS :: Fulton Streets 

New York 

XlXDlarwich TOlbccle^it: 

'93 Catalogue 

fOV 1893 

•^ Will be first in Finish, Style and Construction 

The "Pilgrim" 

vj> Highest Grade — Cushion or Pneumatic Tired, a 
road machine par excellence :: :: :: :: 

The "Priscilla" 

^ A gracefull}^ designed, light weight. Cushion or 
Pneumatic tired wheel for ladies :: :: :: 

The "Ghost" 

^ Extra light Aveight, Pneumatic Tired wheel for 
racing men :: :: :: : : :: :: :: 

Warwick Cycle flanufacturing Co. 

Mention -Good Roads SpHngfield, Ma5s._^>- 



o 

>- 





cu 


H 


rt 


1 — I 








hf) 


•J. 


^ 


C 


V 


(U 


-ri 


o 


^ 




1-^ 


tJ 


n 




The Hfli^HisBUijG Doable Engine I^oad HoUeF 'Y„; ll 



Not only a Roller but a ROAD HACHINE 



and 20 

Weight 




5ot How Cheap, but How Good. Now In use in 

nearly one hundred cities and towns in United States, 
Send for Illustrated Catalogue. Manufactured by 

HAEEISBDR& FOUNDRY k MACHINE WORE. 

HARRISBURG, PA. 



8EZZINO AGENTS: 

W. R. FLEMING & CO.,1 68 Fulton St. and 203 Brcadway, 

Mail & Express Building, New York. 
MR. F. E. BAILEY, Builders' Exchange, Philadelphia, Pa. 



New Jersey Trap Rock Company 

BROKEN STONE •.• .-. •.• 

FOR 

MACADAM AND TELFORD ROADS 



CONCRETE, SCREENINGS, Etc. 



Pronounced by Engineers the FINEST MATERIAL in the World 
for ROAD MAKING 

stands crushing test of 22,000 lbs. per cubic inch 

Quarry, Snake Hill, Seacaucus Station, D. L. & W. R. R. 
Office, No. I Montgomery Street, Jersey City 



Opposite Pennsylvania R. R. Station 



Telephone, 284 Jersey City 



POOR ROADS 



ARE MORE EXPENSIVE 
THAN 



GOOD MACHINERY 




THE CHAMPION STEEL ROCK CRUSHER 

Is not an expensive machine, but it has no equal as a practical, portable 
stone breaker. Our '93 catalogue now ready. Free on application. 

T^TVYERICKN ROMD TV^KCHINe CO. 

.Kennett Square, Pa. 

PATENTS. 

SPECIALTIES for expert work: Hetallurgical 
Inventions and Interference Causes. 

We report without charge whether your in= 
vention is patentable. Send for our new book, 
"Patent Practice." 

CHAMPION «& CHAMPION, 

Pacific Building, Washington, P. C . 

Cattaraugus • Bridge • CCiorks 

JOHN N. 0STR07UV. C. E., Rropribtor 
Highway Bridges and Foundations, Roof East J^andolph, J4., V. 

Trusses, Columns and Beams for Buildings. :: 

OLD BRIDGES EXAMINED AND REPAIRED. 



FOREIGX A]N1> AMERICAX CTCLIXG PAPERS, 
PERIODICALS, HAND BOOKS AM> ROAM BOOKS 
FOR SALE. Send for List. 

FLETCHER & CO., 48 E. Van Buren St., Chicago. 

Save your machine by oilingr it properly witti ttie best oil can 
In the world. No leakage. Only a small quantity of oil at a 
stroke. HandMomflv riu kil plat((l Pik ( ^k e k h 




HALF SECTION*PLATE GIRDR BRIDGE*ROCK ASPHALT AND STEEL FLOOR < 
IT 




Farmers, Planters, Fruit-Growers, 

GAMDENERSy FLORISTS! 
FORTUNE 

AWAITS TOU 




STUDEBAKER "LITTLE GEM" 

One Horse Farm, Garden, Flower-Bed and Lawn Sprinkler 
(Capacity 150 Gallons, 4-incli tlres). Insures you a lus.ary of 
Growth of Crops never before dreamed of. Your arch enemy, 

DROUTH, COMPLETELY CONQUERED. 
The hotter the season the more abundant the crop. Nothing 
like it for sprinkling private roadways, for the distribution 
of liquid manure— it will not clog— or for sprinkling liquids 
for poisoning insects. , .„ ^ ^ j * 

Write at once, mentioning this paper, for illustrated cata- 
lognie and price list, to 

STUDEBAKER BROS. MFG CO., South Bend, Ind. 
(The Largest Vehicle Makers in the World.) 



STUDEBAKER 

SXRKHT, PARK A:iSO XRACK 

Sprinklers 

Hare been adopted in nearly all the Leading Citiee 

and Towns in the United States, because tliey are 
BUILT TO STAND THE HARDEST USAGE, EAS^ 
TO OPERATE. SIMPLE TO UNDERSTAND. 
THOROUGH IN EXECUTION. 



Illustrated Catalogue upon application to 

STUDEBAKER BROS. MFG. CO. 

SOUTH BEND, INO 




Mention GOOD ROADS 




The FaFFel Foandry and Ittaehioe Go.,flnsonia,GonD. 

THE PARREL & MARSDEN CRUSHER, the standard machine for road metal; with 
or without screen, mounted or unmounted; ten sizes. Write for catalogue 
and list of cities, towns, contractors and individuals using this machine. 

S. C. NIGHTINGALE & CHILDS, 134 Pearl St., Boston^ 

Kew England Agents for the Farrel & Marsden Stane Crusher, and Contractors for 

Complete Macadam Road Building Plants. 

STORAGE BINS AND ELEVATORS FOR CRUSHED STONE. 

STREET SPRINKLING WAGONS AND SWEEPERS, ROCK DRILLS, &C. 

HORSE AND STEAM ROAD ROLLERS, ENGINES AND BOILERS. 

Cempetent Engineer ftirnished for locating and advising. Send for Catalogu*. 



THe Slclliaii Hsplalt Pavmo Co. 



#<%/v%^%/%^ 



CONTRACTORS FOR 



SICILIAN AND GERMAN ROCK 
ASPHALT STREET PAVEMENTS 



TRINIDAD " LAKE" ASPHALT 
STREET PAVEMENTS 



LIMMER ROCK ASPHALT 
FLOORS, PAVEMENTS AND ROOFS 

FOR BREWERIES, ICE HOUSES, 
WAREHOUSES, CELLARS, STABLES, 
YARDS, SIDEWALKS, Etc. 



ZINSSER'S PATENT INSULA- 
TION FOR WALLS OF ICE 
HOUSES, ETC. 



tt^^^^k^^^'^' DEALERS IN 



SICILIAN AND GEnMAN ROCK ASPHALTS FOR 
STREET PAVEMENTS 



SICILIAN, LIMMER AND VORWOHLE ROCK 
ASPHALT MASTIC 



CRUDE AND REFINED TRINIDAD ASPHALT 



For Estimates and full information applj' to 

Tie Sicilian AspMlt Ymg Co., Times Building j, Y. 



Gates Rock Breaker 




MACADAM IS THE BEST AND CHEAPEST ROAD METAL 
IT IS PRODUCED AT LOWEST COST IN THE 

GATES BREAKER 



Address for Catalogues and Plans :: :: :: 

Gates Iron Works 

136 Liberty St. 237 Franklin St. 

NEW YORK • BOSTON 

50 S. Clinton St., Chicago, U. S. A. 




^\(5er2djor@alo()uetoi 



^=^(< 



mmw& 



(jPRINQFIELDOHia 

THe Slaimaril Pavemem of Huerlc^ 

Tbe Beirber ., 
Aspb2^1t ;; 

F^^/\T)% Co. 

has now laid nearly 6,000,000 square 
yards of genuine Trinidad Asphalt pave- 
ment in S3 cities of the United States 
Wherever the pavement has been laid ii 
has come to stay, and has never been dis- 
placed in favor of any other material. It Is 
smooth, durable, clean, noiseless and safco 




GENERAL OFFICES 

LE DROIT BUILDING 
WASHINGTON, D. C. 

WASHINGTON BUILDING 
1 BROADWAY 
New YORK, N. Y. 

Nearly 6,000,000 Sq. Yds. or 
435 lineal miles in use and 
laid by this Company. 



Yoa are cordially invited 



mm 

Mm 



TO SEND FOR OUR '93 CATALOGUE, THE FINEST CATALOGUE OF 

mm ' 

^l«i^ ROAD MAKING MACHINES EVER ISSUED. YOUR NAME AND ADDRESS 

pM 



ON A POSTAL CARD WILL BE SUFFICIENT. 



DO YOU WANT machinery for making stone roads? 
DO YOU WANT machinery for making dirt roads? 
DO YOU WANT the best machinery for the least 

MONEY? 
SEND FOR A CATALOGUE, WE CAN PLEASE YOU 

fimei^ican Road JVLaehine Co. 

I^ennett Square, Pa. 

(IlarreD Seharf Asphalt Paving Go. 

Genuine Trinidad Asphalt Pavements 



For Streets, Sidewalks, Driveways 



The Standard Pavement for . 

CHEAPNESS . . 

HEALTH . . . 
^ DURABILITY . . 
y SMOOTHNESS and 

SAFETY . . . 



IT ENHANCES THE VALUE OF PROPERTY MORE 
THAN ANY OTHER PAVEMENT 



y Principzil Office : 

81 Fultoo St., fiew Yorh 

SEND FOR CIRCULARS AND ESTIMATES. MENTION "gOOD ROADS" 

PRONOUNCED to be THE FINEST WHEEL at THE PHILADELPHIA 
CYCLE SHOW ^ ^^ * * * * ^- * ^-^- * * * 








/^NDRON 

VoCycles. 




1893 


:: 1893 :: 







f4 



Call, Examine and be Convinced. We challenge the World to produce a Better Wheel 

New York Office, 107 CHAMBERS STREET 
CHICAGO TOLEDO ST. LOUIS 



W. S. BULL 



B. D. HARRIS 



Buffalo Cycle Works 

MANUFACTURERS OF 

High Gi^ade 
Bicycles : : 

The "BUFFALO" Racer 
Scorcher and Light Roadster 



Pneumatic Sulky Wheels a Specialty 



OFFICE AND WORKS 

Kensington, " Erie " R. R. 
Buffalo, N. Y. 



•%^« 



H. C. MARTIN & CO. 

CONTROLLING ENTIRE OUTPUT FOR '93 

588 Hain Street, = = BUFFALO, N. Y. 



{^ o ^v i^ » r> ^v ivE> 

HOME FOR CHRONIC DISEASES 

40 Minutes out ; Harlem R. R. 

NATURE— REST— CURE. Home treatment for a 

few selected cases the year round. Terms, 

$25.00 per week and upward. 

Hddpess, Dp. GEO. D. ClilpT 



THE FLORENCE* 



9 to 12 A. M. 



109 East 18th Street. New York 



jfliHEs c. WONDERS, Qj^jj EnoineeF, 

BELLEFONTAINE, O. v**" xAi*jjx».wwx , 

Highways and Municipal Work, Plans, Estimates, 
Specifications, Superintendence. Correspondence 
invited. 



F. A. DUMHAA\» Civil Engineer 

AND Expert in Road and Street. Improvements. 

Engineer in Charge of the following Works : 
The Famous Union Co., N. J., Road System ; Street 
Improvements, Hasbrouck Heights, N. J.; Street 
Paving and Sewerage, Sewickley, Pa.; Street 
Improvements, Olean, N. Y. Is City Engineer of 
Plainfield, N. J , and Dunkirk, N. Y. CorrespondencB 
Solicited. Main Office, No. 7 Park Ave., Plainfield, N. J. 



Construction and Improvement of 

ROADS AND PAVEMENTS 

A SPECIALTY 

A. T. BYRNE 

Civil Engineer and 324 jay Street 
c y^^ ,,^ Brooklyn, N. Y. 




1893 



REGISTERED 



Model A, HUSTLER for fast work, 

" B, Roadster for hard riders, ' 

" C, Roadster for ladies, heavy riders, ' 
" D, Roadster comb'n for general use, ' 



weight, 



•25 lbs. 



40 



E, Special Featherweight, ladies', 

F, Tricycle for either sex 



" 25, 2 7 and 29 



OUR EXPERIENCE COVERS 




BUILT ON _ 

Smith Bros.' ^N^^ N 

LINES. 



(Sluarter of a Century 

DEVOTED ENTIRELY TO CYCLE CONSTRUCTION AND 
TELLS A TALE. 

We commenced with the wooden Velocipede in England. Afterwards built and used on the roads nearly 
twenty years since, 52 inch ordinarys, weighing but 27 and 28 pi^unds, naturally placing us in a position 
to give to the American riders in 1SS4 the first Tandem to carry ladv and gentleman and in 1SS6 the First 
and only practical Ladies' Bicycle, which was a DART weighing only o2 pounds. 

AND LIGHT WEIGHTS are SYNONYMOUS 





SMITH WHEEL MFG. CO. 



REGISTERED 



42-50 W. 67tli Street 

NEW YORK 



921 H Street, N. W. 

WASHINGTON, D. C. 



AGENTS NEED THEM TO COMPLETE ANY LINE. SEND FOR LISTS 



If you want good dirt roads you need an AUSTIN STEEL REVERSIBLE ROAD MACHINE. It is made of better material, i.i 

abetter manner 
and under more 
valuable patents 
than any other 
machine on the 
earth; conse- 
quently it will 
do more work 
with less power 
and will last 
longer than any 
other machine. 
It is not the 
cheapest ma- 
chine in first 
cost, as other 
machines can be 
bought for less 
money, but when 
the amount of 
work done, the 
length of time 
it wi'.l last and 

the small cost for repairs are considered, it is the cheapest machine any town can buy. 

If you want good stone roads you need a CHICAGO ROCK AND ORK BRE^AKER. 





A FEW POINTS IN FAVOR OF THE CHICAGO BREAKER. Ist-SIAIPLICITY Any Ordmary Laborer can manage 
It. 2d-It breaks rock into more UNIFORI\[ SIZES WITH LESS DUST. 3d-GREAT ECONOMY IN POWER; 
say, TWO-THIRDS LESS THAN OTHERS. 4th.— ECONOMY IN PRICE, where cost of power is considered. 
5th— It is the ONLY BREAKER that can be OPERATED BY A COMMON HORSE POWER. 6th-IT IS MORE 
DURABLE, AND COSTS 50 PER CENT. LESS FOR REPxVIRS. Vth— There are no Gear Wheels or Pinions in 
this machine to break. 

If you want clean, paved streets you need an AUSTIX STEEL STREET SWEEPER. 

Is a strong and serviceable 
machine, made of steel through- 
out, with heavy steel axles, and 
wheels especially adapted for 
rough city usage. It requires 
but two horses and a driver. 
Ordinary streets, twenty-eight 
feet between curbs, are cleaned 
in two rounds, and the dirt 
placed at the curb convenient 
for loading into wagons for re- 
moval. One machine will read- 
ily clean three miles of such 
streets after midnight. Send 
for special Street Sweeper Cata- 
logue. 

Also ROAD ROLLERS. GARBAGE CARTS, DUMP WAGONS, SCRAPERS, Etc. 




G. L. BOS WORTH & CO. 

AGENTS FOR . . . 

Cornprcssecl ^spb^lt 
^ P2ivipg BIocKs 

For Streets ^ 

NOTHING BETTER MADE, SANITARY, NOISELESS, THE 
EASIEST STREET TO KEEP CLEAN, CAN BE TAKEN 
UP AND RELAID AT VERY LITTLE EXPENSE. 
EVERY CITY CAN HAVE ITS OWN LABORERS PUT 
THEM DOWN. SEND FOR PRICES TO . . . 

G. L. Bo^vortb & Co. 
HolyoHe, A\ziss. 



'PpiQatiG Bicycle ^SolKyWIeels 

WITH BALL BEARINGS 




We make nothins: 
but Wheels. Over 5 
years' experience. 

N. Y. Protection 
Strip Pneumatic 
Tires with rims to 
match, supplied to 
the trade. 

Write us for what 
you want." 

I.H.WESTOK&GO. 

Jamesville, N. V. 



EAR SYRACUSE 




WILLIAM 8. BACOT, C. E., Mem. Am. Soc. C. E. 
Engineer of County Roads 

RICHMOND CO., Staten Island, N. Y. 

Specialties : Water-Works, Sewerage, Improvements of Roads 

Offices : 

145 BROADWAY, NEW YORK, and STAPLETON, S. I. 

3Soun& Dolumeg of *'(3oO& 1Roa&S" 

$1.25 



WILL BE SENT . 
POST PAID FOR 



TO ANY ADDRESS 



^tiwf^imiitnv'm^tm^ ^ 



t 
t 



ii 



All 




)J 



these World's Records 
In One Week by 



1 
1 



t ZIMMERMAN. 1 



t 



1-4 Mile : 27 Sec. 

1-2 Mile: i Min., i 4-5 Sec. 

3-4 Mile : i Min., 46 2-5 Sec. 

1 Mile (Competition) : 2 M., 19 S. 

2 Miles : 4 Min., 37 2-5 Sec. 

3 Miles : 7 Min., 15 4-5 Sqc. 

4 Miles : 9 Min., 41 Sec. 

5 Miles : 12 Min., 2-5 Sec. 

Raleigh Cycle Co., Ltd. 

1790 Broadway, 

GOOD AGENTS NEW YORK. 

WANTED. . . 



¥ 
¥ 
¥ 
¥ 
¥ 
¥ 
¥ 
¥ 
¥ 
¥ 



^mimimi»imimimimmi.^ 



THE M05T COMPLETE ENORAVINO E4>TABL15HMENT IN THE COUNTRY 

IT WILL PAY YOO TO 
COMMUMItATE WITH Ui 
TO oeT PRIOM AND 
aPEUMEN.1 "fnlR 
WORK 




MEMTIOrt _ _ 



A\oo2ircb Bicycles 

Are the BEST for all kinds of Roads. 
FOUR. STVI.ES AI,I, I^EADERS 




Every part a scientific production from the finest 
material obtainable. We are headquarters for all 
Cycle accessories. Send for our 1893 Catalogue. 
Reliable agents wanted. 

^onzvrcb Cycle Co. 

42,44,46,48,50 6- 52 N- Haljte^d St. 

CH I C AGO 



THE 




BICYCLK 



<« LIGHT, STRONG, DURABLE, 
FAST, STEADY AND SAFE. 



ALL STEEL AND HICKORY. 
IMPROVED BALL BEARINGS. 
THE BEST CHAIN ADJUSTMENT. 
VELVET HANDLE BAR. 
SELF OILING CHAIN. 
THE ONLY ELASTIC FORKS. 
A WHEEL GUARD THAT CAN'T RATTLE. 
A SPRING TEMPERED BRAKE LEVER. 
OUR CATALOGUE TELLS THE WHOLE STORY. 



AGENTS WANTED. 



Elliott Hiekopy Gyek Go. 



NEWTON, MASS. 



Delegeites 



Coming to Chicago should 
not forget that the : : :: 



MONON ROUTE 



^ yiOUBVULE,NEWAlBAMY»CHICA60 WX.CO.ii O 
« — •— ■ » 

. IS . 

THE SHORT LINE 

FROM 

Cipcinoevti, Ipdizipevpolis, 
Louisville 

and all points South :: :: :. 



To Cbic2^?o 



Pullrpzin Sleepers, 

Cbz^ir Cz^rs . . . 

an<l Dining Cars . . . 

017 All Trz^ips. . . 

For full information address 

FRANK J. REED, J AS. BARKER, 

C. p. A., 232 Clark St., G. P. A., Monon Block, 
CHICAGO. 




1893 MODEL 

New A\ail 

f Strictly Higb Cra.«lc 
^ All Drop Porgipgs 

M. & W. Style Pneumatics, • - $125.00 
Dunlop Detachable " ... 135.00 

No Finer Wheel Made. Send for Catalogue 



MANUFACTURERS 



Wrr). Read & Sons 

107 Wasi^ington Street 

BOSTON 



NJ MANUFACTURER YtT ASPIRES 

To compete with H. A. Lozier & Co. in tiie matter of TIRES 



The QlEVEMHD PnEUH/ITIC: "flRE 



With which our CLEVELAND BICYCLES are fitted 
is ACKNOWLEDGED to be the BEST 



wriT? 



Because fitted to the Cleveland Rim, which permits permanent repairs in from two to five minutes 

time. 
Because its tread portion is constructed of thread instead of solid canvas or ducking, making it very 

light, resilient and speedy. 
Because fitted with the new " I. C." Valve. 

3END f'-»' Catalogue, containing description of our V LEVEL/IN^ a A A 



PlCrCLE5 

H. A. l-OZIER St CO. 



You will never be happy until 
you ride a CLEVELAND :: :: 



Cl-evelmnd, Ohio 




Jterliosf Bicycles 

THE HIGHEST GRADE ONLY 

\?evlu2iblg Points of Advzvntzvge 

SEfiD FOR CATALOGUE 

STOKE5 A\FG- CO. 



A\AnufActurcrs 



'^' DE7H\?ER 

The Sterling Specizil ^iluwaukee 

Roa^ Racer office and salesroom . , . 

Trz^cK Wb^^l 293 W^^b^sY) /Vveijue 

V«igl7t 27 Ibj. CHICAGO 





Ope Hundred DoUzirs 

In Gold to be Paid in Prizes eor F'hotogra.f'hs 
OE Bad Roads. 



To stimulate the coUedion of Photographs to be used in showing 

the need of improved roads in the United States, I offer 

tJiree pri:{es, aggregating $ioo in gold, as follows : 

1. One prize of $50 (gold) for the best collection of not less than three 

photographs. 

2. One prize of $30 (gold) for the second best collection of not less 

than three photographs. 

3. One prize of $20 (gold) for the third best collection of not less 

than three photographs. 



T 



HIS OFFER IS MADE SUBJECT TO THE FOLLOWING CONDITIONS AND 
SUGGESTIONS WHICH SHOULD BE OBSERVED : :: :: :: :: 



All photographs must be accompanied by the negatives, unless the latter have 
been destroyed. 

Competition will close on the first day of July, 1893, and all photographs must be 
submitted on or before that date. 

Photographs must be confined to such subjects as most strongly illustrate the un- 
fitness of the present public roads (especially the common "dirt" roads) used as public 
highways. 

To aid you by a suggestion, I would recommend the following as good subjects for 
competitive pictures : 

Photographs showing the common spectacle of the farmer's team and wagon, hub- 
deep and knee-deep in the muddy road. 

Photographs showing rough, rutty and muddy roads in their worst condition. 

"Stuck in the mud" photographs, showing the farmer or merchant with his loaded 
wagon vainly trying to drive his patient team and load out of the inevitable mud hole. 

Photographs showing the everyday breakdown caused by rough or muddy roads 
or steep grades. 

Photographs showing smooth, hard-surfaced roads and (if possible) teams hauling 
loads over the same. 

And other pictures illustrating the goodness of good roads and the badness of bad 
roads. Your opportunities and observation will suggest the proper thing in this line. 

Each photograph must be accompanied by a full statement of particulars, giving 
date, location, etc., by which the picture may be identified. Blanks for this purpose 
will be supplied on application. 

All photographs and negatives .submitted must be sent marked with a fictitious 
name or pseudonym, by which the competitor is to be known until the date of award. 
Each competitor must also send a sealed envelope containing his or her real name and 
address, and marked upon the outside with the fictitious name of the competitor. 

All photographs and negatives submitted in this competition are to remain the 
permanent property of the League of American Wheelmen. At least ten persons must 
compete in order to insure the reward here offered. 

In deciding upon the respective merits of the work submitted, the following points 
will be considered. 

1. The subject of the photograph and its force in illustrating the necessity for 
better roads. 

2. Clearness and general excellence of photographic work. 

3. Location (giving preference to those views which show bad roads in important 
counties, suburbs of large towns, etc.) 

4. Size of photograph. The question of size will be considered least and last of all. 
Any competitor may send more than three photographs if desired. The committee 
will select the three best of those submitted by each competitor. _ 

The prizes will be awarded before July 15, 1893, by a committee to be selected by 
the Executive Committee of the League of American Wheelmen. All communi- 
cations will be in every respect confidentially treated, and further information will be 
furnished on application to the undersigned, to whom all photographs and negatives 
should be sent. 



ISAAC B. POTTER, « 



ANAGER, 



POTTER BUILDING. NEW YORK CITY. 

























We are not in the . . . 




S)rug • Busineee 



and will not try to physic you with a bicycle 
which we intend to sell next year at a cut 



price 



••••• 




CREDENDA PACER 



•••< 



A word to the wise is sufficient . . . 



Crebenba 
Bic^clee 



GOOD 

ARE AS 

GOLD 



AND SELL AT $115,00 

A. G. SPALDING & BROS. 

Chicago New York Philadelphia 

Send for Catalogue . . . 



illlllllllillllllllillllllli 




It*s an An^grica o ! ! "fHE PROGRES5, 




AND IS THE BEST IVTA-DE WHEEL KOR THE rvIONEY. 
28 or 30 ineJi Wheels, Cushion Tire, $00; Pneumatic Tire, $100. 

iriDIAMA BICYCLE Co., 

INDIANAPOLIS, IND. 



It will give us pleasure to mail 
you catalogues and circulars. 




Good Wheels for 

"^ Good Roads 

Good Wheels for 

!■■ Poor Roads 

SUCH ARE THE .... ^ 

Roaid Kipgs apd Roeid Queers 

Equally good for all kinds of ROADS and all classes of RIDERS 

STRONG enough for the beginner and LIGHT enough for the Scorcher 

HIGHEST GRADE wheels money and sk il l can produce 

FITTED EXCLUSIVELY WITH HOLLOW RIMS AND 

.*. D\JNI-OR '93 RNE\J7V^MXIO TIROS /. 

THE SENSATION OF THE YEAR 



Ask your Agent : 



to show them. 



A. FEATHER5T0NE 

Chicago, 111. 







[. 







C/\yS BE OBTAINED BY 




A MORNING SPIN ON A 



Credenda 



acer 






OR A 





Credenda 
Consort 




Price, $115.00 



HIGH GRADE 

ALL STEEL FORGINGS 

PNEUHATIC TIRES . 




'■ A. Q. Spalding: & Bros. 




CHICAGO 



NEW YORK PHILADELPHIA 



SEND FOR CATALOGUE 







WATCH THE THREE PARALLEL LINES." "NO SIDE 



g SLIPPING WHERE THEY APPEAR." 




C. Si ). 







AHb 



RACirlC 



TIRES 



ComuUy & Jeffepy Mfg. Co. 



Chieago Boston 
Washington 
Jieuu Vofk 




"A HIGH GRADE PRICE SHOULD BUY A HIGH GRADE 



TIRE." "Order your Wheel fitted with the G. & J." 





(3oob IRoabs fov 1893 

Outline for the Year. 

The educational work begun some years ago has been taken up and 
vigorously aided by the public press throughout the country till 
public sentiment is fully alive to the importance and need of better 
roads. The work of this magazine will not therefore, in future, be so 
lirgely devoted to educational articles as to the treatment of practical 
methods of road and street work, and the passage of such laws as 
will insure a systematic and intelligent care of the public ways. 

State Editions. 

As already announced in recent numbers, a monthly edition of 
Good Roads will be devoted to the needs and conditions of each 
of the important states, and the character and style of this work may 
be judged from an examination of our December and January 
numbers. We ask the co-operation oi all friends in supplying photo- 
graphs and information relating to their several states, and such 
matter will be made available in future numbers. 

Laws and Legislation. 

Outlines of practical road laws and forms of legislation adopted in 
different states and countries where good roads are in general use, 
will be printed from time to time, and a department will be maintained 
for the supplying of information relating to this important subject. 

riacadam and Telford Roads. 

A series of practical chapters relating to the construction of country 
roads according to the systems of Macadam and Telford, will be 
continued through several numbers of the present year. These 
chapters will be written in plain language so as to be readily under- 
stood by the ordinary reader and will be fully illustrated. 



Practical Work. 

Finely illustrated articles relating to the practical work of road 
construction, including reference to culverts, grading, rolling and 
the care of dirt roads, including the use of road machines, will appear 
during the course of the year. 

Bridges. 

An article on the practical construction of highway bridges, with 
illustrations, has been prepared by one of the leading bridge engineers 
of the country and will appear in several copies of the magazine, 
beginning at an early date. 

Drainage. 

The subject of drainage will receive due attention. It is regarded by 
Good Roads as the first and most important subject to which the 
attention of the road makers should be directed. Practical plans for 
drainage of all classes of roads will be printed, with illustrations 
showing clearly plans and methods for thorough drainage. 

Rollers. 

The use and practical value of road rollers will be treated in a fully 
illustrated article, in which these important machines will be shown 
by accurate illustrations, and their cost and usefulness be amply 
set forth. 

Stone Crushers. 

These indispensable machines should be in the possession of every 
town in the country. Their cheapness, their capacity for work and 
their portability are but meagerly understood by the ordinary road 
maker, and these points will be fully explained and illustrated. 

Local Organization. 

From all parts of the country we receive letters asking for helpful 
suggestions to aid our correspondents in forming local organizations 
for the improvement of town and country roads. This subject will 
be taken up and thoroughly explained. Outlines for constitution 
and by-laws for local bodies will be printed and suggestions given for 
agitation and successful work in smaller communities. 

Street Pavements. 

A fully illustrated article on the important subject of pavements 
for town and village streets will form a leading feature in several 
successive numbers of Good Roads. This article will treat of the 
historical and descriptive side of the pavement subject, as well as 
the practical methods of paving, relative values as viewed from 
various standpoints, durability, cost, tractive qualities, etc., etc. 

Other Serial Articles will be Announced in due Season. 

In this era of road improvement you cannot afford to be ignorant of 
its laws and methods. 

$2.00 Per Year, Single Copies 20 Cents. Liberal Club Rates on application. 

Address (^^^^ IRoabS 

Potter Building, New Yortc, N. Y. 



To every Rezvcl^r of 



GOOD ROADS 



ff 



We publish this ^Magazine because we are interested in the work for better roads and 
better streets. 

IVe assume that you read it because yoii are likewise interested. 

Now, confidentially, suppose we enter into a quiet arrangement by which you will agree to 
add your work to ours and we agree to add our influence to yours fur the purpose of carrying 
on" a busy and aggressive campaign, 

WE WANT TWENTY THOUSAND NEW SUBSCRIBERS BEFORE THE 
YEAR GOES ROUND. 

We have offered liberal commissions to encourage our readers to obtain new subscribers, 
but many who have a warm interest in the cause will not have time nor inclination to engage 
in an agent's work. You may be one of these persons. 

THERE IS ANOTHER WA F, an agreeable, easy, interesting and effective way, in which 
.ve can work together, and in which you can help to encourage our subscription list. It is this: 

1. SIT DO JVN A T YOUR DESK OR TABIE and make ottt a list of twelve prominent 
7nen in your town.^ -whose intelligence and ititerest in public affairs would be likely to lead them to 
approve our -work and aid in its success. 

2. AFTER YOU HAVE READ YOUR JANUARY NUMBER of the Magazine, send 
it, with your compliments, to the first person 7iamed on your list. After you have read your 
February number, send it in a similar zvay to the second person named on your list. Send the 
March number to the third, and so on through the entire year. 

J. IF YOU PREFER TO KEEP THE MAGAZINES as souvenirs of the 7uork in 
which von took an active part (and we could not blame you for this), then make out the same 
list aafl send it to us with a two dollar bill, and we will see that the twelve numbers are sent to 
the twelve persons whose names you sent as fast as the monthly numbers appear. 

In many cases, distributing magazines in this way will be like trying medicine on the dog ; 
but in aggregate results it will turn out to be the best for the cause and for Good Roads. 



DO THIS 



* 



-^-*- 



-j^ --^--^--^- 



I 



m& 






DS 



CLUB RATES 

PER YEAR. 



T "A Prudent Man looketh wellto hisgoing. " \ 

^^ There he goes ; dragging one county into another ! ^ 

^ Think of a rich Nation being huh-deep, knee-deep, ^ 

\ neck-deep in the mud, AND WE'VE STOOD IT FOR \ 

■ A CENTUEY. There's a reason for better roads, and ' 
7^ rules for making them. We print and illustrate the ^ 

^ rule and the reason. > 

^ Liberal Terms to Clubs and Agents. ^ 

■ j The test practical Magazine for the contractor, road I 
_a, maker, town and county of&cer, and civil engineer. _X 
■^ $2 a year, 20 cents a Number. Address, 'i^ 

\ "GOOD ROADS," Potter Building, New York City. \ 



«--<<t/J^^:^2/11/->r— » 



5 Copies, - $8.00 

(Ordered at One Time.) 

10 Copies, - $15.00 

(Ordered at One Time.) 

20 Copies, - $28.00 

(Ordered at One Time.) 

40 Copies, - $50.00 

(Ordered at One Time.) 

50 Copies, - $55.00 

(Ordered at One Time.) 

100 Copies, - $100.00 

(Ordered at One TimeJ 



CUi^oaght Iron Bridge Co. 



CKNTON, OHIO. 



lU 
J 
03 
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01 

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p 

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> 

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O 

(fl 
> 

H 

VA 
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■a* 
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• • B^st Hi'sibVEvy Bridsi^s. 



PLANS AND ESTIMATES FREE. 



WRITE FOR ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUEo 



NEVER MIND THE ROADS! 

BUY ONE OF THE 




AND ENJOY LIFE ON 
AMERICA'S ROADS . 
AS THEY ARE . . . 
TO-DAY 



We hope for im- 
provement, THEN 
look out for 24 
pound "Imperials/* 

34: To=day. 



^i^_AMES & FROST COMPANY 



CATALOGUE FREE. 






([jesteFB (liheel (Ilorks. 



Factory : — 

Wells, Scbiller, Sisiel and Frzinklin Str^^ts, 

CHICAGO, lUU., U. S. A. 




250,000 SQUARE FEET FLOOR SPACE DEVOTED 
. . TO THE MANUFACTURE OF THE MOST 
. . POPULAR AND MOST COMPLETE LINE 
. . OF SAFETY BICYCLES IN AMERICA. 



* 



A\2iii> Office: 



501 Wells Street, Cbica.go. 

Eastern Agentys 

R. L* Colenr)2ir7 CQ>y ^ 

35 BARCLAY STREET, flEW YORK. 



Agents 
Wanted 
Everywhere 



SYLPH 
CYCLES 
RUN 
EASY 



« . THE 30 STYLES OF . . 

SYLPHS, OVEUDS, BIKES, 

and Western Wheel Works' Line of Safeties 

OF WHICH WK ARE 

Manufacturers, Importers, and General Agents, 
offer unequalled values In Safeties to AGENTS, 
DEALERS and WHEELMEN. All MAKES, New 
and Second Hand, and LOWEST PRICES GUAR- 
ANTEED. 

EASY PAYMENTS WITH NO EXTRA CHARGE. 

New high, meditim and low priced wheels at cut 
prices. Our superior Inducements bring us orders 
s?^ '■'■'■^'"~ ''■" *- ~ ~-='^'*^^— ««s=^ regularly from every state, territory and large city in 
''''jk!-iS»=-° ~-^ ^ ~ - "^ the United States and Canada. If you want i or 500 

cycles we can save you money. Catalogue and Bargain List free. 

ROUSE, HAZARD & CO., ""^"l'^%^o7t;%r"'' '77 G St., Peoria, III. 

COMMON SENSE BICYCLES. 

STRICTLY HIGH GRADE. 

Diamond w Drop Frames. Wheels of Jliekory Wool 





Frames of Cold Drawn Steel Tubing, with lap joints. 
Famous steel roller bearings. The easiest running 
and cleanest bearing in the world. 



Price, 1 1-4 Cushion Tire, 
Price, 1 1-2 Cusliion Tire, 
Price, 1 3-4 Pneumatic Tire, 



}, 95.00 
100.00 
110.00 



(Mention "Good Roads.") 



Send for calalogue, mentioning this paper, and have 
your questions answered. 

The Common Sense Bicycle Mfg. COc 

1219 CALLOWniLL STREET, I'HILADFLIMIIA, TA. 



THE KING BRIDGE CO., 



BRIDGES. 



CIiEVEIiflHD, OHIO. 



VIADUCTS. 



IROi\l AND STEEL EYE BARS, GIRDERS AND STRUCTURAL WORK FOR BUILDINGS. 

PLANS, ESTIMATES AND SURVEYS FREE OF COST. 




BRIDGE OVER THE OHIO RIVER, BETWEEN CINCINNATI, O., AND NEWPORT, KY; 

Designed and Built by THE KING BRIDGE CO. 



IrENGTH OF Cantilever Channel Span, 520 Feet. Total Length of Bridge, 2gi6 Feet. 



Victor 
Calendar 

For 1893. 



>■ ^^^-i > 




• The best bicycle cal- 
endar issued. Mailed 
for six stamps. • 



OVERMAN WHEEL CO. 

BOSTON. " WASHINGTON. DENVER. SAN FRANCISCO. 



Twenty = Four Cash Prizes ¥ 



We desire to thoroughly introduce our Sunol Bicycles throughout the 
United States in 1893, and in order to give them such an introduction, realize 
that we must advertise liberally and well. We are willing to advertise liberally, 
but that it may be done well, must have a supply of bright original advertise- 
ments. Will therefore make the following offer for the twenty-four best 
advertising ideas, first prize to be awarded to the author of the best, second 
prize to the author of the second best, etc. Decision to be made by three 
disinterested parties. 

ist prize, = = == = $200.00 

2d «' = - = = ■= 100.00 

3d " = = = = 50.00 

4th "= = = = = 25.00 

5th to 24th, = = = = 10.00 each 

Will also pay $5.00 for each idea not securing a prize that we think 
can be used to advantage. For particulars as to the nature of the advertisements 
required, address 

The Mcintosh Huntington Co. 



Advertising Department 



Cleveland, O.. 



if 



Built to Ride 



ff 



««>•••- 



GIVES YOU A FULL DESCRIPTION OF THE 



^111'- 




TOMO BlGUGlG Go. 



TOLEDO, OHIO. 



a 



De^uptless'* 



HAVING 




AS A DAILY COMFORT-BRINGING 

EXERCISE 

SHAVING 

CAN BE MADE THE REFRESHING 
ENJOYABLE PART OF THE 
MORNING TOILET 

The soft, creamy lather produced by 
WILLIAMS' Shaving Stick is so 
cooling, so softening to the beard, so 
comforting to the face that it is an 
actual pleasure to apply it. 



WILLIAMS' 



Williams' Shaving Stick. 

BE SURE YOU GET 

Each stick enclosed in a beautiful case, strong, compact, attractive. Ask your Druggist 

for WILLIAMS'. If he does not have it, do not. let him foist some inferior 

substitute upon you, but send 25 cents in stamps to us and receive a 

genuine WILLIAMS' SHAVING STICK, by return mail, 

postpaid. Address 

The J. B. WILLIAMS CO., Glastonbury. Ct., U. S. A. 

For over Half a Century makers of Fine Shaving Soaps 




THE TOURIST, $150 



• LIGHT ROADSTER, 33;^ LBS. 

• ROADSTER, 40 LBS. 

• LADIES' TOURIST, 39 LBS. 

A bicycle that bears inspection and is made by 
the same hands that make the finest and most ex- 
pensive of fire arms. Gun steel forgings, cups, and 
cones, cut from the bar and fitted with the lightest, 
least expensive and most practicable tire in the world 
Xlie BIDWEI.I, PNEUMATIC for '93 .... 



GEORGE R. BIDWELL CYCLE CO. 

308-310 West 59th Street, New York 
factory, colts west armory, hartford, ct. 



SOLE EASTERN AGENTS for 



ST. NICHOLAS SAFETIES 



A complete line of eleven Bicycles. The finest 
medium grade wheel in America. 26", 28" and 30" 
wheels fitted with the Bidwell Pneumatic Tire for '93. 




VARSITY, $120 



GOOD ROADS 




Good Roads are coming sure 

It will tal<:e time 

Do not wait for them 

And suffer annoyance and all the jolts and jars the 
flesh is heir to 



See that your wheels /7» j « r»-«<, 

: : : are fitted with SeddOn llTCS 

The "Red Un " is the best 



A represents the Envelope, which has a bottom (Ai) covering the spoke 

holes in the rim 
B the outer Air Chamber 
C the inner Air Chamber inflated 
D the Valve leading into inner chamber 
E E the W'ire Bands 
F the Rim 




^UI TABLE FOR ; ! 'V%^%%^ 

CYCLES 
SULKIES 
BUGGIES 
ROAD WAGONS 
BARRINETTES, Etc. 



i 



's 



icTlreCo.,Ltii. 

rianchester 

England 



Cz^tAlogue Free 



di Pneumatic Tire Works 
'%%'%/% OPENSHAW 




5TANDS- 






GOOD ROADS 

OR . . . 

BAD ONES 



FOR 1893 



WEIGHTS OF ROAD MACHINES, 29, 33, 35 AND 40 POUNDS 



HIGHEST GRADE THROUGHOUT 




iAZlLSON, TVYVERS 3t CO. 



7«VKI<ERS OP 

LIBERTY CYCLES 



55 Liberty Street, 



NEW YORK 



Hardwood Floors, 

1 Eqil-wooil inosaic, 
Pariioetnj, . . . 
Wood Caipet, . . 

Bruslies, . 

Wax. . . 




All kinds of H2^r<I'Woo<i Floors, plain and orna- 
mental, thick and thin. Any good carpenter can lay 
them. Brushes and Wax for polishing floors. 
Send for Circular "On Care of Hardwood Floors." Catalogues free. 

WOOD-A\OSAIC CO. 

1 7 Hibba.r4 St., Rochester, f(. Y. 

3 I 5 Piftb Av«., IHew YorK City. 



Every=day Watch 

Runs a good many risks— if it runs at all 
— and it ought not to cost too much. An accurate 
low-priced watch for every day soon pays for itself 
by saving all risks on a more expensive one. 

Accurate time is secured by the jewelled bearings 
and remarkably close and uniform adjustment of the 
new quick=winding Waterbury Watch. It is 
stem-winding, stem-setting, and cased in coin-silver 
or 14-carat (filled) gold. Warranted for fifteen years. 

All jewellers keep the quick^winding 
Waterbury, in various styles. :: :: 
$4 to $15. :: :: :: :: :: 



Dainty Chatelaine Wateties. 
Hunting-ease op 
Open-faee Gents' Watehtes, 
A Soy's Wateti. 



% 




^ GEUT\lEWM4 *™ ride a 

■ ^xentleman's 



The 

and prices. 



wheel ; strong, graceful, light, well poised, 
smoothly fitted, and well tired. Well 
tired ; — aye, there's the rub. The tire is 
the life of the wheel, the hope and com- 
fort of the rider. Cheap rubber is heavy 
and "dead"; cheap workmanship is 
clumsy and shaky. The '93 Bidwell Pneu- 
matic (always the best) is better than 
ever. It is light, lively, strong and durable. 
Can it be repaired ? Yes, quickly and 
easily, 
favorite with manufacturers, dealers and riders. Send for catalogue 



GEO. R. BV;i>ME\i\i OVC\iE CO 



Pneumatic Tire paetopy 
■49"51 West G6th St. 



308=310 W. 59th street 
New York City 



llXHarwick TOUbecla 



3for 1893 



Send for 

'93 Catalogue 



^ Will be first in Finish, Style and Construction 

The "Pilgrim" 

^ Highest Grade — Cushion or Pneumatic Tired, a 
road machine par excellence :: :: :: :: 

The " Priscilla " 

A gracefull}^ designed, light weight, Cushion or 
Pneumatic tired wheel for ladies :: :: :: 



^ 



The "Ghost" 



* 



Extra light weight, Pneumatic Tired Avheel for 



racmo- men 



Warwick Cycle flanufacturing Co. 



Mention ' ' Good Roads ' 



Sprin^ield, Mass. 




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THE 
REMINGTON 






'%^%/^^^^^^/%, 



THREE PATTERNS FOR '93 



LIGHT ROADSTER 

(ACTUAL WEIGHT 32 LBS.) 

ROADSTER 

144 LBS.) 

LADIES' WHEEL 

(42 LBS.) 



t»I«IOE^S ^1^0.00 



MATERIAL BEST OBTAINABLE = WORKMANSHIP UNSURPASSED 



Jttannesmann Tubing, Waruiiek Holloa Hii^s 

and a variety of the best Pneumatic Tires to select from 
SEND FOR CATALOGUE 

Remington Arms Company 



315 BROADWAY 

FACTORY AT SLION, N. Y. 



NEW YORK 




OUR NEiAi[ SKFETY BICYCLE 

\Vc have just perfected, after months of preparation, one (■£ the best bicycles ever offered to tlic public. 
A STRONGER WRITTEN GUARANTEE GOES • Nomad with Cushion Tires, = = = $85.00 

WITH EACH MACHINE THAN IS GIVEN BY • Nomad with Pneumatic Tires, = = $100.00 

ANY OTHER COMPANY. 

We warrant our pneumatic against either puncture or bursting. 

HOUGHTOfl & OlJTTOll, Tremont # Beacon Sts., BOSTOll, J/IflSS. 



The BflHiJisBOHG Doable Engine Hoad I^oUer '°^^^ 



and 2C 

Weight 



Not only a Roller but a ROAD flACHINE 




Not llow Clieap, but How Good. Now in use in 

nearlj- one hundred cities and tovvDS in United States. 
Seud for Illustrated Catalogue. Manufactured by 

HARRISBDRG FOUNDRY & lACHlNE WORKS, 

HARRISBURG, PA. 



SELLING A.61SNIS: 

W. R. FLEMING & CO.,1 68 Fulton St. and 203 Brcadway, 

Mail & Express Building, New York. 
MR. F. E. BAILEY, Builders' EYchanne. Philadelphia. Pa. 



FOREIGN AND AMERICAN CYCLING PAPERS. 
PERIODICALS, HANI> BOOKS AND ROAD BOOKS 

FOR SALE. Send for List. 

FLETCHER & CO., 43 E. Van Buren St., Chicago. 

Save your machine by oiling: it properly with the best oil can 
in the world No leakage Only a small quantity of oU at a 
stroke Hanfisciim h iiii ki 1 pliti d l'ii<( iK ticli 




PATENTS 

CHAMPION & CHAMPION, 
Patents and Patent Causes. 

Patents, Designs and Trade-Marks procured. 

Searches made. Opinions rendered. Interferences 

conducted, etc. Specialties — Interferences and 

Metallurgical Inventions. Correspondence invited. 

Pacific Building, Washington, D. C. 



Cattat^augus • Bridge • Ciiopks 

JOHN N. OSTROTW^. C E., Proprietor 
Highway Bridges and Foundations, Roof East l^andolptl, |4. V. 

Trusses, Columns and Beams for Buildings. 

OLD BRIDGES EXAMINED AND REPAIRED. 




Farmers, Planters, Fruit-Growers, 

GARDENERS, FLORISTS! 
FORTUNE 

AWAITS YOU 




STUDEBAKER "LITTLE GEM" 

One Horse Farm, Garden, Flower-Bed and Lawn Sprinkler 
(Capacity 150 Gallons, 4-inch tires). Insures you a luxury of 
Growth of Crops never before dreamed of. Your arch enemy, 

DROUTH, COMPLETELY CONQUERED. 
The hotter the season the more abundant the crop. Nothing 
Uke it for sprinkling private roadways, for the distribution 
of liquid manure— it will not clog — or for sprinkling liquids 
(or poisoning insects. 

Write at once, mentioning this paper, for illustrated cata- 
logue and price list, to 

STUDEBAKER BROS. MFG CO., South Bend, Ind. 

(The Largest Vehicle Makers in the World.) 



S TUDEB AKER 

STREET, PARK AXO TRACK 

S prinklers 

Have been adopted in nearly all the Leading Cities 

and Towns in tlie United States, becau.se they are 
BUILT TO STAND THE HARDEST USAGE. EAST 
TO OPERATE. SIMPLE TO UNDERSTAND. 
THOROUGH IN EXECUTION. 



Illustrated Catalogue upon application to 

STUDEBAKER BROS. MFG. CO. 

SOUTH BEND, INO. 




Mention GOOD ROADS. 




PflTEflT fl^SlD HVIPHOVED STO^iE Sl^EflKEl^. 

The FafFel Foandpy and IVIaehine Go.,flnsonia,Gonn 

THE PARREL & MARSDEN CRUSHER, the standard machine for road metal; with 
or without screen, mounted or unmounted; ten sizes. Write for catalogue 
and list of cities, towns, contractors and individuals using this machine. 

S. C. NIGHTINGALE & CHILDS, 134 Pearl St., Boston, 

New England Agents for the Farrel & Marsden St»ne Crusher, and Contractors for 

Complete Macadam Road Building Plants. 

STORAGE BINS AND ELEVATORS FOR CRUSHED STONE. 

STREET SPRINKLING WAGONS AND SWEEPERS, ROCK DRILLS, Ac. 

HORSE AND STEAM ROAD ROLLERS, ENGINES AND BOILERS. 

Competent Engineer furnished for locating and advising. Send for Catalogae. 



To obtain 



GOOD ROADS 

Improved Machinery saves its cost yearly. 



They must be 
well constructed. 



iSPRINGFIELD 

Is Indispensable 1 

Every one of our readers who take an 
interest in GOOD ROADS, 

Bhould help in some way to place a 

SPRINGFIELD 'ra? ROLLER 



Road 



Road 

in his Township, City or County 
The individual savings in having 
good and perfect roads that 
are used the same summer 
and winter will more 
than pay for this valu- 
able road maker every 
year. Full particulars 
can be obtained by ad- 
dressing the 




0. S. KELLY GO. 



Sole 
Manufacturers, 



SPRINGFIELD, 0.,U.S. A. 



GATES EOCK BEEAKER He Slamlaril Paveineiit omiiieilca 




Macadam is the Best and Cheapest Road MetaL 

It is Produced at Lowest Cost in the 

OATBS BREAKER. 



Address for Catalogues and Plans, 

GATES IRON WORKb, 



ISt Liberty St. NoY. 
f t7 Fraakiln St., IImI««< 



50 S. CUNTON ST. 
CHIGA«0.(1S.A. 



Tbe Batrber .. 
Aspb2^1t ;; 

P^.VlT)% Co. 

has now laid nearly 6,000,000 square 
yards of genuine Trinidad Asphalt pave- 
ment in 33 cities of the United States. 
Wherever the pavement has been laid It 
has come to stay, and has never been dis- 
placed in favor of any other material, it is 
smooth, durable, clean, noiseless and safe. 




GENERAL OFFICES 

LE DROIT BUILDING 
WASHINGTON, D. C. 

WASHINGTON BUILDING 
1 BROADWAY 
NEW York, N. Y. 

Nearly 6,000,000 Sq. Yds. or 
435 lineal miles in use and 
laid by this Company. 



SOLID FACT5 FOR ROAD MAKERS 

FOR NEARLY FIFTEEN YEARS we've served the road makers 
of this country. We are serving them to=day with more zeal that ever. 
This is one of the practical results of our service 




This is another 



THE AMERICAN CHAMPION REVERSIBLE ROAD MACHINE. 



Perhaps you would like to know 
more about these machines. 

Our large illustrated catalogue 
gives full information. . . . 

It is free on application 

Address the 




emencaQ Boad inacliiiie Go. 

Kennett Square, Pa. 



THE CHAMPION STEEL ROCK CRUSHER. 



(flamn Seharf Asphalt Paving Co. 

Genuine Trinidad Asphalt Pavements 



For Streets, Sidewalks, Driveways 



The Standard Pavement for . 

CHEAPNESS . . 

HEALTH . . . 
1^ DURABILITY . . 
9 SMOOTHNESS and 

SAFETY . . . 



~* 



IT ENHANCES THE VALUE OF PROPERTY MORE 
THAN ANY OTHER PAVEMENT 



Principz^l Office : 

SI Fultoi? St., Mew YorK 

SEND FOR CIRCULARS AND ESTIMATES. MENTION "qOOD ROADS" 



G. L. BOS WORTH & CO. 

AGENTS FOR . . . 

Cornpressecl ^spb^lt 
® Pzvvii7g BlocKs 

For Streets ■ 

NOTHING BETTER MADE, SANITARY, NOISELESS, THE 
EASIEST STREET TO KEEP CLEAN, CAN BE TAKEN 
UP AND RELAID AT VERY LITTLE EXPENSE. 
EVERY CITY CAN HAVE ITS OWN LABORERS PUT 
THEM DOWN. SEND FOR PRICES TO . . . 

G. L. Bo^vortb & Coe 



PqeuniatlG Bicycle ^SuiKjjWlieeis 

WITH BALL BEARINGS 




We make nothing: 
but Wheels. Over 5 
years' experience. 

N. Y. Protection 
Strip Pneumatic 
Tires with rims to 
match, supplied to 
the trade. 

Write us for what 
you want." 

.B.WESTOH&GO. 

Jamesville, N. Y. 

(n^ar Syracuse) 



The DIAMOND<0>CYCLE WRENCH 



u 





3> 



Price, each. Blued, 

Nickeled, 



LIGHTEST, NEATEST 

:: STRONGEST 

and combined with it 






@ 



• A Perfect SpoKe Grip 

Sold by all Hardware and Cycle Dealers 
MANUFACTURED BY THE 

QENDRON IRON WHEEL CO. 

Salesroom, Factory, 

CHICAGO, TOr,EDO, 

38 & 70 So. Canal St. 518 to 540 Superior 

Salesroom, 

NEAV YORK, 

107 Chambers St. 



<^ 



1 



¥ 
¥ 
¥ 
¥ 
¥ 
¥ 
¥ 
¥ 
¥ 
¥ 
¥ 
¥ 
¥ 



All these World's Records 
In One Week by 

ZIMMERMAN. 

1-4 Mile: 27 Sec. 

12 Mile: 1 Min., i 45 Sec. 

34 Mile : i Min., 46 2-5 Sec. 

1 Mile (Competition) : 2 M., 19 S. 

2 Miles : 4 Min., 37 25 Sec. 

3 Miles : 7 Min., 15 45 Sec. 

4 Miles : 9 Min., 41 Sec. 
"'■ , 25 Sec. 



5 Miles : 12 Min 



Raleigh Cycle Co., Ltd. 

1790 Broadway, 

NEW YORK. 



GOOD AGENTS 
WANTED. . . 



THE M06T COMPLETE ENORAYINO E6TABLL3HMEMT IN THE COUNTRY 

IT WILL PAY YOU Jo 

COMMUNICATE WITH Ui 
TO OET PRICE:^ AND 
6PEUMENvi op OUR 
W^BK 




lAtHTlOn 

%QQD BOADS 



"MILWAUKEE 

/ MITCHELLS CHAM BtR 

opCMMERCe BLDOJ>. 

(HlCAO^D 



76 6TATE .31. 



Tie SiGillaQ Bsplialt Pavlqg Go. 

#^/^^%/^^/^ CONTRACTORS FOR 



SICILIAN AND GERMAN ROCK 
ASPHALT STREET PAVEMENTS 



TRINIDAD " LAKE" ASPHALT 
STREET PAVEMENTS 



LIMMER ROCK ASPHALT 
FLOORS, PAVEMENTS ANo ROOFS 

FOR BREWERIES, ICE HOUSES, 
WAREHOUSES, CELLARS, STABLES, 
YARDS, SIDEWALKS, ETC. 



ZINSSER'S PATENT INSULA- 
TION FOR WALLS OF ICE 
HOUSES, ETC. 



^^^/%<V%"%/%, 

♦^^%^^^^^ DEALERS IN 

^ SICILIAN AND GERMAN ROCK ASPHALTS FoF 

^ i STREET PAVEMENTS 



SICILIAN, LIMMER AND VORWOHLE ROCK 
ASPHALT MASTIC 



CRUDE AND REFINED TRINIDAD ASPHALT 



For Estimates and full information apply to 

ne Sicilian AsDMlt Paving Co., Times BuiMlng, II. Y. 



TJIE 




BICYCLK 



'» LIGHT, STRONG. DURABLE, 
FAST, STEADY AND SAFE. 



ALL STEEL AND HICKORY. 
IMPROVED BALL BEARINGS. 
THE BEST CHAIN ADJUSTMENT. 
VELVET HANDLE BAR. 
SELF OILING CHAIN. 
THE ONLY ELASTIC FORKS. 
A WHEEL GUARD THAT CAN'T RATTLE. 
A SPRING TEMPERED BRAKE LEVER. 
OUR CATALOGUE TELLS THE WHOLE STORY. 



AGENTS WANTED. 



Elliott Hiekopy Gyels Co. 

NEWTON, MASS. 



Delegaites 



Coming to Chicago should 
not forget that the :: :: 



^'j- 



MONDN ROUTE 



<5 yiOUISVIlLE.WtW ALBANY t CHICAGO H YXajto 
« ■ T ' » 

. IS . 

THE SHORT LINE 

FROM 

Cincionevti, Indizinzvpolis, 
Louisville 

and all points South :: :: :. 

To Cbic2^So 



Pullrpzin Sleepersi 

Cbz^ir Czvrs . . . 

a.n<l Dioin? C^rs . . . 

017 2^11 Trains. . . 

For full information address 

FRANK J. REED, JAS. BARKER, 

C. p. A., 232 Clark St., G. P. A., Monon Block, 
CHICAGO. 




1893 MODEL 

New A\ail 

Strziijbt Dian7on<I Prziiije 

Ij: . strictly Higl7 Gr;x<lc 

^ AH Drop Forgings 
M. & W. Style Pneumatics, - - $125.00 
Dunlop Detachable " ... 133.00 

No Finer Wheel Made. Send for Catalogue 



MANUFACTURERS 



Wrn. Reevd Sr Sops 

107 Wzvsbingtoo street 

BOSTON 



Up to the Times! 




In 

Iiines 

In 

Finish 

In 

ImpFovements 
In 
Ulopkmanship «* 

READ our new catalogue which is cotnin.s: out soon and convince yourself. Our Leaders are the Warwick 
and the Liberty, High Grade everywhere, both in construction and price. Our $135 wheels, The 
Eclipse and The Central, are as fine as silk. Nothing superior at the price. We also have a magnificent line 
of medium grade and Juvenile wheels, of the very latest lines in construction, and fitted with pneumatic t^'res. 
For this line of wheels we are looking for responsible and active dealers in the New England States. A 
postal card of inquiry addressed to us will bring all further information desired. 

A. O. VERY CYCLE CO. 

245 Columbus Avenue, Boston. 




^:*; 



Tl)« Stcrlin? Special 
Roa.cI Rz^cer 
Track Wb^^l 



Jterlipsf Bicycles 

THE HIGHEST GRADE ONL.Y 

Valuable Points of Adve^ntag^ 

SE/HD FOR CATALOGUE 

deSvS?'" STOKE5 r\PO. CO. 

/^ILUVAUKEE AVAPufa^cturers 

OFFICE AND SALESROOM . . . 

293 Wa^bzvst) /Iveouc 
CHICAGO 



FIRST PREMIUM 

SILVER MEDAL 

FOB THE BEST BICYCLE EXHIBCT AT A RECENT FAIR HELD 
IN MECHANICS PAVILUON, SAN FRANCISCO. WAS AWARDED 
TO THOMAS H. B. VAENEY, WHOSE EXHIBIT CONSISTED OF 



^ AMBLER •*• R iCYCLBS. 



AND NOTHING BUT "RAUBLERS." THE JUDGES UNANIMOUSLY 
DECIDED TO AWaRD THE MEDAL TO -RAMBLERS." AFTER 
CAREFULLY WEIGBING THE MERITS OF ALL THE DIFFERENT 
WHEELS REPRESENTED. WHICH INCLUDED THt)3E OF ALL 
THE PRINCIPAL LARGE MAKERS OF THE COUNTRY. 



"Beanty and Terfection of Desi^ Strength, Tire, Bearings 
Wd Fine Finish won the da; for EAUBLEBS." 



iii ANT "RAHBUR" AQENT FOR A CITALOOHF. 



GORMULLY & JEFFERY MFG. CO., 

CBICA60. BOSTON. WASHINSTON. (1£W TORE. COTENTRT. Sag. 



CHAMPIONS 

IN 1886 

RAMBLERS 

IN 1893 



BUT ALL THE RESULT OF THE SAME 
HIGH-CLASS WORKMANSHIP 
HIGH-GRADE MATERIALS 



CATALOGUE FREE AT ANY 
RAMBLER AGENCY : 



AS 



IN 



1886 



SO 



IN 



1893 



"ALWAYS BEST" 



~/JJ^ 



^nOTETHISj- 

CHICAGO March 26, 1886. 
Messrs. GORMULLY & JEFFERY beg to an. 
nounce to their many friends and patrons that 
they were to-day notified by their New Orleans 
Agent, Mr. E. C. Fenner, that they had been 
awarded the First Prize, for "Collective Display 
of Bicycles," at the New Orleans Exposition. 
As their Wheels were in competition with all the 
well known makes, this is another significant fact. 



^©CF 



GOOD ROADS 




Good Roads are coming sure 

It will take time 

Do not wait for them 

And suffer annoyance and all the jolts and jars the 
flesh is heir to 



See that your wheels c?^^^^-^ TPi-^ 

: ; : are fitted with Seddoii Tires 

The "Red Un" is the best 



A represents the Envelope, which has a bottom (Ai) corering the spokt 

holes in the rim 
B the outer Air Chamber 
C the inner Air Chamber inflated 
D the Valve leading into inner chamber 
E E the Wire Bands 
P the Rim 




eUl TABLE POR : i : 

CYCLES 
SULKIES 
BUGGIES 
ROAD WAGONS 



%%%^ 






BARRINETTES, Etc. ^ 



Catailegu* Pr*« 



-^^^^ 



AMERICAN SEDDONS 
TYRE CO . 

65 Reade Street 
New York 




GENERALLY, USE 

ANTI- 



STIFF 

TO STRENGTHEN THE 
MUSCLES 

It has a particularly Warm- 
ing, Comforting and Stim- 
ulating effect cm all Weak 
or Stiff Muscles, quick in 
action, clean and pleasant 
in use. 

For Sale by Druggists and 
Dealers in Sporting Goods 

E FOOee k CO., Sole Hoents 

26=30 N. William St., N. Y. 



The equal 

of a 

high priced 
watch in 

o^ i_ open face, hunting, nickel, silver and 

O ly Ic tilled gold cases. 

Durability=='" '^'^'''" ''^""'S-'^°^' 

The 
Quic 
Waterbury 



3\o are warranted for ten 
years. 



Quick winding"°:iLeJ"""'^ 



Stem-set, full jev/eled, and sold by 
jewelers everywiiere — for Boys, 
Ladies and Gents. — Limit, $4 to 
$15, in a hundred dilTerent styles. 



40 



I^Ul |l^•<l| Ih-al ||.'.li |l^•<l| ll.-Ol Ih-.ll |l^•.|| |l>-.|| 11^^ 



RB7VIINCTON 

BICYCLES 



WRITE FOR 
CATALOGUE 




TDiee 
Patte[i|s 
For '03 



LIGHT ROADSTER, 32 LBS. ROADSTER, 44 LBS. 

WOMAN'S WHEEL, 42 LBS. PRICES, $140.00 and $145.00 

A VARIETY OF PNEUMATIC TIRES 

t^etnington Rpms Co. 

313=315 Broadway, New York City 



^||l^^^|||l^.|||||||l^■l||||||l^M|||||^l>^M|||||^|.^■■l|||||^^^^ 



mde a iiiFi\/^.ir(\y 





WAVERLY SCORCHER, 32 LBS. 



STRICTLY 
HIGH GRADE 



Odg IudM Dollai^ 



I **Our Guarantee" 

• As so many of our numerous correspondents ask what 

= " Guarantee goes with the ' Waverly ? ' " we wish to impress 

i upon the general public simply this: The " Waverly " is 

- fully warranted to be a strictly high grade machine in every 

= particular. It is built of the best quality of seamless steel 

^ tube. Dropped forgings and tool steel throughout, we guar- 

? antee every part to be perfect, and agree to replace any part 

= that may, within a very liberal period, show any defect of any 

i kind that is due to an imperfection in eitlier workmanship or 

^ material. The " Waverly " goes with this warrant, which is 

= backed by the Indiana Bicycle Co., who own and run the 

i largest bicycle factory in the world: who are thoroughly re- 

§ sponsible, having a paid-in cash capital of One Million Dollars, 

= no part of which is composed of patents at inflated prices, but 

i is money pure and simple. Who can produce a better 

? guarantee ? 



Equal to any machine made at any price. Fitted 
with Hoosier Double Lace Inner Tube Tires. 



Indiana Bicycle Co. 



Write for Catalogue and 
:: Dealers Terms 



Indianapolis, Ind. 



mlwa^s on Zop 
-'■'......., .,.,llllllllllllllll,l,l,„l,ll,lll,lll{ll' 




EXAMINE THEM BEFORE 
PLACING YOUR ORDER 
-CATALOGUE READY :: 





a. jfeatberetone Si Co. 

:: flDal^ere :: 

16tb an^ Claris Streets anb 

armour avenue, Cbicago, 1IIL 



IRoab (Siueen 



Raleigh Cycles 




Are Ridden by Champions the World Over 



Send for Catalogue 



: THEY ARE THE MOST ELEGANT 

: THEY ARE THE MOST DURABLE 

: THEY ARE THE FINEST FINISHED 

: THEY ARE THE BEST DESIGNED 

: THEY ARE SCIENTIFICALLY CONSTRUCTED 

: THEY ARE THE HIGHEST GRADE 

: THEY ARE THE HIGHEST PRICED 



THE 



Raleigh Cycle Co. 



LIMITED 



Bank ^^"^ Greenwich Streets, New Yorl<: 



I 



♦ 







AS 
FINE 
AS GAN 
BE BaiLt 



Ames & Frost Company 

302-304 Wabash Ave. 
Chicago 



NOT AMERICA'S ROADS, ALTHOUGH 



THEY SHOULD BE, BUT . . « 

BICYCLES ^ 

MOST COMPLETE AND INTERESTING BICYCLE . . . 
CATALOGUE PUBLISHED— FREE UPON APPLICATION 




/^ M>. Ak a ^./0\ y^ M\ M\ /^ ^ JK . 



. ,4V yi^ ^\ . 



([jesteFn (Ilheel (Hofks. 



Factory :. 

Wells, ScbiH^r, Sisiel and FranKHo Str^^ts, 

CHICAGO, ILL., U. S. A- 




250,000 SQUARE FEET FLOOR SPACE DEVOTED 
. . TO THE MANUFACTURE OF THE MOST 
. . POPULAR AND MOST COMPLETE LINE 
. . OF SAFETY BICYCLES IN AMERICA. 



® 



f\AiD Office: 

501 Veils Street, Cbic2igo. 

Easterp Ajcptj: 

R. L. Colerne^o Co,y ^ 

35 BARCLAY 5JTREET, fiEW YORK. 




1893 MODEL 

New A\ail 

Str&igbt Diarpon<I Pra.nje 
^ Strictly High Cra.<ac 
^ All Drop Porgiogs 
M. & W. Style Pneumatics, - - $125.00 
Dunlop Detaciiable " ... 135.00 
No Finer Wheel Made. Send for Catalogua 



MANUFACTURERS 



Wrr). Read 5* Sops 

107 Wzvsljington Street 

BOSTON 



TJffi 




BICYCLE 



'• LIGHT, STRONG, DURABLE, 
FAST, STEADY AND SAFE. 



ALL STEEL AND HICKORY. 
IMPROVED BALL BEARINGS. 
THE BEST CHAIN ADJUSTMENT. 
VELVET HANDLE BAR. 
SELF OILING CHAIN. 
THE ONLY ELASTIC FORKS. 
A WHEEL GUARD THAT CAN'T RATTLE. 
A SPRING TEMPERED BRAKE LEVER. 
OUR CATALOGUE TELLS THE WHOLE STORY. 



AGENTS WANTED. 



Elliott Hickory Gyele Co. 



NEWTON. MASS- 



A\oi7aircb Bicycles 

Are the BEST for all kinds of Roads. 
FOUR. SXYI^ES AH^ I^EADERS 




Every part a scientific production from the finest 
material obtainable. We are headquarters for all 
Cycle accessories. Send for our 1893 Catalogue. 
Reliable agents wanted. 

t\on^rcY) Cycle Co. 

^2,44,46,48,50 &• 52 N. Haljted St. 

CH I C AGO 



PE5T Cycle EN/qriELS ^ ^ 

F. O. PIEI^CE & CO. 



If your local DEALER 
cannot supply them 
SEND direct for 
SAMPLE CARD^^.« 



ARE JWADE BY 

170 Fulton Street, New York 

DRV QUICKL-V 5n£ITH K BRIL-LIT^NT GLOSS + + r 

.35 Pale Bine, - , By Mail 



PRICES 



4/%^%/%/%/%^ 



Black, - - 
Kuby - - 
Dark Bine, 

" Green, 
Yellow, - • 



.40 



,<%%/%/%/%^%/V%^^V%^« 




Pale Bine, 
" Green, 
White, - . 
Cream, - - 
Pink, - ■ 



:^w???????????m^^^^ 



Bicycle 



Repair. 



The Victor Way. 



Your Hands 

Extra Inner 
Tube 

F'ive Minutes 

(Good as New) 



The Other Ways. 



Pail of Water 



(to find the leak) 



Glue Pot 
Sheet Rubber 
Needle and Thread 
Cement 
Special Tools 
Plenty of Time 
(Questionable Success 
A Patched Tire) 



Tbe Victor Ppeurrja^tic Tire 



Saves Tirrje. 



(And Time is Money. j 



DITERMAN WHEEL !CD. 



w4" 



BOSTON 



WASHINGTON 



DENVEE 



SAN FRANCISCO | 
I- 



r^uuiuiiuuiuiiuuiuuduuiSi; 



o o o o o o WHY 50 FEW 



G. & J. PNEUMATICS 



o o o o o o PUNCTURE o 



The Outer Cover 



is smooth inside, and completely envelops the air tube. In other 
words, the outer cover extends under as well as over the air 
tube, and protects the tube from contact with the spoke 
ends and rim 



The Air Tube 



is somewhat larger than the inside of the outer cover, con- 
sequently the rubber is not stretched, and will not enlarge a 
small puncture, the tube being simply pressed against the walls 
of the outer cover. This makes the tube self=healing, as 
regards slight punctures 



Those Corrugations 



besides preventing side slipping and presenting a greater wearing 
surface without employing a thick, stiff tread, have proven very 
effective guards against puncture 



The High Price 



of the G. & J. Pneumatic, as compared to the cheaper grades 
furnished, is its highest recommendation. It commands the 
highest price, because it is worth it. If a manufacturer or 
dealer says he cannot furnish the G. & J. tire, ask him if it costs 
him a little more than any other — that will explain the reason. 
The high grade price you pay for a wheel should give you 
the "best there is " in tires. Insist upon it. 



"THE Q. & J. PNEUMATIC TIRE IS THE HIGHEST PRICED" 
"HIGHEST GRADE TIRE MADE" .. Send for Description .. 

Qormuily Si Jeffery M'f g Co. 

218=320 N. Franklin Street, Chicago 



174 Columbus Avenue, 
BOSTON. 



S5 Madison Street 
CHICAGO. 



1325 14th Street, N. W, 
WASHINGTON. 



Broadway and 57th Street, 
NEW YORK 



5 and 6 Hartford Street, 
COVENTRY, ENG. 



GOOD ROADS 




Good Roads are coming sure 

It will take time 

Do not wait for them 

And suffer annoyance and all the jolts and jars the 
flesh is heir to 



I 



See that your wh^eeU^_^ ^.^^ SeddOH TirCS 

The "Red Un" is the best 



A represents the Envelope, which has a bottom (Ai) covering the spoke 

holes in the rim 
B the outer Air Chamber 
C the inner Air Chamber inflated 
D the Valve leading into inner chamber 
E E the Wire Bands 
F the Rim 




2^1 TABLE FOR '%%^^ 

CYCLES 
SULKIES 
BUGGIES 
ROAD WAGONS 
BARRINETTES, Etc. 



Cz^tZklogue Pr«« 



%%%/% 



AMERICAN SEDDQNS 
TYRE CO . 

65 Reade Street 
New York 




TO STRENGTHEN THE 
MUSCLES 

It has a particularly Warm- 
ing. Comforting and Stim- 
ulating effect on all Weak 
or Stiff Muscles; quick in 
action, clean and pleasant 
in use. 

For Sale by Druggists and 
Dealers in Sporting Goods 



E. FOOGERH & CO., Soie Agents 

26=30 N. William St., N. Y. 



A man 

without a conscience is hardly worse off 
than without a watch — No excuse for 
lacking either. 

A handsome i4-i<arat gold, filled, or 
coin-silver watch; jeweled movement; 
a perfect time-keeper ; stem-set and 
stem-winding (in about five seconds); 
may be bought for ten dollars — even 
less, it is for superior to any Swiss 
watch at the price: — The new, per- 
fected, quick=winding " Waterbury." 



Your jeweler sells it in a great variety 

of designs: ladies' hunting-case, 

dainty chatelaine with decorated 

dial, business-man's watch, and 

boy's watch. $4to$is. 

43 



H ardy O hododendrons. 



Of all the shrubs produced by nature none can excel the rare beauty and stateliness of the Rhododen- 
drons, with their rich, glossy foliage and flowers of wondrous brilliancy ; blooming in great clusters 
of scarlet, purple and white, until one is lost in admiration. The finest varieties are the Hardy 
Catawbiense, from which our stock is specially selected. 



Hardy A zaleas. 



Next in rank to the Rhododendrons for beauty and value as decorative shrubs come the Azaleas, in 
the latter part of May and through June, every twig and branch of these beautiful plants is dressed 
with the most brilliant and fragrant flowers shaded in neady all colors from scarlet to rose pink, white, 
orange and yellow. 



Our Special Offer: 

Six Hardy Rhododendrons, 
Six Hardy Azaleas, 
Twelve Hardy Rhododendrons, 
Twelve Hardy Azaleas, 
Fifty Hardy Rhododendrons, 
Fifty Hardy Azaleas, 

All the above are well set with buds, and will bloom this season. 

Plants packed carefully and delivered to any railroad leading out of Philadelphia. 



$12.00 
$20,00 

$75-oo 



ANDORRA NURSERIES, 

WM. WARNER HARPER. CUestuut Hill, Philadelphia, Pa. 

-—^ Manager. ' ^ ' 

Send for our Special 1893 list of choice Hardy Trees, Shrubs^ Plants, Roses and Fruit, 



mde a rrj;;i\/ftnty 





WAVERLY SCORCHER, 32 LBS. 



STRICTLY 
HIGH GRADE 



One MM Dollars 



Our Guarantee" 



As so many of our numerous correspondents ask what 
" Guarantee goes with the ' Waverly ? '" we wish to impress 
upon the general public simply this: The " Waverly " is 
fully warranted to be a strictly high grade machine in every 
paiticular. It is built of the best quality of seamless steel 
tube. Dropped forgings and tool steel throughout, we guar- 
antee every part to be perfect, and agree to replace any part 
that may, within a very liberal period, show any defect of any 
kind that is due to an imperfection in either workmanship or 
material. The " Waverly " goes with this warrant, which is 
backed by the Indiana Bicycle Co., who own and run the 
largest bicycle factory in the world: who are thoroughly re- 
sponsible, having a paid-in cash capital of One Million Dollars, 
no part of which is composed of patents at inflated prices, but 
is money pure and simple. Who can produce a better 
guarantee? ' 

Equal to any machine made at any price. Fitted 
with Hoosier Double Lace Inner Tube Tires. 



Indiana Bicyele Co. 



Write for Catalogue and 
:: Dealers Terms 



Indianapolis, Ind. 



Hlvva^e on XTop 




EXAMINE THEM BEFORE 



PLACING YOUR ORDER 



-CATALOGUE READY : 





IRoat) Iking 

a. jFeatberstone & Co. 

16tb anb Clart^ Streetg ant) 
armour Bvenuc, Cbicago, 1HI. 



IRoat) (Siueen 



Raleigh Cycles 



'^^? 




Are Ridden by Champions the World Over 



.'. Send for Catalogue 



: THEY ARE THE MOST ELEGANT 

: THEY ARE THE MOST DURABLE 

■ THEY ARE THE FINEST FINISHED 

: THEY ARE THE BEST DESIGNED 

: THEY ARE SCIENTIFICALLY CONSTRUCTED 

: THEY ARE THE HIGHEST GRADE 

: THEY ARE THE HIGHEST PRICED 



THE 



ZIMMERMAN 
ND THE RALEIGH 



Raleigh Cycle Co. 

LIMITED 

Bank tf Greenwich Streets, New Yorl< 




I AS 
1 FINE 
i AS GAN 

t BE BaiLt 



Ames & Frost Company 

302-304 Wabash Ave. 
Chicago 



NOT AMERICA'S ROADS, ALTHOUGH 



THEY SHOULD BE, BUT 






BICYCLES ^ 

MOST COMPLETE AND INTERESTING BICYCLE . . . 
CATALOGUE PUBLISHED— FREE UPON APPLICATION 



^ .A ,<^ . A, /^ /#\ /^./^ .#\ 



([(estern (Ilheel (Ilopks. 

f 

Factory : -^ 

Wells, Scbill^r, Sisi^I and Franklin Str^^ts, 

CHICAGO, ILL., U. S. A- 




250,000 SQUARE FEET FLOOR SPACE DEVOTED 

. . TO THE MANUFACTURE OF THE MOST ^ 

® . . POPULAR AND MOST COMPLETE LINE ^ 

. . OF SAFETY BICYCLES IN AMERICA. 

t\zar) Of fice : 

501 Wells Street, Cbicago. 

Eastcrij Agcpt^s 

R. L. Coleno^T) Co,, ^ 

35 BARCLAY STREET, fiEW YORK. 





1 

Oi7C Hupclrecl DoUzirs 

In Gold to be F*a.id in F^rizes eor Photographs 
OF Bad Roads. 



To stimulate the coUedion of ^Photographs to be used in showing 

the need of improved roads in the United States, I offer 

three pri:{es, aggregating $ioo in gold, as follows : 

1. One prize of $50 (gold) for the best collection of not less than three 

photographs. 

2. One prize of $30 (gold) for the second best collection of not less 

than three photographs. 

3. One prize of $20 (gold) for the third best collection of not less 

than three photographs. 



T 



His OFFER IS MADE SUBJECT TO THE FOLLOWING CONDITIONS AND 
SUGGESTIONS WHICH SHOULD BE OBSERVED : :: :: :: :: 



A 



All photographs must be accompanied by the negatives, unless the latter have 
been destroyed. 

Competition will close on the first day of July, 1893, and all photographs must be 
submitted on or before that date. 

Photographs must be confined to such subjects as most strongly illustrate the un- 
fitness of the present public roads (especially the common "dirt " roads) used as public 
highways. 

To aid you by a suggestion, I would recommend the following as good subjects for 
competitive pictures : 

Photographs showing the common spectacle of the farmer's team and wagon, hub- 
deep and knee-deep in the muddy road. 

Photographs showing rough, rutty and muddy roads in their worst condition. 

"Stuck in the mud " photographs, showing the farmer or merchant with his loaded 
wagon vainly trying to drive his patient team and load out of the inevitable mud hole. 

Photographs showing the everyday breakdown caused by rough or muddy roads 
or stccD sfradcs. 

Photographs showing smooth, hard-surfaced roads and (if possible) teams hauling 
loads over the same. t 1, j 

And other pictures illustrating the goodness of good roads and the badness of bad 
roads. Your opportunities and observation will suggest the proper thing in this line. 

Each photograph must be accompanied by a full statement of particulars, givmg 
date, location, etc., by which the picture may be identified. Blanks for this purpose 
will be supplied on application. . . 

All photographs and negatives submitted must be sent marked with a fictitious 
name or pseudonym, by which the competitor is to be known until the date of award. 
Each competitor must also send a sealed envelope containing his or her real name and 
address, and marked upon the outside with the fictitious name of the competitor.^ 

All photographs and negatives submitted in this competition are to remain the 
permanent property of the League of American Wheelmen. At least ten persons must 
compete in order to insure the reward here offered. j. 1 • 

In deciding upon the respective merits of the work submitted, the following points 
will be considered. 

1. The subject of the photograph and its force in illustrating the necessity for 
better roads. 

2. Clearness and general excellence of photographic work. _ 

3. Location (giving preference to those views which show bad roads m important 
counties, suburbs of large towns, etc.) 

4. Size of photograph. The question of size will be considered least and last of all. 
Any competitor may send more than three photographs if desired. The committee 
will select the three best of those submitted by each competitor. 

The prizes will be awarded before July 15, 1893, by a committee to be selected bY 
the Executive Committee of the League of American Wheelmen. All communi- 
cations will be in every respect confidentially treated, and further information will be 
furnished on application to the undersigned, to whom all photographs and negatives 
should be sent. , 

ISAAC B, POTTER, manaoe^. 

POTTER BUJLDING, IMEW YORK CIT». 



'^' WHICH ? 




ANOTHER WAY (Good Foix. the Morse:.) 











THE 5EJ5T VAT - RIDE AYicTOFO 



-| Everybody knows that walking is good exercise ; that riding is fairly 

'I so ; but that bicycling is the grandest, most exhilirating, most healthful 



sport and exercise in the world for men and women. 



When you want the best bicycle on earth you'll want a Victor, and the 
I best bicycle catalog ever printed is yours on request. 



DVERMAN WHEEL CD. 



^^^1 BOSTON WASHINGTON DENVER SAN FRANCISCO 




Williams' Shaving Stick. 

BE SURE YOU GET 



AS A DAILY COMFORT-BRINGING 

EXERCISE 

SHAVING 

CAN BE MADE THE REFRESHING 
ENJOYABLE PART OF THE 
MORNING TOILET 

The soft, creamy lather produced by 
} WILLIAMS' SHAVING STICK is SO 
^ cooling, so softening to the beard, so 

comforting to the face that it is an 

actual pleasure to apply it 



WILLIAMS' 



Each stick enclosed in a beautiful case, strong, compact, attractive. Ask your Druggist 

for WILLIAMS' If he does not have it, do not let him foist some inferior 

substitute upon you, but send 25 cents in stamps to us and receive a 

genuine WILLIAMS' SH AVI N G STICK, by return mail, 

postpaid. Address 

The J. B. WILLIAMS CO., Glastonbury. Ct., U. S. A. 

For over Half a Century makers of Fine Shaving Soaps 



Timarwick imbeels 



Send for 

'93 CatalogtM 



for 1893 

^ Will be first in Finish, Style and Construction 

The "Pilgrim" 



* 



Highest Grade — Cushion or Pneumatic Tired, a 



road machine par excellence :: :: :: :: 

The "Priscilla" 

^ A gracefully designed, light weight, Cushion or 
Pneumatic tired wheel for ladies :: :: :: 

The "Ghost" 



* 



Extra light weight. Pneumatic Tired wheel for 



racing men :: :: :: :: :: :: 

Warwick Cycle flanufacturing Co. 

Sprin^ield, Mass._^>' 



MMBttea "Qood Roads" 




JLENTLY and swiftly it moves like a 
thought. Mounted upon the Tourist, 
time and space are annihilated, and you go where you will 
with a wish. It actually has winged feet, for with the 
Bidwell Constrictive Tire you can literally ride upon air. 
For this reason you need a 

Bidwell Ball=Bearing Cyclometer 

to convince you how far you have ridden ; because fatigue 
never attacks a Tourist rider — twenty miles are as easy as 
one. Write to us for our pamphlet on 

"AIR: ITS HARD AND SOFT SIDE" 



-•-*-• 



Geo. R. Bidwell Cycle Co. 

308=310 West 59th Street, N. Y. 



Factory, Colts' West Armory, Hartford, Conn. 
Tire Factory, 49 and 51 West 66th Street 



Voa look 
f^idiealous 



Us 






when riding a bicycle with- 
out a uniform. There's 

:====: no excuse for it when you 

can buy a cycle suit and accessories so cheaply from 
us. : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 

Bicycle Suits in Jerseys, Cheviots, Flannels and 

Corduroy, $9.00 to $13.00 

Bicycle Caps, 1.25 

Bicycle Sweaters in reliable and attractive 

qualities, $2.25 to $4. ■; 5 

Bicycle Hose 50 to 1.75 

Our Bicycle and Athletic Catalogue was delayed. 
It is now in press and will be attractive to every 
cycle rider. Write or call for it. : : : : : : 

A. t^aymond & Co. 

IVIElNl'S OUTFITTERS 
iMassau and Fulton Streets, fieixx York 



t\4 




a 



Built to Ride 



«•■ 



GIVES YOU A FULL DESCRIPTION OP TBil 






m Bloytie Ci. "Dauntless" 

TOLEDO. OHIO. ^^^^^^— ii^ • ■■■ 




FOR 1893 



Stands- 



good ROADS 

® OR... ^ 

BAD ONES 

WEIGHTS OF ROAD MACHINES, 29, 33, 35 AND 40 POUNDS 

HIGHEST GRADE THROUGHOUT 




iAZlLSON, TVYVERS 5d OO. 



TBSKICBRS OF5 



L-IBERTV OVOL-ES 



55 Liberty Street, 



NEW YORK 



|l^-M|f||||l^•a||||h-M||l|i^•0||||l^-a||||l^•<l||||l^•a|^^|^^^^ 



RE7VIINCTON 

BICYCLES 



WRITE FOR 
CATALOGUE 




LIGHT ROADSTER, 32 LBS. ROADSTER, 44 LBS. 

WOMAN'S WHEEL, 42 LBS. PRICES, $140.00 and $145.00 

A VARIETY OF PNEUMATIC TIRES 

Remington Rrms Co. 

313=315 Broadway, New York City 



.••o||||i-.i||||||i-M|l||||h-u||||||i.-u^^ 



A Congenial ^ CLEVELAND 
Traveling the "^^^^^^^^^^ 
Friend: ^^ NO. 4, of course 

MANY CYCLISTS WILL GO TO THE WORLD'S FAIR THIS SUMMER ON A 

Ol-EIZ^EL-MND No. ^ 

AND WILL BE CERTAIN THEY NEVER HAD OR WOULD CARE TO HAVE A MORE 

CONGENIML- XRHMEL-ING F^RIEND 

Fitted with : : : : : : 

Cleveland Thread Pneumatic Tire 

Used with :::::: 

Cleveland Pim ^n 
», Burwell Dust Proof Bearings 

A PRINTED GUARANTEE FURNISHED WITH EACH AND EVERY WHEEL SOLD 

SEND FOR CATALOGUE 

H. A. LOZIER & CO., Cleveland, Ohio 





Agents ^** ^* Largest Stock in America 
SYLPHS, RUDQES 
OVERLANDS and 
WESTERN WHEEL 
WORKS' CYCLES 

Offer unequalled values and variety to Dealers and 
Wheelmen. All sizes and styles of Virheels in stock 
and 20 to 50 per cent, saved on many patterns. Easy 
payments if desired. No matter what you want in 
the cvcle line it will pay you to write to us. Our 
Superior Inducements bring us orders from every- 
where. Send for catalogue and bargain list free. 

BOUSE, Wim & CO., 177 (f Street, Peoria, ill. 

Manufacturers, Importers and Jobbers 



Fn D ^ A I P *-*°^ second-hand Farrel & Marsden, COxlO Crusher, 
lUnOHLC complete with screen of the latest pattern. One 
9xl2-inch horizontal slide-valve engine, Atlas make, double 
crank, with 48x11 balance pulley. One Lidgerwood Boiler, loco- 
motive style, 13 feet long, shell 30 inches diani., steam dome 
17x17 inches, with thirty-four 3-iuch x 7 1-2 feet tubes, smoke- 
stack 11 1-2 feet loUj! by 18 inches in di£im. All in first-class 
condition and at a bargain. Address ; 

Farrel Foundry i& Machine Company 
Ansonia, Conn. 



:fl3ounJ> Dolumes of 



WILL BE SENT . 
POST PAID FOR 



: $1.25 

TO ANY ADDRESS 



TTIE M'>6T COMPLETE ENORAYINO ESTABLISHMENT IN THE COUNTRY 

IT WILL PAY YOU T© 




COMMUNICATE \YITH (W 
TO OET PRiCtCk AND 
SPECIMENS op OUR 
WORK 



MENTIOM _ _ 



^MILWAUKEE 

/ MITCHELL w CHAM BtR 
^^ op COMMERCE 6LDC/6. 

(HlCAO^D 



7a 6TATE ^l- 




HIGH GRADE, $120. PN EUM ATIC Tl RE 



PECK & SNYDER'S 

NEW "NASSAU" 

« « « • 

5,000 Active Agents Wanted 

SPECIAL INDUCEMEMTS AND TERRITORY 
ASSIGNED TO THOSE 
WHO WRITE nillflf ^ 

• • • • 

PECK & SNYDER 

126 and 130 Nassau St. 
1790 Broadway 

NEW YORK 



» O .A I^ {S I> ^V IvE> 

HOME FOR CHRONIC DISEASES 

40 Minutes out; Harlem R. R. 

NATURE— REST— CURE. Home treatment for a 

few selected cases the year round. Terms, 

$25.00 per week and upward. 

Hddfess, Dp. GEO. D. CLilpT 



THE FLORENCE' 



9 to 12 A. M. 



109 East 18th .Street, New York 




CROSS Xii ^ 



RUBBIB 




BED 
GROSS 
RUBBER 
CEPIEHT 



A Solution for Repairinpr Cuts and Punctures in 
Pneumatic Tires Will unite perfectly any two pieces of 
Rubber. For Sale by all Dealers or a large tube by mail 25 
Cents. None penulne unless it contains our Trade Mark, Red 
Cross. Send for Cataloeue of Red Cross Handy Articles. 

Manufactured by A. U. BETTS & CO., Toledo, Ohio. 




Cleanest and Neatest Pocket Oiler in the World. 
"Will Not L.eak. Handsomely Nickel-Plated. 

For Bicycles, Guns, Typewriters, Sewing Machines, etc., and 
g-eneral use on all small and delicate Machinery. 

BUY OILER PIFB. CO., VEr?o%'l^, S^i^"' 



WILLIAM S. BACOT, C. E., Mem. Am. Soc. 0. E. 
Engineer of County Roads 

RICHMOND CO., Staten Island, N. Y. 

SPBOIAI.TIKS: Water-Works, Sewerage, Improvements of Roads 

Offices : 

145 BROADWAY, NEW YORK, and STAPLETON, S. I. 

Construction and Improvement of 

ROADS AND PAVEMENTS 

A SPECIALTY 
A. X. BYRNE 

Civil Engineer and 361 Fulton St. 
''irn'-j — — Brooklyn, N. Y. 




Said the 

Owl 

to himself, "If the 
moon I could get, 
whenever I'm dry 
my throat I could 
wet; The moon is a ~^= 

quarter — with a quar- 
ter I hear ; you can 
(«^^*-^Q/ purchase five gal- 
'' ^^ ' Ions of 

Hires' 

^jII Root Beer." 

A Delicious, Teniper= 
ance, Thirst=quenching, 
Healtli=Qiving Drink. 
Good for any time of year. 

A 2SC. package makes 5 gallons. Be sure and 
get Hires'. 




iu»w » .^.»i/ »> v» i »v* > r^yr^^9 w w vw^v 



FOREIGN AJN D AMERIOAIff CYOLIXO PAPERS, 
PERIODICALS, HAN» BOOKS AND ROAD BOOK» 
FOR SALE. Send for Llxt. 

FLETCHER <b CO., 48 E. Van Buren St., OMcaeo.. 



jfliHEs c. wopERs, Qiyji Enoineep, 

BELLEFONTAINE, O. w**" j.*i*jjxx»wwi j 

Highways and Municipal Work, Plans, Estimates, 
Specifications, Superintendenos. Correspondenc*- 
ovited. 



P. A. DUMHAA\» Civil Engineer 

AND Expert in Road and Street Improvements^ 

Engineer in Charge of the following Works : 
The Famous Union Co., N. J., Road System ; Street 
Improvements, Hasbrouck Heights, N. J.; Street 
Paving and Sewerage, Sewickley, Pa.; Street 
Improvements, Glean, N. Y. Is City Engineer of 
Plainfield, N. J., and Dunkirk, N. Y. Correspondenc* 
Solicited. Main Office, No. 7 Park Ave., Plainfield, N. i. 



fARMERS, Planters, Fruit- Orowers, 

GARDENERSy FLORISTS! 
FORTUNE 

AWAITS YOU 




STUDEBAKER "LITTLE GEM" 

•ne Horse Farm, Garden, Flower-Bed and Lawn Sprinkler 
<C«pacity 150 Gallons, i-inch tires). Insures you a luxury of 
Growth of Crops never before dreamed of. Your arch enemy, 

DROCTH, COIIPLETELY CONQUERED. 
Ik© hotter the season the more abundant the crop. Nothing 
Hke It for sprinkling private roadways, for the distribution 
•f liquid manurt^it will not clog— or for Bpriukluig liquids 
(•rpolsouing insects. 

■Write at once, mentioning this paper, for illustrated catar- 
togne and price list, to 

STUDEBAKER BROS. MFG CO., South Bend. Ind. Q) 
(The Largest Vehicle Makers in the World.) 



STUDEBAKER 

STRBKX, PARK AT«iD XRA^^ 

S prinklers 

Ilare been adopted in nearly all the Leading Cltici 

and Towns in the United States, because they ars 
BUILT TO STAND THE HAHDEST USAGE. EA§¥ 
TO O^^ERATE. SIMl'LE TO UM>EUSTAND. 
THOROUGH Ii\ EXECUTION. 



Illustrated Catalogue upon application to 

STUDEBAKER BROS. MFQ. CO. 

SOUTH BEND. tN( 




Mention GOOD ROADS, 




PfiTEflT flJlD H^IPI^OVED STOflH BI^HAI^EH. 

The fappel FoandFV and Ittaehine Go.,flDsooia,Goiiii 

THE FARREL & MARSDEN CRUSHER, the standard machine for road metal; with 
or without screen, mounted or unmotmted; ten sizes. Write for catalogue 
and list of cities, towns, contractors and individuals using this machine. 



•. C. NIGHTINGALE & CHILDS, 134 Pearl St., 

Maw MmfflMoA Ajtvato for tbe Farrcl A M»nden Stone Onuher, and Oontrsctors tor 

Complete Macadam Road Building PlantSo 

STONAQS BINS AND ELEVATORS FOR CRUSHED STONE. 
VTRKKT SPRINKLING WAGONS AND SWEEPERS, ROCK DRILLS. A«. 
NORSE AND STEAM ROAD ROLLERS, ENGINES AND BOILERS. 
lUBt Bas:iBeer fttmisbed for l^catlngr and advising. Send (or Caf Ing— > 



CUroaght Iron Bridge Co. 

CKNXOIS. OHIO. 



01 
J 
0> 
< 
J 
01 

cc 

Q 

o 
cc 




Best Hisibvay Bridsies. • • 



o 
;n 
?; 

6) 

c 
> 

3) 

■2 
-\ 

n 
n 


VA 

> 
in 

I 

n 

O 



PLANS AND ESTIMATES FREE. 



WRITE FOR ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE. 



steel Steam I{oad-RolleFs. m^ than 1,600 mmuotmei 

Steam Road-Rollers with compound (high 
and low pressure) cylinders. 

Steam Road-Rollers with sinjrle (high-pres- 
sure) cylinder. New and improved spring 
scrapers, new steering gear, new arrangement of 
driver's foot-plate, etc., etc. 

Incomparably superior in simplicity, work- 
manship, materials and consequent durability to 
any imitations. 

At Auburn, N. Y., Boston, Mass., Staten Island, 
N.Y.,and numerous other places where imitations 
of Aveling & Porter's Rollers are in use, the most 
unsatisfactory results are reported, and the wear 
and tear and breakages have been greater in 12 
months than with the Aveling Rollers in six years. 
Scores of similar reports are obtainable, and the 
broken-down imitation machines can be seen by 
anyone interested. 

Tn the Compound Engine the last vestige of an 
excuse for using two high-pressure cylinder en- 
gmes is destroyed, and the wanton and ignorant 
disregard of economy and usefulness by the use of 
double high-pressure cylinders are by the "Com- 

_ pound " Roller made more manifest than ever. 

— '— — - — The Aveling & Porter "Compound" 

Rollers are manufactured in the same substantial and excellent manner as are their usual Single High- 
Pressure Cylinder machines, and all are fitted with patented Spring Scrapers, new and improved Steerage 
Drum, enlarged Driver's Foot-Plate, Steam-Jacketed Cylinder, and Crucible-Steel Gearing eniirefy ivithout 
feathers — a patented arrangement, the infringement of which subjects both seller and buyer to legal 
proceedings. 

STEAM ROAD-ROLLERS, ROAD LOCOMOTIVES, "BARNARDCASTLE" STREET- 
SWEEPING MACHINES, STREET-SCRAPING MACHINES, STONE CRUSHERS, Etc. 




-APPLY TO- 



W. C. OASTLER, 43 Exchange Place, New York 



The HflHmsBORG Doable Engine Iload Holler '°vlt « 



and 20 



Not only a Roller but a ROAD MACHINE 



Weight 




Not HoiT Cheap, bnt Hotv flnofl. No-wm use in nearly one hundred cities and towns in United States Send for 
Illustrated Cataloprue. Manufactured by HARRISBURG FOUNDRY & MACHINE WORKS. HARRISBUR6. PA. 
Selling Agents, W. K. FLEMING & CO., New York & Now England. New York .Vffice, Mail and Express B'd'^;. Boston Office, 
620 Atlantic Avenue, Waltpr W. Jones, Manatrer. F. E. BATLEY, Philadelphia, 21 S. 7th Street, Builders' Exchange. 
H. E. BALDWIN, Cincinnati, Periu E'd'g, 5th and Race Sts. 



New Jersey Trap Rock Company 

BROKEN STONE •.• .-. •.• 

FOR 

MACADAM AND TELFORD ROADS 

:: :: CONCRETE, SCREENINGS. Etc. :: :: 

Pronounced by Engineers the FINEST MATERIAL in the World 
for ROAD MAKING 

Stands crushing test of 22,000 lbs. per cubic inch 

Ouarry, Snake Hill, Seacaucus Station, D. L. & W. R. R. 
Office, No. I Montgomery Street, Jersey City 



opposite SettQG|^axLta R. R. Station 



Telephone, 284 Jersey City 



ee@@00!e$^ii> iiiseeeeeseoeeee! 




>poeee0e( p 



i 




THAT IS, FEATURES OF SPECIAL MERIT ARE WHAT 



MAKE ONE BICYCLE 


STAND PRE-EMINENTLY ABOVE 


ANOTHER. THE xx 


XX XX XX XX XX XX 



POSSESSES MORE OF THESE 




THE KING BRIDGE CO., 



BRIDGES. 



CliEVEIifllll), OHIO. 



VIADUCTS. 



IRON AND STEEL EYE BARS, GIRDERS AND STRUCTURAL WORK FOR BUILDINGS. 

PLANS. ESTIMATES AND SURVEYS FREE OF COST. 




BRIDGE OVER THE OHIO RIVER, BETWEEN CINCINNATI, O.. AND NEWPORT, KYj 

Designed and Built by THE KING BRIDGE CO. 

X,aiT«TH OF Cantilbvbr Channel Span, 520 Feet. Totai. I^bnoth of Brxdob, 2916 Pbb«. 



... Do you want . . . 

A League Badge ? 

"GOOD ROADS" WILL SEND YOU ELEGANT BADGES (NEW DESIGNS) 

. . . „ AS FOLLOWS 



FOR ONE PAID YEARLY SUBSCRIBER, 

. . . ^2.00 . . . 



FOR THREE SUBSCRIBERS. 




Handsome L. A. W. pin or button. Best roll 
plate ; enameled, in two colors, white and black. 

FOR TWO SUBSCRIBERS 

the same in solid Gold. Retail price, Si. 50. 

FOB THREE SUBSCRIBERS. 





A handsome gold plated watch charm and 
locket, with L. A W. emblem on reverse sid*. 
Enarieled in two colors. 



FOR FOUR SUBSCRIBERS. 




This novelty gold plated Thermometer watch 
Charm, registers temperatures accurately, with L. A. 
W. emblem oa back in two colors of enamel. Retail 
price, $2.50. 



Solid gold, open work. Fnetiinatic tire lo 
white enamel. Stone in centre. Retail price, $4x0 



FOR FIVE SUBSCRIBERS. 




Same as above, with enameled handle, bars, and 
the handsomest Iv. A.W. pin made. Retail price, $5.00 



EACH SUBSCRIPTION MUST BE AT FULL YEARLY RATES, $2.00. 
Remit by F». O. Order. Postal Note or Registered Letter te 

"Good Roads, "Potter BuHding, New York City. 



R C. AUSTIN MFG. CO., CHICAGO, ILL. 




TI^USS Bf^lDGE 



SIMPLEST, STRONGEST AND BEST 
BRIDGE FOR HIGHWAYS 



SEND SPECIFICATIONS OF BRIDGES YOU HAVE TO PUT UP AND WE 

WILL FURNISH PRICES. SPECIAL BRIDGE CIRCULAR 

SENT ON APPLICATION. 




THE 

NEW 

EBH 



HND 

mm 

LOPEQ 



The New Era will build One Quarter of a Mile of ordinary Prairie Road in Ten 
Hours, with Six Teams and Three Men, and for Cuttingr Down Hills and Fillingf 
Hollows will load 600 to 800 wagons, of 1 1 -4 to 1 1-2 Yards each, in same time. 

For further particulars send for Catalogue to 

R C. AUSTIN riFQ. CO., CHICAGO, ILL. 



F. C. Austin Mfg. Co., Chicago, III. 




flDSTIll STEEL HE^ERSlBliE HOAD W^M^ 

Saves Seventy-five Per Cent, in Cost of Road Construction compared 
with plows and scrapers, is easy of operation, light of draft, and em- 
braces many very desirable points of advantage over all competitors. 
For full particulars send for Catalogue. 



Oof ImpFoved flostin Steel Street Smeepef 




Is THE simplest, 
strongest, most 
durable, lightest 
draught and most 
efficient Street 
Sweeping Mach- 
ine on the market. 
It has a solid cyl- 
inder broom nine 
feet long, made of 
steel wire or of 
other material if 
desired. Only two 
horses required. 

Send for Special 
Street Sweeper 
Catalogue. 



F. C. AUSTIN MFG. CO.. CHICAGO, ILL. 



F. C. Austin Mfg. Co., Chicago, 111. 



THE CHICAGO ROCK AND ORE BREAKER. 



Made in Five 



Sizes. 




Especially for 
Township use. 



SECTIONAL VIEW. 

A FEW POINTS IN FAVOR OF THE CHICAGO BREAKER. 

TSt Simplicity. Any ordinary laborer can manage it. 

2d It breaks rock into more uniform sizes with less dust. 

3d Great economy in power. 

4th Economy in price, where cost of power is considered. 

5th It is the only breaker that can be operated by a common horse power. 

6th It is more durable and costs 50 per cent, less for repairs. 

7th There are no gear wheels or pinions in this machine to break. 

Send for special Rock Crusher Catalogue. 




The Chicago Rock Crusher with a six-horse power Austin engine breaking 100 tons of 
rock pe/ day, which is elevated into a Rotary Screen, where it is separated into three sizes 
and deposited in bins, to be easily discharged into Austin Dump Wagons, and hauled onto 
the road. 

If you want to know anything about Road 
Construction or the best Machinery to employ 
write to 



F. C. AUSTIN JVIFG. CO., CHICAGO, ILL. 



♦ The 

♦ A, B, C °^ ROAD naKlNG 

^ USE THE BEST MACHINERY 

♦ AND YOU WILL GET THE BEST RESULTS 

♦ 




♦ 
♦ 
♦ 
♦ 
♦ 

♦ 



♦ 
♦ 
♦ 



THE STEEL CHAMPION ROAD MACHINE 

unequalled in design, material and construction. 

It will keep the ditches clear, affording good drainage, grade and level the roadbed, fill 
uck-holes and gullies, and in short is a perfect road worker, doing the work of from 30 
50 men with plows and shovels. 




THIS WHEEL SCRAPER 

a valuable implement for any road maker to have in cutting down hills, hauling gravel or other 
iterial, etc. Our large catalogue describes tliese maciiines fully. It is yours for the asking. ^ 

BIHEBIGHN HOflD milGliDIE CO., Keqiiett Spare, Pa. 



THE KILBOURNE & JjIGOBS PIEG. CO., GolOinDUS, 0. 




mamD Seharf Asphalt Pavmg Co 

Genuine Trinidad Asphalt Pavements 



For Streets, Sidewalks, Driveways 



The Standard Pavement for . 

CHEAPNESS . . 

HEALTH . . . 
J DURABILITY . . 
* SMOOTHNESS and 

SAFETY . . . 



~* 



IT ENHANCES THE VALUE OF PROPERTY MORS 
THAN ANY OTHER PAVEMENT 

Priocipa^l Office : 

81 Fultop St., new YorK 



SEND FOR CIRCULARS AND ESTIMATES. MENTION GOOD ROADS" 



TUB Sicilian flspiait Pavlno Go. 

#%'^/^^%/%^%' CONTRACTORS FOR 



SICILIAN AND GERMAN ROCK 
ASPHALT STREET PAVEMENTS 



TRINIDAD " LAKE " ASPHALT 
STREET PAVEMENTS 



LIMMER ROCK ASPHALT 
FLOORS, PAVEM ENTS .no ROOFS 

FOR BREWERIES, ICE HOUSES, 
WAREHOUSES, CELLARS, STABLES, 
YARDS, SIDEWALKS, Etc. 



ZINSSER'S PATENT INSULA- 
TION FOR WALLS OF ICE 
HOUSES, ETC. 



♦^^^^^^ DEALERS IN 



SICILIAN AND GERMAN lROCK ASPHALTS FOR 
STREET PAVEMENTS 



SICILIAN, LIMMER AND VORWOHLE ROCK 
ASPHALT MASTIC 



CRUDE AND REFINED TRINIDAD ASPHALT 



For Estimates and full information apply to 

Tie Sicilian AsDlialt Paving Co., Times Bnililing, N. Y, 



THestamianiPaYeiiieiitofHiiierlea 

Tbe Bairber .. 
Aspb^^lt •; 

Paivipg Co. 

has now laid nearly 6,000,000 square 
yards of genuine Trinidad Asphalt pave- 
ment in 33 cities of the United States. 
Wherever the pavement has been laid It 
has come to stay, and has never been dis- 
placed in favor of any other material. It I9 
smooth, durable, clean, noiseless and safe. 





GENERAL OFFICES 


r THE ^^m| 


LE DROIT BUILDINQ 
WASHINGTON, D. C. 


standard\\^ 
pavement w{ 

lAMERICA./^' 


WASHINGTON BUILDINQ 
1 BROADWAY 
NEW York, N. Y 



iir 



Nearly 6,000,000 Sq. Ydiv or 
435 lineal miles in use aad 
laid by this CompAny. 



G. L. BOS WORTH 6- CO. 

AGENTS FOR . . . 

Cornprcssecl ^spb^lt 
% VZi\/\r)% BlocKs 

For Streets ^ 

NOTHING BETTER MADE, SANITARY, NOISELESS, THE 
EASIEST STREET TO KEEP CLEAN, CAN BE TAKEN 
UP AND RELAID AT VERY LITTLE EXPENSE. 
EVERY CITY CAN HAVE ITS OWN LABORERS PUT 
THEM DOWN. SEND FOR PRICES TO . . . 

G. L. Bo^vortb &• Co. 
HolyoHe, A\ass. 



PATENTS. 

SPECIALTIES for expert work: iletallurgical 
Inventions and Interference Causes. 

We report without charge whether your in- 
vention is patentable. Send for our new book, 
"Patent Practice." 

CHAMPION Sn CHAMPION, 

Pacific Building, Washington, D. C. 

AVOID <;UEASE AMUKlKl'by oiling your mac uino with 
the best and neatest oil can in the world, the '• Perfect Pocket 
Oiler." Does not leak. Regulates supply of oil to a nicety. 
Price 86 cents each, handsomely nickel plated. 




ini V.\ A JiiKNISON, \X% 9th Avenue, If. T. 




of the Road Makers 



KORSXER.*S PAXEPHX 

ROCK BREAKER 

FOR MACADA]»I 

properly curbed. No pear wheel to break. 
Product 10 to 200 tons per day, accordina: to 
si7e. Over l!tr>0 in use. For coarse or fin« 
crushing. Does the work of any other 
bleaker with Yt, the power and ]/i the ex- 
pense for keeping in repair. Mounted on 
iron trucks. Only manufactureis. Corres- 
pondence solicited. Mention this paper. 

TOTTEN I HOGG FODND«Y CO. 

Manufacturers of ROLLING MILL MACHINERY 

PITTSBURGH, PA. 



Gates Rock Breaker 




MACADAM IS THE BEST AND CHEAPEST ROAD METAL 
IT IS PRODUCED AT LOWEST COST IN THE 

GATES BREAKER 



Address for Catalogues and Plans 



Gates Iron Works 



136 Liberty St. 

NEW YORK 



237 Franklin St. 

BOSTON 



50 S. Clinton St., Chicago, U. S. A. 




a 



IC 




■7nu5T Dt WELL constructed! 




SPRlNCFIELD 5TEAM ROAMoflER 

'i> specially designed for mixkinor psrfecf roAds,. 
If- nill SAve ih cost in Jess thl/n-^6. yeAK. 

SPRTOplffiMASPHALT ROllER 

SENPz/oFyCATALOGUE TO 

fn O.S.KELLY CO. 60Lt«Vo"RSv 
111 >v^%^ If SPRINGFIELD. 




THE . . . •%%^/v%/v%/%/%%%%^'%%^%%%/%^%%^%/%.'%/%^%%'V%^%%'' 



A ▲ 
A A 



PE5T Cycle EN/inELS 

F. O. PlEf?CE & CO. 



HRE JWHDE BV 



If your local DEALER 
cannot supply them 
SEND direct for 
SAMPLE CARD^«^« 



170 Fulton Street, New York 

DFJV QUICKUV ililTH K BRII-LIKNT GLOSS + + + 

.35 Pale Bine, - , By Mail 



t PRICES 



Black, - - 
Ruby - - 
Dark Bine, 

" Green, 
Yellow, - ■ 



.40 



Pale Blue, 
" Greeu, 
White, - - 
Cream, - - 
Pink, • - 



.50 



5 Cents Additional 
EASY TO APPLY 



.^^/%/V%^/^^%%%%'«'* 



UNIFORM AND CONTRACTING DEPARTMENT, 

Browning, King & Co. 



40e TO 4^/2 
BROOME STREET 

NEW YORK CITV 
JAS.W.llNGHRQ.Manjger. 




Contract 


Prices 


Coat, . . 


$8.00 


Breeclies, 


. 5.25 


Cap, . . . , 


1.25 


Cloth per yard, 


.. 2.00 


Cent buttons, ( 


;ach) .05 


Small " 


.03 


Ladies' Cloth, 




per yard, . . 


.. 1.00 









THE- 



Offieial Tailors 



SAMPLES OF 



League of flmeriean 
Wheelmen 



REGULATION LEAGUE CLOTH §7."° 



BTAINED 
CATION TO 



BROWNING, KING & CO., New York 




I No Medicine 




will remedy that aching 
void in your pocket when 
you find out you have not 
received full value for 
your money . *. •. • . • . 



Hi 
Hi 



We ask nothing 
from you 

Except in exchange for full value 
received . • . ■ . • . ■ . • . • . • . 

Credenda Bicycles are 
Good as GOLD, and sell for ^^ 1 1 5.00 



• %^%% ^^^» Credenda Pacer 



t 

♦ 



I Catalogue Free 



^/^% 




A. Q. Spalding & Bros. 

NEW YORK PHILADELPHIA 




THE TIRE PROBLEM SOLVED 

No wires to kink, no paste, no wirehooks. 

One minuti"; for complete deflation, 
removal of inner tube and re-inflation. 



W. S. BULL 



Buffalo Cycle Works 



MANUFACTURERS OF 

High Gi^ade 
Bicycles : : 

The "BUFFALO" Racer 
Scorcher and Light Roadster 



Tb^ Telesirarn Poeuroatic Tir^ 
and Tel^s^rzvrr) Cycles 

The Telegram Pneumatic Tire can be put 
on any wheel with less trouble and will give 
better service than any other tire made. 

For Prices and Information, address 

C. S. Agent Raglan Cycles 
S310 :^ro«aLcaLw£ay, TV. TiT. Oxt;:v- 



WRITE FOR CATALOGUE 




Pneumatic Sulky Wheels a Specialty 



OFFICE AND WORKS 

Kensington, " Erie " R. R. 
Buffalo, N. Y. 



•%^« 



H. C. MARTIN & CO. 

CONTROLLING ENTIRE OUTPUT FOR '93 

588 Hain Street, = = BUFFALO, N. Y. 



BEGISIEBED 

Model A, HUSTLER, for 

fast work, actual weight, 
25, 2T and 29 lbs. 

Model B, Roadster for hard 
riders, actual weight 35 lbs. 

Model C, Roadster for ladies, 
heavy riders, act'l weight, 
85 lbs. 

Model D, Roadster comb'n 
for general use, actual 
weight, 40 lbs. 

Model E, Special 
PEATIIEK WEIGHT, 
ladies', actual weight, 25, 
27 and 29 lbs. 

Model F, Tricycle for either 
sex. ^__^^ 

Our experience covers 
©uartcr of a Century 

devoted entirely to cycle 
eonstruction and tells a tale. 
We commenced with the 
wooden Velocipede in Eng- 
land. Afterwards built and 
used on the roads nearly 
twenty years since, inch 
ordinarys, weighing but 27 
and 28 pounds, naturally 
placing us in a position to 
give to the American riders 
' ■ ^ in 1884 the first Tandem to 
^ ^Scarry lady and gentleman 
^ and in 1886 the l<lrst and 
only ppaetlcal I.ady'« 
Blevele, which was a 
DART weighing only 32 lbs. 

DARTS and LIGHTWEIGHTS are SYNONYMOUS. 

SMITH WHEEI. MFG. CO. 

42-50 ^W. 67tli St., Xew York 
921 H Street, N. "W. Washingrton, ». C. 

Agents need them to complete any line. Send for lists. 




GEMDRO N CYC LES iltU 



THE DlAiY»OND<g> CYCLE WRENCH 




Price, each, Blued, $ .75 
" " Nickeled, 1.00 

LIQHTESTI NEATEST! STRONQESTI 

AND COMBINED 'WTTn IT 

A PERFE CT SPOK E GRIP! 

nade by QENDRON IRON WHEEL CO. 
Toledo. Chicago. New York. St. Louis. 

FOa SALE BY ALL LEADING CYCLE DBALE&S. 




PRICE WITH IDEAL cb<fer^ 
PNEUMATIC TIRES, ^lOU 




1893 MODEL 

New f^AiL 

Strziigbt DiAnjon*! Prairrjc 

Strictly High Gra.«Ie 

AH Drop Porjlngs 
M. & W. Style Pneumatics, • - $125.00 
Dunlop Detachable " ... 136.00 
No Finer Wheel Made. Send for Catalosrus 



MANUFACTURERS 



Wro. Read & Sops 

107 Wzisbingtorj Street 

BOSTON 



Cattat^augas • Bridge • CJCiorks 

JOHN N. 0STR02»t, O. E., Rrof=ribtof2 
Highway Bridges and Foundations, Roof East t^andolph, Jl. V. 

Trusses, Columns and Beams for Buildings. :: 

OLD BRIDGeS EXAMINED AND REPAIRED. 







1'iieiiii)atlGBic!i6le<^SnlkgWlteeis 

WITH BALL BEARINGS 

We make nothing 
but Wheels. Over 5 
years' experience. 

N. Y. Protection 
Strip Pneumatic 
Tires with rims to 
match, supplied to 
the trade. 

Write us for what 
you want." 

I.fl.WESTQ|(&GQ. 

Jamesville, N. Y. 

(niaii SYRAOUSa) 





ii 



SUNOL" CAMERAS 




Make as Good Photographs as the higher priced 
Cameras. 

Have Hll Hloilern Improvements Perfected to Dale! 

Make a 4 X 5 Picture, using either " DRY PLATES" 

or " CUT FILMS," and cost but one-fifth the price of 

Cameras heretofore offered. 

No. 1. Hig-hly Finished Oak Case $5.00 

No. 2. Covered with Grain Leather 7. .50 

No. 3. (Folding) Covered with Grain Leather (see cut). 10.00 
The No. 3 Folding " Stinol " is the most modem perfected 

Camera offered to the public. 

"SUNOL" CAMERA CO., 174 Pearl St., Kew York. 




BICYCLK 



• LIGHT, STRONG. DURABLE, 
FAST, STEADY AND SAFE. 



ALL STEEL AND HICKORY. 
IMPROVED BALL BEARINGS. 
THE BEST CHAIN ADJUSTMENT. 
VELVET HANDLE BAR. 
SELF OILING CHAIN. 
THE ONLY ELASTIC FORKS. 
A WHEEL GUARD THAT CAN'T RATTLE. 
A SPRING TEMPERED BRAKE LEVER. 
OUR CATALOGUE TELLS THE WHOLE STORY. 



AGENTS WANTED. 



Elliott Hiekopy Gyele Go. 



NEWTON, MASS. 



AVoparcb Bicycles 

Are the BEST for all kinds of Roads. 




Every part a scientific production from the finest 
material obtainable. We are headquarters for all 
Cycle accessories. Send for our 1893 Catalogue. 
Reliable agents wanted. 

t\oT)2^rc\) Cycle Co. 

42,44,46,48,50 &• 52 ti- Haljtc^ St. 

CHICAGO 




Jterliosf Bicycles 

THE HIGHEST GRADE ONL.Y 

Vziluabl^ Points of Advantage 



Tbe sterling Specieil 

Rozid Racer 

TracH Wb««l 
Weight 27 Ibj. 

Press of Vanden Huuten,& Co., 249 Pearl St., N. Y 



SEWD FOR CATALOGUE 

DE^vE?^' STOKE5 nFG. CO. 

/^\IL.L.WAUKEE yvyz^ijufa-cturcrs 

OFFICE AND SALESROOM . . . 

293 Wabasb /\.veijue 

CHICAGO 



■fi 



FEATURES 



THAT 


IS, 


FEATURES 


OF 


SPECIAL 


MERIT 


ARE 


WHAT 


MAKE 


ONE BICYCLE 


STAND 


PRE-EMINENTLY 


ABOVE 


ANOTHER 


THE XX 


XX 




XX 


XX XX 


XX XX 





:: OUR LINE ALSO INCLUDES :: 
THE CRYPTO GEARED ORDINARY 
THE CRYPTO FRONT DRIVING 

SAFETY 
THE KING OF SCORCHERS 
THE QUEEN OF SCORCHERS 



POSSESSES MORE OF THESE 
THAN ANY OTHER. WRITE 
FOR CATALOGUE. xx xx 

The ■ ...■miiiii' 

McIntosh= Huntington Co. 
Wholesale HaPdcuare ^^ Bicyeles 

CLEVELAND, O. 
BIQELOW & DOWSE, Boston, Mass. 

SOLE AGENTS FOR THE SUNOL 
IN NEW ENGLAND 



THE KING BRIDGE CO., 



BRIDGES. 



CliEVEIiflflO, OHIO. 



VIADUCTS. 



IRON AND STEEL EYE BARS, GIRDERS AND STRUCTURAL WORK FOR BUILDINGS. 

PLANS. ESTIMATES AND SURVEYS FREE OF COST. 




BRIDGE OVER THE OHIO RIVER, BETWEEN CINCINNATI, O., AND NEWPORT, KYi 

Designed and Bxjilt by THE KING BRIDGE CO. 

I,Bir»TH mv Cantilever Channel Span, 520 Feet. Total I,kmqth of Bridge, 2916 Pkb*. 




He J. L lOott Iron WorKs 

84 to 90 Beekman St. 

NEW YORK 

311 and 313 Wabash Ave. 

CHICAGO 



Manufacturers of 



Needle, Shower and 
Shampoo Baths ^ 



^ 



And Other Sanitary 
Appliances 



Copyright, 1892, by The J. L. Mott Iron Works 
in their publications. (Reduced Cut.) 



The Columbian 

Porcelain Lined 
Ron=Rim Bath 

Illustrated Price-List Mailed on Application 



Tfi n 'H + . is to have the various appliances set up open and accessible, and, wherever possible, 

The Desideratum in ^^j^-^out. cabinet work, in the Columbian the Enameled Roll-Rim takes the place of a 
Modern Plumbing : wood top or capping, there oy making it a more desirable article from a sanitary stand 
point, and adding materially to its fine appearance. 




Copyright, 1S91, by 1 he j. L. Mott Iron Works in their publications. (Reduced Cut.) 

Please mention "Good Roads" 



HAVING 







AS A DAILY COMFORT-BRINGING 

EXERCISE 

SHAVING 

CAN BE MADE THE REFRESHING 
ENJOYABLE PART OF THE 
MORNING TOILET 

The soft, creamy lather produced by 
WILLIAMS' SHAVING STICK is SO 
cooling, so softening to the beard, so 
comforting to the face that it is an 
actual pleasure to apply it. 



WILLIAMS' 



Williams' Shaving Stick. 

BE SURE YOU GET 

Each stick enclosed in a beautiful case, strong, compact, attractive. Ask your Druggist 

for WILLIAMS' If he does not have it, do not let him foist some inferior 

substitute upon you, but send 25 cents in stamps to us and receive a 

genuine WILLIAMS' SHAVING STICK, by return mail, 

postpaid. Address 

The J. B. WILLIAMS CO., Glastonbury. Ct., U. S. A. 

For over Half a Century makers of Fine Shaving Soaps 



HXPlarwich XiXUbeele 



Send for 

'93 Catalogue 



3for 1893 

^ Will be first in Finish, Style and Construction 

The "Pilgrim" 



^ 



Highest Grade — Cushion or Pneumatic Tired, a 



road machine par excellence :: :: :: :: 

The " Priscilla " 

^ A gracefully designed, light weight. Cushion oi 
Pneumatic tired wheel for ladies :: :: y. 

The "Ghost" 



^ 



Extra light weight, Pneumatic Tired wheel for 
racing men :: - :: :: :: :: :: :i 



Warwick Cycle flanufacturing: Co. 



Mectica " Good Roads " 



Springfield, Mass.. 



THE rougher the road the better the springs 
should be. A pneumatic tire stops vibra- 
tion before it can do any harm. It is as much 
a necessity on a carriage as on a bicycle. Send 
for a descriptive circular. 

AMERICAN DUNLOP TIRE COMPANY 

iRn tttt^-tt-t _a venue, New York: 



W. S. BULL 



B. D. HARRIS 



Buffalo Cycle Works 

MANUFACTURERS OF 

High Gt^ade 
Bicycles : : 

The "BUFFALO" Racer 
Scorcher and Light Roadster 



Pneumatic Sulky Wheels a Specialty 

OFFICE AND WORKS 

Kensington, "Erie" R. R. 
Buffalo, N. Y. 

H. C. MARTIN & CO. 

CONTROLLING ENTIRE OUTPUT FOR "93 

588 Hain Street, = = BUFFALO, N. Y. 




KEGISIEKEO 

Model A, HUSTLER, for 

fast work, actual weight, 
25, 27 and 29 lbs. 

Model B, Roadster for hard 
riders, actual weig-ht 36 lbs. 

Model C, Roadster for ladies, 
heavy riders, act'l weight, 
35 lbs. 

Model D, Roadster comb'n 
for general use, actual 
weight, 10 lbs. 

Model E, Special 
FEATHERWEIGHT, 
ladles', actual weight, 26, 
27 and 29 lbs. 

Model F, Tricycle for either 
sex. 

Our experience covers 
©uarter of a Century 

devoted entirely to cycle 
construction and tells a tale. 
We commenced with the 
wooden Velocipede in Eng- 
land. Afterwards built and 
used on the roads nearly 
twenty years since, inch 
ordinarys, weighing but 27 
and 28 pounds, naturally 
placing us in a position to 
give to the American riders 
' ■ V in 1884 the first Tandem to 
^,^^v carry lady and gentleman 
^ and in 1886 the First and 
only practical Lady's 
Bicycle, which was a 
DART weighing only 32 lbs. 

DARTS and LIGHTWEIGHTS are SYNONYMOUS. 

SMITH V^^HEEI. MFG. CO. 

42-50 ^W. 67tli St., New York 
92X H street, TV. MT. ^^Vashington, D. C. 

Agents need them to complete any line. Send for Usts. 




GOOD ROADS EVERYWHERE 
■ ■ FREE OF COST .. 

to Riders of Featherweight Helical Tube Premiers. These Roads involve 
no legislation, taxes, contracts, malaria or convict labor. If they need repair, 
which is seldom, you can do it yourself And we will guarantee them to 
enable you to ride a 25-pound Helical Premier anywhere, with safety, ease 
and speed. Send two 2-cent stamps for 5 photographs of Helical Tubing 
and Good Roads 

PREMIER CYCLE CO., NEW YORK 




PEGASUS :: 



SILENTLY and swiftly it moves like a thought. 
Mounted iipon the Tourist, time and space are 
annihilated, and you go where yoa will with a wish. It actually 
has winged feet, for with the Bidwell Constrictive Tire you can 
literally ride upon air. For this reason you need a 

BIDWELL BALL-BEARING CYCLOMETER 

to convince you how far you have ridden ; because fatigue never attacks a Tourist 
rider — twenty miles are as easy as one. Write to us for our pamphlet on 

"AIR: ITS HARD AND SOFT SIDE" 



GEO. R. BIDWELL CYCLE CO. 

308-310 West 59th Street, N. Y. :: 



Factory, Colts' West Armory, Hartford, Conn. 
Tire Factory, 49 and 51 West 55th Street :: :: 



€€ 



Built to Ride 



ff 



M**- 



GIVES YOU A FULL DESCRIPTION OP 




Tmeao Bicpie Go. 



TOLBDO. OHIO. 



€€ 



Devuptless 



w 



■ ^•■■' 




FOR 1893 



5TANDS- 



® 



GOOD ROADS 

OR. . . 

BAD ONES 



« 



WEIGHTS OF ROAD MACHINES, 29, 33, 35 AND 40 POUNDS 



HIGHEST GRADE THROUGHOUT 





c 


A 




A 


P 




T 


P 


?felk 


A 


L 


yfykk 


k ^ 


1 ^^ 


//// 


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— B 11 


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d^si 




JfliiLSON, TV^YeRS & Co. 



^ 



TBEKKBRS OP 

L-IBERTV CVOI-eS 



55 Liberty Street, 



NEW YORK 



1 WANTED 1 



NAMES ANO ADDRESSES 



(PLAINLY WRITTEN) 

OF EVERY 



SUPERVISOR, CIVIL ENGINEER, SELECTMAN, 

CITY ENGINEER, ROAD COMMISSIONER, 

CONTRACTOR, CHOSEN FREEHOLDER AND LEGISLATOR 

IN THE; UNITED STATES. 



SEND US AS MANY OF THESE NAMES AND ADDRESSES AS YOU CAN SCRAPE 
TOGETHER. IT WILL HELP THE CAUSE. 



"GOOD ROADS," 

Potter Building. 



Be sure and send Post Office Address. 



NEW^ YORK. 




JOHN L. MACADAM 



' ' Broken Stone which has united by its own 
angles, so as to form a solid^ hard surface^ makes 
a proper road." 

JOHN L. MACADAM 



Itm Hiver stone m\ Go. 

CtT^ashed Granite 
AND Blae Stone :: :s 

Recommended by 

CONTRACTORS ARCHITECTS 
AND ROAD BUILDERS 



QUARRIES ON HUDSON RIVER GRANITE, STORM KING, N. Y. 

BLUESTONE, STONECO, N. Y. 

NEW YORK OFFICE '""«" 

2 CORTLANDT STREET 



3Boun5 IDoIumcg of '*(500t> 1Roa&S" 

WILL BE SENT . . ^a OC 
POST PAID FOR . <t>I.^O 



TO ANY ADDRESS 



FOREIGN AXD AMERICAN CYCLING PAPERS, 
PERIODICALS, HAND BOOKS AND ROAD BOOKS 
FOR SALE. Send for List. 

FLETCHER <b CO., 48 E. Tan Buren St., Chlosc*. 



Cattaraugus • Bridge • (Xiorks 

JOHN N. 0SXR07«t. O. E., Rropribtor 
Hishway Bridges and Foundations, Roof East {Randolph, Ji. Y. 

Trusses, Columns and Beams for Buildings. :: 

OLD BRIDGES EXAMINED AND REPAIRED. 



HALF SECTION*PLATE GIRDR BRIDGE*ROCK ASPHALT AND STEEL FLOOR* 




^ fife* 




'PqenniatiGBlGjicle^linlRjjWlieeis 

WITH BALL BEARINGS 




We make nothing: 
but Wheels. Over 5 
years' experience. 

N. Y. Protection 
Strip Pneumatic 
Tires with rims to 
match, supplied to 
the trade. 

Write us for what 
you want." 

l.fl.WESTO)(&GO. 

Jamesvllle, N. Y. 

(niar syracusi) 





HIGH GRADE, $120. PN EUMATIC Tl RE 



PECK & SNYDER'S 

NEW "NASSAU" 
• ••• 

5,000 Active Agents Wanted 

SPECIAL INDUCEMENTS AND TERRITORY 
ASSIGNED TO THOSE 
WHO WRITE QUICK ^ 

• • •• 

PECK & SNYDER 

126 and 130 Nassau St. 
1790 Broadway 

NEW YORK 




Cleanest and Neatest Pocket Oiler in the World. 
"Win Not Lieak. Handsomely Nickel-Plated. 

For Bicycles, Guns, Typewriters, Sewing Machines, etc., and 
general use on all small and delicate Machinery. 

ROY OILER IRFB. CO., "„%r?2Si?. S^^'a"' 



WILLIAM S. BACOT, C. E., Mem. Am. See. C. E. 
Engineer of County Roads 

RICHMOND CO., Staten Island, N. Y. 

Specialties : Water-Works, Sewerage, ImproTementa of Roads 

Offices : 

145 BROADWAY, NEW YORK, and STAPLETON, S. I. 

Construction and Improvement of 

ROADS AND PAVEMENTS 

A SPECIALTY 

A. T. BYRNE 

Civil Engineer and 3S1 FULTON ST. 
e J — - Brooklyn, n. y. 



>T^R1B==^ CROSS Xaj*" 



UU.IETTS<« cor 



m 

CROSS 

BOBBER 

CEIBEKT 



A Solution for Repairing: Cuts and P^inctures in ' . . 
Pneumatic Tires Will unite perfectly any two pieces of 
Rubber. For Sale by all Dealers or a large tube by mail 86 
Cents. None genuine unless it contains our Trade Mark, Red 
Cross. Send for Catalogue of Red Cross Handy Articles. 
Manufactured by A. U. BETTS & CO., Toledo, Ohio. 



jjqHES c. wopERs, Qiyii Enqineer, 

BELLEFONTAINE, O, >**-" ^k^jjx* ww ) 

Highways and Municipal Work, Plans, Estimates, 
Specifications, Superintendeno*. Correspoadeac* 
invited. 



P. A. DUNHAA\. Civil Eogiperr 

AND Expert in Road and Street Improvements. 

Engineer in Charge of the following Works : 
The Famous Union Co., N. J., Road System ; Street 
Improvements, Hasbrouck Heights, N. J.; Street 
Paving and Sewerage, Sewickley, Pa.; Street 
Improvements, Olean, N. Y. Is City Engineer of 
Plainfield, N. J., and Dunkirk, N. Y. Correspondence 
Solicited. Main Office, No. 7 Park Ave., Plainfield, N. J. 



Farmers, Planters, Fruit. Growers, 

OARDENERSy FLORISTS I 
FORTUNE 

AWAITS YOU 




STUOEBAKER "LITTLE GEM" 

On* Horse Farm, Garden, Flower-Bed and Lawn Sprinkler 
lOapacity 150 Gallons, l-mch tlres). Insures you a luxury of 
S^wth of Crops never before dreamed of. Your arch enemy, 

DROUTH, COMPLETELY CONQUERED. 
tkt hotter the season the more abundant the crop. Nothing 
Mk» it for sprinkling' private roadways, for the distribution 
•f liquid manure — it will not clog— or for sprinkling liquids 
Corpolsoning insects. 

Write at once, mentioning this paper, for illustrated cata- 
^arn* and price list, to 

STUDEBAKER BROS. MFG CO.. South Bend, Ind. 
<The Largest Vehicle Makers in the World.) 



S TUDEB AKER 

SXRCKT, PARK AXO VWtACM. 

S prinklers 

Have been adopted in nearly all the Leading Cltlae 

and Towns in the United iStates, because they ar« 
BUILT TO STAND THE HARDEST USAGE. E1»S 
TO OPERATE. SIMPLE TO UNDERSTAND. 
THOROUGH IN EXECUTION. 



Illustrated Catalogue upon application to 

STUDEBAKER BROS. MFQ. CO. 

SOUTH BEND. it*9. 




Mention Good Roads, 




The fmel Foandry and lUaehine Go.,fliisonia,GoQii 

THE FARREL & MARSDEN CRUSHER, the standard machine for road metal ; with 
or without screen, mounted or tmmounted; ten sizes. Write for catalogue 
and list of cities, towns, contractors and individuals using this machine. 

^ S. C. NIGHTINGALE & CHILDS, 134 PEARL STREET, BOSTON* 

^ New England Agents for the Farrel & Marsden Stone Crusher, and Contractors for ^ 

t Complete macadain Road Building Plants. ^^?eXs?;L\K '.l^s'"^.!;;^';e^trs,'a t 

^ Drills, Etc. Horse and Stjam Road Rollers, Engines and Boilers. 5 

W Competent Engineer furnished for locating and advising. Send for Catalogue. ^ 



CQroaght Iron Bridge Co. 

CKNTON. OHIO. 



ai 

< 
J 

01 

Q 

<C 

\- 
t. 

t 

o 




Best Hisibvay Bridges. • • 



PLANS AND ESTIMATES FREE. 



WRITE FOR ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE. 



Steel Steam Hoad-Kollers. Won than 1,600 IWanqfaetuPed 

Stfam Road-Rollers with compound (high 
and low pressure) cylinders. 

Steam Road-Rollers with single (high-pres- 
sure) cylinder. New and improved spring 
scrapers, new steering gear, new arrangement of 
driver's foot-plate, etc., etc. 

Incomparably superior in simplicity, work- 
manship, materials and consequent durability to 
any imitations. 

At Auburn, N. Y., Boston, Mass., Staten Island, 
N. Y., and numerous other places where imitations 
of Aveling & Porter's Rollers are in use, the most 
unsatisfactory results are reported, and the w^ear 
and tear and breakages have been greater in 12 
months than with the Aveling Rollers in six years. 
Scores of similar reports are obtainable, and the 
broken-down imitation machines can be seen by 
anyone interested. 

In the Compound Engine the last vestige of an 
excuse for using two high-pressure cylinder en- 
gmes is destroyed, and the wanton and ignorant 
disregard of economy and usefulness by the use of 
double high-pressure cylinders are by the " Cona- 
pound " Roller made more manifest than ever. 

— — — The Aveling & Porter "Compound" 

Rollers are manufactured in the same substantial and excellent manner as are their usual Single High- 
Pressure Cylinder machines, and all are fitted with patented Spring Scrapers, new and improved Steerage 
Drum, enlarged Driver's Foot-Plate, Steam-Jacketed Cylinder, and Crucible-Steel Gearing entirely without 
feathers — a patented arrangement, the infringement of which subjects both seller and buyer to legal 
proceedings. 

STEAM ROAD-ROLLERS, ROAD LOCOMOTITES, "BARNARD-CASTLE" STREET- 
SWEEPING MACHINES, STREET-SCRAPING MACHINES, STONE CRUSHERS, Etc. 




-APPLY TO- 



W.C.OASTLER, 43 Exchange Place, New York 



The HrKHisbohg Doable Engine Hoad HoUef 



Not only a Roller but a ROAD MACHINE 



10, 12, 15 and 20 
Tons Weight 




-Not How Cheap, but How flohfl. Now in use in nearly one hundred cities and towns in United States. Send for 
lllusTrated Catalogue. Manufactured hv HARRISBURG FOUNDRY & MACHINE WORKS. HARRISBURG, PA. 

Sellmg At^ents, W. R. FLEMING & CO., New York & New Eng-land. New York Office, Mail and Express B'dV- Boston Office, 
820 Atlantic Avenue, Walter W. Jonoa, Jlanacrer. F. E. BAILEY, Philadelphia, 21 S. 7th Street, Builders' Exchange. 
H. E. BALDWIN, Cincinnati, Perin B'd'g, 5th and Race Sts. 



New Jersey Trap Rock Company 

BROKEN STONE •.• .-. •.- 



FOR 



i MACADAM AND TELFORD ROADS 

:: :: CONCRETE, SCREENINGS. Etc. :: :: 

Pronounced by Engineers the FINEST MATERIAL in the World 
for ROAD MAKING 

Stands crushing test of 23,000 lbs. per cubic inch 

Quarry, Snake Hill, Seacaucus Station, D. L. & W. R. R. 
Office, No. I Montgomery Street, Jersey City 



Opposite Pennsylvania R. R. Station 



Telephone, 284 Jersey CHty 



By Using the 





Austin Steel Street Sweeper 

Lightest running, strongest and most 
efficient. Two horses only. Sweeps 7J/2 
feet. Cleans thoroughly any kind of 
pavement. 



— -^^^^^oo^^^^-^^^^— 



Austin Dump Wagon 

Just the thing for carrying away street 
cleanings. Dumped instantly. Holds i J^ 
yards. Has steel pan. 



In excavatmg for 
paved streets the 
New Era Wagon 
Loader will load 
from 500 to 600 
wagons per day. 




The most com- 
plete and best line 
Moi street building 
i and cleaning appli- 
ances in the world. 



-=^s^" 



Chicago Rock Crusher 

Stationary or portable, varying in capacity from 
1 5 to 200 tons per day. 

SEND FOR CATALOGUE 





Austin Steel Reversible 

Road flachine 

Keeps dirt roads in good condition and 
saves money for the town while doing it. 



Austin Reversible Roller 

Lightest draft and most easily handled, 
i/^. 3. 4. 5- 6 and 7 tons. 



F. G. flUSTIfl IVIFG. CO., Gbieago, 111. 



■ 

mm 

Wm 
■-m 



mm 






m 

Wm 
mm 



wm 



m 

mm 



Wm 



The A, B, G of Hoad Jlakmg 

Use the Best Machinery and you will get the Best Results 



THE STEEL CHAMPION ROAD MACHINE 

is unequalled for making and repairing dirt or gravel roads. Does the work o\ 30 to 50 
men and gives the best results. 




THE CHAMPION STEEL ROCK CRUSHER 

is the only practical portable crusher on the market. It is light in weight, strong, durable 
and efficient. Costs less for repairs and can be operated with less power than any crusher 
made. 



OUR CATALOGUE IS 
FREE FOR THE ASKING 



EG0.,KBqiielt8pare,Pa. 



mm 
Wm 




m 

m 
m 

pi 



m 



Iflamii Seharf Asphalt Paving Co. 

Genuine Trinidad Asphalt Pavements 

For Streets, Sidewalks, Driveways ::::::: 



Th« Standard Pavement for . 
CHEAPNESS . . 
HEALTH . . . 
DURABILITY , . 
SMOOTHNESS and 
SAFETY . , . 



i 



IT ENHANCES THE VALUE OF PROPERTY MORE 
THAN ANY OTHER PAVEMENT 



Prlijcipa^I Office : 

81 Fulton St., rtcw YorK 

SEND FOR CIRCULARS AND ESTIMATES. MENTION "goOD ROADS" 



THe Siciiian flspHalt Paviqg Go. 



SICILIAN A~o GERMAN ROCK 
ASPHALT STREET PAVEMENTS 




CONTRACTORS FOR 



TRINIDAD " LAKE" ASPHALT 
STREET PAVEMENTS 



LIMMER ROCK ASPHALT 
FLOORS, PAVEMENTS AND ROOFS 

For BREWERIES, ICE HOUSES, 
WAREHOUSES, CELLARS, STABLES, 
YARDS, SIDEWALKS, Etc. 



ZINSSER'S PATENT INSULA- 
TION FOR WALLS OF ICE 
HOUSES, ETC. 



9^/^^^/^^/%/ DEALERS IN 



SICILIAN AND OiERMAN .ROCK ASPHALTS FOR 
STREET PAVEMENTS 



SICILIAN, LIMMER AND VORWOHLC ROCK 
ASPHALT MASTIC 



CRUDE AND REFINED TRINIDAD ASPHALT 



For Estimates and full information apply to 

Tie Sicilian Asptalt Paving Co., Tiies Bnillingj. Y. 



BeSiamianiPaYerotBiBiiienci 



Tbe Bairber ., 
Aspb2^1t •• 

F^^/lT)% Co. 

has now laid nearly 6,000,000 square 
yards of genuine Trinidad Asphalt pave- 
ment in S3 cities of the United States. 
Wherever the pavement has been laid It 
has come to stay, and has never been dis- 
placed in favor of any other material, it Is 
smooth, durable, clean, noiseless and safe. 



^^^fc^ 


GENERAL OFFICES 


^^^s^ 


LE DROIT BUILDINtt 


w^ x^sfti 


WASHINGTON, D. C. 


THE ^^» 




standard\^^ 


WASHINGTON BUILDINtt 


PAVEMENT p| 


1 BROADWAY 
NEW YORK. N. Y 


iAMERICA.y^y 


Nearly 6,000,000 Sq. Ydu of 
435 lineal miles in use and 
laid by this Compaay. 



G. L. BOS WORTH 6- CO. 

AGENTS FOR . . . 

CornpressccI ^spbz^lt 
® PziVirjg BIocKs 

For Streets ^ 

NOTHING BETTER MADE, SANITARY, NOISELESS, THE 
EASIEST STREET TO KEEP CLEAN, CAN BE TAKEN 
UP AND RELAID AT VERY LITTLE EXPENSE. 
EVERY CITY CAN HAVE ITS OWN LABORERS PUT 
THEM DOWN. SEND FOR PRICES TO . . . 

6. L. Bo^vortb 6* Co. 
HoIyoKe, A\ass. 



PATENTS. 

SPECIALTIES for expert work: Hetallureical 
Inventions and Interference Causes. 

We report without charge whether your in- 
vention is patentable. Send for our new book, 
"Patent Practice." 

CHAMPION & CHAMPION, 

Pacific Building, Washington, D. C. 

AVOID GREASE AND IHKT by oiling your machine witb 
the best and neatest oil can in the world, the "Perfect Pocket- 

Oiler." l>()es not leak. Regulates supply of oil to a nicety. 
Price 35 cents cacli, liandsomcly nickri i)lat('(l. 




CLSllMAA A; DKMSOIV, Wi Ulh Avenue, N. Y 




"Brennan" Breaker^ Best 

CRUSHES FASTER 

LESS REPAIRS 

USES LESS POWER 

Capacities, 8 to 150 TONS per HOUR 



Young-Brennan Crusher Co. 

42 Cortlandt Street, New York City 



Gates Rock Breaker 




MACADAM IS THE BEST AND CHEAPEST ROAD METAL 
IT IS PRODUCED AT LOWEST COST IN THE 

GATES BREAKER 



Address for Catalogues and Plans 



Gates Iron Works 



136 Liberty St. 

NEW YORK 



237 Franklin St. 

BOSTON 



50 S. Clinton St., Chicago, U. S. A. 







iprin^Teld&l?oller<5 




prinpfield 



II lO. 



ma M06T COMPLETE ENORAyiNG 




E^TABLLSHMEirr IN THE COUNTRY 

IT WILL PAY YOU T© 
COMMUNICATE WTTH (U 
TO OET PRlCfc^ AND 
6PEUMER>5 op OUR 
WOBK 



MEMxrow 



^'AILWAUKEE 

/ MITCHELLS CHAMBER 



76 6TATE ^t- 



UNIFORM AND CONTRACTING DEPARTMENT. 

Browning, King & Co, 



ifOe TO J^/2 

BROOME STREET 

UttI YORK ClTV 

JAS. W. IINGARO. Manigar, 



Contract Prices 

Coat, $8.00 

Breeches, . . 5.25 

Cap, 1.25 




Cloth per yard, . . 2.00 
Coat buttons, (each) ,05 
Small " " .03 



Ladies' Cloth, 
per yard, . . 



1.00 



THE- 



Official Tailors 



TO THE- 



SAMPLES OF 



League of flmepiean 

Wheelmen 



REGULATION LEAGUE CLOTH §r.|pL?c;T,oNTo 

BROWNING, KING & CO., New York 



[* i * i *i* : 



Tiieie is DinerencG of $38.00 

IN PRICE BETWEEN A $150.00 BICYCLE 



AND THE . . 



^ 



W^ 



PACER 



WHICH PLEASE EXAMINE. 

IT WILL PAY YOU TO DO SO. 
YOU WILL FIND IT AS GOOD AS 
ANY, AND BETTER THAN SOME 
SELLING AT $150.00. 

DO NOT FORGET 

CREDENDA PNEUMATICS 

HAVE INNER TUBES. 



A. G. Spalding & Bros. 

CHtCAGO NEW YORK PHILADELPHIA 

► M ' l ' I ' I ' I ' I * ! * ! * : * ! * ! * ! * ! * ! '!'!'!' ! ' ! ' ! ' ! * ! * ! * ! *!*!' ! ' ! ^ 



'SUNOL" CAMERAS 




Make as Good Photographs as the higher priced 
Cameras. 

Have All modern Improveinents Perfectefl to Date! 

Make a 4x5 Picture, using either " DRY PLATES" 
or " CUT FILMS," and cost but one-fifth the price of 
Cameras heretofore offered. 

No. 1. Highly Finished Oak Case $5.00 

No. 2. Covered with Grain Leather 7. .50 

No. 3. (Folding) Covered with Grain Leather (see cut). lO.UO 
The No. 3 Folding " Sunol " is the most modern perfected 
Camera offered to the public. 

"SUNOL" CAMERA CO., 174 Pearl St., New York. 



Any 

is the right time 

for everybody to 

drink 

A temperance drink. 

A home-made drink. 

A heahh-giving drink. 

A thirst-quenching drink. 

A drink that is popular everywhere. 

Delicious, Sparkling, Effervescent. 

A 25 cent package makes 5 galluns of this I 
f delicious beverage. Don't be deceived ifa dealer, ' 
for the sake of larger profit, tells you some other 
kind is "just as good" — 'tis false. No imitation , 
is as good as the genuine Hires'. 



TAKE THE 



GOLD PRIZE 




by photographing bad roads with a 
Kodak. It makes the best pictures; 
is easiest to carry on your bicycle. 

$6.00 TO $75.00 



SEND FOR CATALOGUE 



Eastman Kodak Company 

Rochester, N. Y. 

:: :BIO"irOIvE^» :: 

Agents ^** ^^ Largest Stock in America 
SYLPHS, RUDQES 
OVERLANDS AND 
WESTERN WHEEL 
WORKS' CYCLES 

Offer unequalled values and variety to Dealers and 
Wheelmen. All sizes and styles of ■wheels in stock 
and 20 to 50 per cent, saved on many patterns. Easy 
payments if desired. No matter what you want in 
the cvcle line it will pay you to write to us. Our 
Superior Inducements bring us orders from every- 
where. Send for catalogue and bargain list free. 

BOUSE, PZBBD & CO., 177 G Street, Peoria, III. 

Manufacturers, Importers and Jobbers 




GENDRON CYCLES 



1893 



THE DIAiViOND <a>CYClJS WRENCH 




Price, each, Blued, $ .75 
" " Nickeled, 1.00 

LIGHTEST 1 NEATEST! STRONGEST I 

AND COMBINED 'WTrH IT 

A PERFE CT SPOK E GRIP! 

nade by QENDRON IRON WHEEL CO. 
Toledo. Chicago. New York. St. Loulo. 

FOR SALE BY AI.I, LEADING CYCLE DEALERS. 




PRICE WITH IDEAL 
PNEUMATIC TIRES, 



$150 





IIS, Hiiemi 

Ope Hundred Dolleirs 

In Gold to bs F*a.id in Prizes f^or F'hotogra.f'hs 
OE Bad Roads. 



To stimulate the colleSlion of Photographs to be med in showing 

the need of improved roads in the United States, I offer 

three pri^^es, aggregating $ioo in gold, as follows : 

1. One prize of $50 (gold) for the best collection of not less than three 

photographs. 

2. One prize of $30 (gold) for the second best collection of not less 

than three photographs. 

3. One prize of $20 (gold) for the third best collection of not less 

than three photographs. 



T 



HIS OFFER IS MADE SUBJECT TO THE FOLLOWING CONDITIONS AND 
SUGGESTIONS WHICH SHOULD BE OBSERVED: :: :: :: :: 



All photographs must be accompanied by the negatives, unless the latter hav* 
been destroyed. 

Competition will close on the first day of July, 1893, and all photographs must b« 
submitted on or before that date. 

Photographs must be confined to such subjects as most strongly illustrate the un- 
fitness of the present public roads (especially the common "dirt " roads) used as public 
highways. 

To aid you by a suggestion, I would recommend the following as good subjects for 
competitive pictures : 

Photographs showing the common spectacle of the farmer's team and wagon, hub- 
deep and knee-deep in the muddy road. 

Photographs showing rough, rutty and muddy roads in their worst condition. 

"Stuck in the mud " photographs, showing the farmer or merchant with his loaded 
wagon vainly trying to drive his patient team and load out of the inevitable mud hole. 

Photographs showing the everyday breakdown caused by rough or muddy roads 
or steep grades. 

Photographs showing smooth, hard-surfaced roads and (if possible) teams hauling 
loads over the same. 

And other pictures illustrating the goodness of good roads and the badness of bad 
roads. Your opportunities and observation will suggest the proper thing in this line. 

Each photograph must be accompanied by a full statement of particulars, giving 
date, location, etc., by which the picture may be identified. Blanks for this purpose 
will be supplied on application. 

All photographs and negatives submitted must be sent marked with a fictitiou* 
name or pseudonym, by which the competitor is to be known until the date of award. 
Each competitor must also send a sealed envelope containing his or her real name and 
address, and marked upon the outside with the fictitious name of the competitor. 

All photographs and negatives submitted in this competition are to remain the 
permanent property of the League of American Wheelmen. At least ten persons must 
compete in order to insure the reward here offered. 

In deciding upon the respective merits of the work submitted, the following pointc 
will be considered. 

1. The subject of the photograph and its force in illustrating the necessity for 
better roads. 

2. Clearness and general excellence of photographic work. 

3. Location (giving preference to those views which show bad roads in important 
counties, suburbs of large towns, etc.) 

4. Size of photograph. The question of size will be considered least and last of all. 
Any competitor may send more than three photographs if desired. The committe* 
will select the //iree best of those submitted by each competitor. 

The prizes will be awarded before July 15, 1893, by a committee to be selected by 
the Executive Committee of the League of American Wheelmen. All communi- 
cations will be in every respect confidentially treated, and further information will b« 
furnished on application to the undersigned, to whom all photographs and negative* 
should be sent. 



ISAAC B. POTTER, - 



ANAGER, 



Potter buildiing. new your citv. 



THE TELEQR/in' FNEUn/lTIC TIRE 




GIVES LESS TROUBLE AND BETTER SERVICE 
THAN ANY OTHER MADE 

fitted with Telegram Tires are 
without a peer in the Cycle line. 



TELEV CYCLES 



FOR PRICES AND INFORMATION, ADDRESS 

. E. VflN VLECK, D. S. Hgem Baglan Cycles 

Write for Catalogue jio Broad^way, N. Y. City 

THE TIRE PROBLEM SOLVED No wires to kink, no paste, no 

wirehooks. One minute for com- 
plete deflation, removal of inner lube and re-inflation. 



% 

% 
% 






"All's well that ends well," 

But that delightful bicycle ride would not end very well if you had to 
WALK HOME because you had punctured your tire. Even with GOOD ROADS 
you would consider it a hardship. 

HOWEVER, if you ride a CLEVELAND BICYCLE, IN CASE OP PUNCT- 
URE the CLEVELAND RIM permits the tire to be removed instantly, and 
permanent repairs made in less than FlVC .A^IOUt^S. 
ALL- WOULD BE WELL 

Clevelzipd fio. 4 
Clevelzip^I fio. 5 

L-a><aies' Wbecl 

Fitted with . . . 

Clevelathd Thread Tire 

and . . . 

BURWELL Dust Proof* Bearithgs 

Easy running qualities unexcelled with this combination. Catalogue on application. 

H. A. UOZIER & CO., Clevelan<l, Ohio 



% 
% 





Tb« Sterling Special 
Ro2i<l Racer 
TracK Wb^^l 



Jterlipsf Bicycles 

THE HIGHEST GRADE ONLY 

Valuably Points of Advantage 

SErtD FOR CATALOGUE 

den^Tr"" STOKE5 nFG- CO. 

/^ILLWAUKEE TA&ijufActurcrs 

OFFICE AND SALESROOM . . . 

293 Wabasb /Vveijue 

CHICAGO 



Press of Vanden Houten & Co., 24Q Pearl Street, N. Y. 




)^'/ 




^ H EALTH 

^SUGGESTIONS 

YOU NEED EXERCISE— there are several 

REASONS WHY 

IF YOU ARE A BUSINESS MANj to clear your brain, to 
smooth off the rough edges of business cares. The Rambler 
Bicycle affords a medium/ar excellence for "comfortable exercise." 

IF IN POOR HEALTH, you can regain good health through the 
judicious use of the Bicycle—the Ranibler Spring Frame reduces 
excessive vibration and makes exercise safe. 

IF IN GOOD HEALTH, Bicycle Riding will keep you so. In 
your children the Bicycle lays the foundation of a healthful and 
useful life. A good intellect reaches its highest excellence only 
in a healthy body. 
YOU ARE A WOMANj the Bicycle affords a most pleas- 
ant means of obtaining exercise, which you, of all others, most 
need. Riding any Bicycle is exercise — riding Rambler Bicycles 
is "comfortable and luxurious exercise." 
F YOU ARE BEAUTIFUL, Bicycle Riding will preserve 
your beauty. Exercise means health. There is no real Beauty 
without Good Health. 
F YOU ARE NOT A BEAUTY, you may at least make 
yourself more attractive. The Bicycle brightens the eye, puts 
a flush of health on the cheek, takes you out to nature, to the 
pure fresh air. They are yours ; enjoy them — do it "luxuriously" 
on a Rambler Bicycle. 



IF 



"Ramblers Suit Everybody" 




PRING FRAME 
GID FRAME 

LARGE FRONT WHEEL 
SMALL FRONT WHEEL 

CORRUGATED TIRES 
SMOOTH TIRES 

ROUND SPROCKET 
ELLIPTICAL SPROCKET 

CORMULLY & JEFFERY MFC. CO. 

BOSTON. WASHINGTON. NEW YORK. COVENTRY 




GOOD ROADS 




Good Roads are coming sure 

It will take time 

Do not wait for them 

And suffer annoyance and all the jolts and jars the 
flesh is heir to 

See that yonr wheels^^^ ^.^^ SeddOIl TlreS 

The "Red Un" is the best 

A represents the Envelope, which has a battom (Ai) cx-'Ting the spoic* 

holes in the rim 
B the outer Air Chamber 
C the inner Air Chamber inflated 
D the Valve leading into inner chamber 
E E the Wire Bands 
P the Rim 




CYCLES 
SULKIES 
BUGGIES 
ROAD WAGONS 
BARRINETTES, Etc. 



Caktalo^u* Fr»8 



'%^/%/% 



AMERICAN SEDDONS 
TYRE CO . 

65 Reade Street 
New York 




AND 



GENERALLY, USE 

ANTI- 
STIFF 



TO STRENGTHEN THE 
MUSCLES 

It has a particularly Warm- 
ing. Comforting and Stim- 
ulating effect on all Weak 
or Stiff Muscles; quick in 
action, clean and pleasant 
in use. 

For Sale by Druggists and 
Dealers in Sporting Goods 

E. FOIlGERfl & CO., sole Ogeqts 

26-30 N. William St., N. Y. 



" O how much more doth beauty beauteous seem 
By that fair ornament which truth doth give." 

The gold, filled, and coin-silver cases 
of the new 

Quick=Winding 
WATERBURY 

watch seem even more "beauteous" 
because of its truthful time-keeping. 
The owner may be twice proud : to 
show it and to rely upon it. There is a 
truthful elegance in the exquisite little 
chatelaine that captivates the eye. No 
cheap Swiss watch made on the foreign 
labor system can compare with this per- 
fected product of American machinery 
and brains. 

All jewelers sell it in many different 
styles: Ladies' Gentlemen's and Boys' 
watches. There could be no more 
acceptable gift. $4 to $15. 



I^.■||||||H..|||||I^..||||||.'..||||||I>'..||||||...|||||I^.|| II...II |J>-al ||.''.|| ||l^.4^ 



RE7VIINCTON 

BICYCL-ES 



WRITE FOR 
CATALOGUE 




LIGHT ROADSTER, 32 LBS. ROADSTER, 44 LBS. 

WOMAN'S WHEEL, 42 LBS. PRICES, $140.00 and $145.00 

A VARIETY OF PNEUMATIC TIRES 

t^emington Rpms Co. 

313=315 Broadway, New York City 



i> --III ||i> -.III ||i> -.III ||i> •HI III' •HI Ill-all ||i> -III |i> •Hi |i'-i|| I1--1I ||i> -III II' -III jjh 'HI ||i-<i 



mde a W;;iVg^trtg>y 





WAVERLEY SCORCHER, 32 LBS. 



STRICTLY 
HIGH GRADE 



One jUdreil Dollars 



'*Our Guarantee" 

As so many of our numerous correspondents ask what 
"Guarantee goes with the 'Waverley?'" we wish to im- 
press upon the general public simply this: The " Waverley " 
is fully warranted to be a strictly high grade machine in every 
particular. It is built of the best quality of seamless steel 
tube. Dropped forgings and tool steel throughout, we guar- 
antee every part to be perfect, and agree to replace any part 
that may, within a very liberal period, show any defect of any 
kind that is due to an imperfection in either workmanship or 
material. The " Waverley " goes with this warrant, which is 
backed by the Indiana Bicycle Co., who own and run the 
largest bicycle factory in the worid: who are thoroughly re- 
sponsible, having a paid-in cash capital of One Million Dollars, 
no part of which is composed of patents at inflated prices, but 
is money pure and simple. Who can produce a better 
guarantee ? 



Equal to any machine made at any price. Fitted 
with Hoosier Double Lace Inner Tube Tires. 



Indiana Bicycle Co. 



Write for Catalogue and 
:: Dealers Terms : 



^Indianapolis, Ind. 



mlwa^s on XCop 




EXAMINE THEM BEFORE 



PLACING YOUR ORDER 



CATALOGUE READY :: 





IRoaD ming 

H- jFeatberstone 8. Co. 

letb an^ Claris Streetg ant) 
armour avenue, Cbicago, HIL 



IRoaC) (Slueen 



Raleigh Cycles 




Are Ridden by Champions the World Over 



Send for Catalogue 



: THEY ARE THE MOST ELEGANT 

: THEY ARE THE MOST DURABLE 

: THEY ARE THE FINEST FINISHED 

: THEY ARE THE BEST DESIGNED 

: THEY ARE SCIENTIFICALLY CONSTRUCTED 

: THEY ARE THE HIGHEST GRADE 

: THEY ARE THE HIGHEST PRICED 



THE 



Raleigh Cycle Co. 

LIMITED 

Bank ^^"^ Greenwich Streets, New York 



m 



t^^^^^B^^^^^^^gj^ 



^A^^kA^^^^^A^^^ 






m 



mmmmcGjm m m m m mmmmmm 



MY NAflE 
IS MUD 



.i> 




Rtu^i WW 1 ^ft^'at w hT<^ 



As the ''other" wheel said to the 
which had beaten it. 

The ''other" wheel, much advertised, known 
by everybody, on the market five times as long- 
as the *' Imperial," but still not so fast. 

In 1892 Imperial roadsters took first laurels in 
all events for which they were entered, competing 
J gainst racers of other makes. 

Want to know some more about '' Imperials" ? 

Send for a catalogue. 

AHES & FROST CO., 302 = 304 Wabash Ave., Chicago. 



m 







IPi i^P i^ 



([[estern (Ilheel ttlorks. 



Factory : i.^ 

Wells, Scbilkr, Sig^I and Franklin Streets, 

CHICAGO, lUL., U. S. A- 




^ 



^\2iii> Office: 



250,000 SQUARE FEET FLOOR SPACE DEVOTED 
. . TO THE MANUFACTURE OF THE MOST 
. . POPULAR AND MOST COMPLETE LINE 
. . OF SAFETY BICYCLES IN AMERICA. 



* 



501 Wells Street, Cbic&go. 
R. L. Colerrjeip Co>» ^ 

55 BARCLAY 5TREET. riEW YORK. 




1893 MODEL 



New A\ail 



I 



StrAijbt Dizin)on<I Prainje 

Strictly High Gra^e 

AH Drop Porglijgs 
M. & W. Style Pneumatics, • ■ $126.00 
Dunlop Detachable " ... 136.00 
No Finer Wheel Made. Send for Catalogru* 



MANUFACTURERS 



Wrr). Read & Sons 

107 Wzisbins^op street 

BOSTON 



Tp 




BICYCLK 



» LIGHT, STRONG, DURABLE, 
FAST, STEADY AND SAFE. 



ALL STEEL AND HICKORY. 
IMPROVED BALL BEARINGS. 
THE BEST CHAIN ADJUSTMENT. 
VELVET HANDLE BAR. 
SELF OILING CHAIN. 
THE ONLY ELASTIC FORKS. 
A WHEEL GUARD THAT CAN'T RATTLE. 
A SPRING TEMPERED BRAKE LEVER. 
OUR CATALOGUE TELLS THE WHOLE STORY, 



AGENTS WANTED. 



Elliott Jiiekopy Gyele Go. 



NEWTON. MASS 



A\oi72ircb Bicycles 

Are the BEST for all kinds of Roads. 
FOUR SXYI.es AI,I. I^HADERS 




Every part a scientific production from the finest 
material obtainable. We are headquarters for all 
Cycle accessories. Send for our 1893 Catalogue. 
Reliable agents wanted. 

A\on2ircb Cycle Co. 

^2,44,46,48,50 6- 52 M H^Ijte^ St. 

CHIC/VGO 



THE.. 



•'%/%^%^%/%^%/%/%/%/%^%%/V%/%/%^V%%%^%/%^/%%%^%^%/%/%^' 



PE5T Cycle En/ihels -^ -^ 

F.O.PIEI^CE & CO. 

170 Fulton Street, New York 



HRH JURDE BY 



DRV QUICKUV 3n£ITH K BRII_I_IKNT GI-OSS + + + 



If your local DEALER 
cannot supply them 
SEND direct for 
SAMPLE CARD^^^« 



PRICES 



Black, - ■ 
Ruby • - 
Dark Bine, 

" Green, 
Yellow, 



.33 
.40 




Pale Bine, 
" Greeu 
White, - 
Cream, - 
Pink, - 



M( ?m?r??r??????? ?m ?m ^?? ?? ?n^ 



Bicycle 



Repair. 



The Victor Way. 

Your Hands 

Extra Inner 
Tube 

Five Minutes 

(Good as New) 



The Other Ways. 



Pail of Water 



(to find the leak) 



Glue Pot 
Sheet Rubber 
Needle and Thread 
Cement 
Special Tools 
Plenty of Time 
(Questionable Success 
A Patched Tire) 



Tbe Victor Ppeuroaitic Tire 



Selves Tirrje. 



(And Time is Money.) 



OVERMAN WHEEL CD. 



BOSTON 



WASHINGTON 



DENVEE 



SAN FKANGISOO 



r^uuiuuuuiuiuuuaaiuiui^ 




lEMiND one of those old league 
signs which advised the Cycling- 
Tourists at the top of a 
fine hill that it was 

"SAFE AND SURE ALL THE WAY" 



GEO. R. B\DV*EVi\i CNCUE CO. 

308-310 West 59th Street, N. Y. 



Factory 

COLTS' WEST ARMORY, HARTFORD, CONN. 



44 



•••••- 



Built to Ride 



aiVES YOU A FULL DESCRIPTION OF THE 



■icaiii- 




'<illBlli» 



ToMo Bicycle Go. 



TOLEDO, OHIO. 



ii 



Devuptless 



99 



-••••• 



PpmatlGBiGgGle^SalKgwlieeis 

WITH BALL BEARINGS 

We make nothinf 
but Wheels. Over 5 
years' experience. 

N. Y. Protection 
Strip Pneumatic 
Tires with rims to 
match, supplied to 
the trade. 

Write us for what 
you want." 

l.fl.WESTO)(&GO. 

Jamesville, N. Y. 

(nIAR SYRACUSt) 





THE M»6T COMPLETE ENORAVIN& ESTABLISHMENT IN THE COUNTRY 

IT WILL PAY YOU TO 
COM MU MIC ATE WITH 0^ 
TO OET PRlCt^ AND 
5PECiMEN,!> op OUR 
WORK 




MErfTlOW _ _ 

"GOOD eOAD5^' S^^ 



7VIILWAUKEE 

i MITCHELLS CHAM BtR 

(lllCAO^ 



76 6TAT& >iL. 




GOOD ROADS 

OR . . . 

BAD ONES 



^ 



FOR 1893 



WEIGHTS OF ROAD MACHINES, 29, 33, 35 AND 40 POUNDS 



HIGHEST GRADE THROUGHOUT 




^ 



JfilKKeRS OR 

LIBORTV OVOL-ES 



55 Liberty Street, 



NEW YORK 






t 



HOWARD A. SMITH & CO. 



NEWARK, N. J. 



MANUFACTURERS OF 
AND IMPORTERS IN 



EXCELSIOR'S 

Agents Wanted 



ACKNOWLEDGED TO 
BE THE LARGEST :; 



Bicycle Sundries 



BICYCLE 
SUPPLY 



H0U5E 



IN THE 



SEND STAMP FOR ENCYCLOPEDIA OF 
CYCLERS' WANTS, NOW READY FOR 
MAILING. : :: :: :: :: :: :: 



United States 



MAKERS OF THE 
CELEBRATED 



CORK HANDLES 



•J- 
►J- 

►^ 
►^ 

-b 



-b 

t 

St 






IF YOU WANT A BRIGHT 

STEADY LIGHT AND ONE • 

^ THAT WILL NOT BE CON- ^ 

5 TINUALLY GOING OUT. K 

^ USE W 

m ^^ •_ 

me M Star Solid Illuiiiii 

(patent applied for) 

IN vouR BICYCLE LAflP 

PRICE 50 CENTS 

5 - 0- 

i IF YOU WANT SOMETHING THAT ^ 

^ WILL NOT MAKE YOUR CHAIN DIRTY \ 

^ AND GREASY, USE W 

i Tlie Bed Star Gliain LuDricant t 

' ^ PRICE 25 CENTS ^ 

^ IF YOU WANT AN OIL THAT WILL ^ 

\ MAKE YOUR MACHINE RUN EASY \ 

# USE 

^ Ttje Red Star LuDricatloo Oil ^ 

nade especially for BALL BEARINGS 
PRICE 25 CENTS 

ALL FIRST-CLASS DEALERS KEEP 
OUR GOODS. SAMPLES SENT ON 
RECEIPT OF PRICE 

RED STARMFQ. CO. . 

^ Factory, LONG ISLAND { 

UP. O. Box 1092, New York ^ 




FOR . . . 

FORCINGS, Rims, GRE0END9 
and WELDLESS STEEL TORES 
ROWN'S and PERRY'S 
SPECIRLTIES 

AND IN SHORT EVERYTHING NECESSARY FOR 

Bicycle Building- 

ADDRESS . . . 

W. W. WHITTEN 

118=124 So. flain Street 

PROVIDENCE, R. I. 

E. ALSDORF & CO. wholesale ..0 

- RETAIL DEALERS 

Agents for 24 different \A/ |_| C C I C 
makes of .-. •.• .-. V V ^ IL^L^l^O 

State Agents for 12 makes .'. ■." .•. 
Largest house of the kind in U. S. .-. •.■ 
Write for particuLirs .'. ■.• .-. 



E. ALSDORF & CO. 



6o5 Broad Street 



Newark, N. J. 



New Jersey Trap Rock Company 

BROKEN STONE •.• .-. •. 



FOR 



MACADAM AND TELFORD ROADS 

:: :: CONCRETE, SCREENINGS, Etc. ;: :: 

Pronounced by Engineers the FINEST MATERIAL in tlie World 
for ROAD MAKING 

Stands crushing test of 22,000 lbs. per cubic inch 

Quarry, Snake Hill, Seacaucus Station, D. L. & W. R. R. 
Office, No. I Montgomery Street, Jersey City 



opposite Pennsylvania R. R. Station 



Telephone, 284 Jersey Ci^ 




Cleanest and Neatest Pocket Oiler in the World. 
Win Not Leak. Handsomely Nickel-Plated. 

For Bicycles, Guns, Typewriters, Sewing Machines, etc., and 
general use on all small aud delicate Machinery. 

BOY OILEB mFB. CO., Vcr^S^^.S^T' 



WILLIAM S. BACOT, C. E., Mem. Am. Soc. C. E. 
Engineer of County Roads 

RICHMOND CO., Staten Island, N. Y. 
SpbciaI/TIES: Water-Works, Sewerage, Improvements of Roada 

Offices: 
145 BROADWAY, NEW YORK, and STAPLETON, S. I. 

Construction and Improvement of 

ROADS AND PAVEMENTS 

A SPECIALTY 
A. T. BYRNE 

Civil Engineer and 331 FJLTOM ST. 
Surveyor__^Mh. Brooklyn, N. Y. 



-Rl5^ 




aioss ■^Tg /• 



RUBBER ■(■CEmNT. 

ETTS-J 



VED 

CROSS 

BOBBER 

"a Solution for Repairing Cuts and Punctures in ULII1L|I I 
Pneumatic Tires Will unite perfectly any two pieces or 
Rubber. For Sale by all Dealers or a large tube by mail 85 
Cents. None prenuine unless it contains our Trade Mark, Ked 
Cross. Send for Catalogue of Red Cross Handy Articles. 
Manufactured by A. U. BETTS & CO., Toledo. Ohio. 



jmBEs c. wopERs, Civil Enaineep, 

BELLEFONTAINE, O. 3 ' 

Highways and Municipal Worlc, Plans, Estimates, 
Specifications, Superintendence. Correspondenc* 
invited. 



P. A- DUNHA/Af Civil Epgio^er 

AND Expert in Road and Street Improvements. 

Engineer in Charge of the following Works : 
The Famous Union Co., N, J., Road System ; Street 
Improvements, Hasbrouck Heights, N. J.; Street 
Paving and Sewerage, Sewickley, Pa.; Street 
Improvements, Olean, N. Y. Is City Engineer of 
Plainfield, N. J., and Dunkirk, N. Y. Correspondence 
Solicited. Main Office, No. 7 Park Ave., Plainfield, N. J. 



JOHN N. OSTROM 



Member 



( Am. Soc. C. E. 

i WESTtRN Soc. OF EnGINFEF.S 







Brid§:e 



Engfineer 



Soundings and Borings for Bridges and Other Foundations 



East Randolph, N. Y. 

Surveys for Locating Substructures 
of All Kinds Executed Promptly 

. . rHOTOGRAPHIO RfPORTS 

* ■ ON Fie^D WORK .... 

Estimates Furnished to Responsible 
Parties on Application 

Strain Sheets, Estimates, Details 
Inspection, Erection. 

BRIDGE SUPERSTRUCTURE AND SURS^RUCTURE, 
VIADUCTS, ROOFS, BUILDING MATERIALS AND 
STEEL RAILS 




Fafrel Foundry and jHaehine Go.,flnsonia,GonQ. 

THE FARREL & MAR8DEN CRUSHER, the standard machine for road metal; with 
or without screen, mounted or unmounted; ten sizes. "Write for catalogue 
gmd list of cities, towns, contractors and individuals using this machine. 



S. C. NIGHTINGALE &. CHILDS, 134 PEARL STREET, BOSTON ^ 

^ New England Agents for the Farrel & Marsden Stone Crusher, and Contractors for ^ 

5 Complete macaflain Boad Building Plants. KeTs?;L\?rnt '>l7i"rarrd%'«et:;;^ i 

^ Drills, Etc. Horse aud Stoaiu Road Kellers, Engines and Boilers. ^ 

W Competent Engineer furnished for locating and advising. Send for Catalogue. ^ 



Gdroaght Iron Bridge Co. 

CKNTON. OHIO. 



lU 
J 
(Q 
< 

J 
01 
EC 

Q 

c 

ti 

C 

o 
tc 

t. 




Best Higbvay Bridges. • • 



o 
;n 

?? 

o 

c 
> 

H 

tn 
111 


V) 

> 

■n 

> 
n 

-i 
o 

•< 



PLANS AND ESTIMATES FREE. 



WRITE FOR ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE. 



^^xTK^XviivG 4& i?»oi^arE^ie'^ 



steel Steam Hoad-HollefS. Won than 1,600 IVIanufaetuPed 

Steam Road-Rolt.ers with compound (high 
and low pressure) cylinders. 

Steam Road-Rollers with single (high-pres- 
sure) cylinder. New and i m pr o ve d sprii)>< 
scrapers, new steering gear, new arrangement of 
driver's foot-plate, etc., etc. 

Incomparably superior in simplicity, work- 
manship, materials and consequent durability to 
any imitations. 

At Auburn, N. Y., Boston, Mass., Staten Island, 
N. Y., and numerous other places where imitations 
of Aveling & Porter's Rollers are in use, the m(.st 
unsatisfactory results are reported, and the wear 
and tear and breakages have been greater in 1'2 
months than with the Aveling Rollers in six years. 
Scores of similar reports are obtainable, and the 
broken-down imitation machines can be seen by 
anyone interested. 

Tn the Compound Engine the last vestige of an 
excuse for using two high-pressure cylinder en- 
gines is destroyed, and the wanton and ignorant 
disregard of economy and usefulness by the use of 
double high-pressure cylinders are by the " Com- 
pound " Roller made more manifest than ever. 
The Aveling & Portek "COMPOuNn" 
Rollers are manufactured in the same substantial and excellent manner as are their usual Single High- 
Pressure Cylinder machines, and all are fitted with patented Spring Scrapers, new and improved Steerage 
Drum, enlarged Driver's Foot-Plate, Steam-Jacketed Cylinder, and Crucible-Steel Gearing entirely withoitt 
feathers— a. patented arrangement, the infringement of which subjects both seller and buyer to legal 
proceedings. 

STEAM ROAD-ROLLERS, ROAD LOCOMOTIVES, "BARNARDCASTLE" STREET- 
SWEEPING MACHINES, STREET-SCRAPING MACHINES, STONE CRUSHERS, Elc. 




-apply to- 



W.C.OASTLER, 43 Exchange Place, New York 



The HflHRisBURG Doable Engine Hoad HoUeF 



Not only a Roller but a ROAD MACHINE 



10, 12, 15 and 20 
Tons Weiffht 




Kot linn riipan, bnt Ho^r Oooi. Now in use in nearly one hundred cities and towns m United States. Send for 
Illustrated Cataloffiie. Manufactured l>y HftRRISBURG FOUNDRY & MACHINE WORKS. HARRISBURG, PA. 

Sellins? Agents W. K. t'LEMING <fe CO., New York & Now Ensrland. New York Office, Mailanrl Express B'd'.i. Boston Offlc<», 
620 Atlantic Avenue, ^Valter W. Jones, Manawr. F. F. BAILEY, Philadelphia, 24 S. 7th Street, Builders' Exchange. 
II. E. KALDWIX, Cincinnati, Peria B'd's, 6tli and Race Sts. 




' ' Broken Stone which has united by its ou<n 
angles^ so as to form a solid^ hard surface^ makes 
a proper road.'' 

JOHN L. MACADAM 



Junson ilim Stone Supi Go. 

Ct^ashed Gt^anite 
AND Blue Stone :: :: 

Recommended by 

CONTRACTORS ARCHITECTS 
AND ROAD BUILDERS 



Ol^ARRIES ON HUDSON RIVER GRANITE, STORM KING, N. Y. 

BLUESTONE, STONECO, N. Y. 

NEW YORK OFFICE ..umiii. 

2 CORTLANDT STREET 



By Using the 





Austin Steel Street Sweeper 

Lightest running, strongest and most 
efficient. Two horses only. Sweeps 7'/2 
feet. Cleans thoroughly any kind of 
pavement. 



s.,tf;s^ 



Austin Dump Wagon 

Just the thing for carrying away street 
cleanings. Dumped instantly. Holds i "/^ 
yards. Has steel pan. 



In excavatmg for 
paved streets the 
New Era Wagon 
Loader will load 
from 500 to 600 
wagons per day. 



— ==::^^ 




The most com 
plete and best line 
of street building 
and cleaning appli- 
ances in the world. 



Chicago Rock Crusher 

Stationary or portable, varying in capacity from 
1 5 to 200 tons per day. 

SEND FOR CATALOGUE 





Austin Steel Reversible 

Road flachine 

Keeps dirt roads in good condition and 
saves money for the town while doing it. 



Austin Reversible Roller 

Lightest draft and most easily handled, 
i/^. 3. A' 5, 6 and 7 tons. 



F. G. flUSTlIi ]VIFG. CO., Ghieago, 111. 



The A, B, G of Hoad JWaking 

Use the Best Machinery and you will get the Best Results 




THE STEEL CHAMPION ROAD MACHINE 

is unequalled for making and repairing dirt or gravel roads. Does the work of 30 to 50 
men and gives the best results. 




THE CHAMPION STEEL ROCK CRUSHER 

is the only practical portable crusher on the market. It is light in weight, strong, durable ||j| 
and efficient. Costs less for repairs and can be operated with less power than any cruslier 
made. 



OUR CATALOGUE IS 
FREE FOR THE ASKING 



PERIGi PAD liljIGHlNE CO., KeiiQett Spare, Pa. 



HlamD Seharf Asphalt PavlDg Go. 

Genuine Trinidad Asphalt Pavements 

For Streets, Sidewalks, Driveways ::::::: 



The Standard Pavement for . 

CHEAPNESS . . 

HEALTH . . . 
^ DURABILITY . . 
* SMOOTHNESS and 

SAFETY . . . 



^ 



IT ENHANCES THE VALUE OF PROPERTY MORE 
THAN ANY OTHER PAVEMENT 

Priocipail Office '• 

81 Fultoo St., r<ew YorK 



SEND FOR CIRCULARS AND ESTIMATES. MENTION GOOD ROADS" 



THe Sicillaii HspHait Pavliio Go. 

#^'^/^^%/%^%' CONTRACTORS FOR 



SICILIAN AMD GERMAN ROCK 
ASPHALT STREET PAVEMENTS 



TRINIDAD " LAKE" ASPHALT 
STREET PAVEMENTS 



LIMMER ROCK ASPHALT 
FLOORS, PAVEMENTS AMD ROOFS 

FOR BREWERIES, ICE HOUSES, 
WAREHOUSES, CELLARS, STABLES, 
YARDS, SIDEWALKS, ETC. 



ZINSSER'S PATENT INSULA- 
TION FOR WALLS OF ICE 
HOUSES, ETC. 



9^/^^/^^/^ DEALERS IN 



SICILIAN AND GERMAN ,ROCK ASPHALTS 
STREET PAVEMENTS 



SICILIAN, LIMMER AND VORWOHLE ROCK 
ASPHALT MASTIC 



CRUDE AND REFINED TRINIDAD ASPHALT 



For Estimates and full information apply to 

The Siciliai AspMlt Paving Co., Tiies Building, N. Y. 



THe Siamiarii Pavemem el Hmeilci 

Tbe Bairber .. 
Aspbs^lt ;; 

P^^/ll)% Co. 

has now laid nearly 6,000,000 square 
yards of genuine Trinidad Asphalt pave- 
ment in 33 cities of the United States. 
Wherever the pavement has been laid It 
has come to stay, and has never been dis- 
placed in favor of any other material. It is 
smooth, durable, clean, noiseless and safe. 



'^^^t. 


GENERAL OFFICES 


^m 


LE DROIT BUILDING 
WASHINGTON, D. C. 


standard\^ 

PAVEMENT p^ 
lAMERICA./^f 


WASHINGTON BUILDING 
1 BROADWAY 
NEW YORK, N. Y 



"iir 



Nearly 6,000,000 Sq. Yd». of 
435 lineal miles in use and 
l«,id br this CompMir- 



G. L.BOSWORTH & CO. 

AGENTS FOR . . . 

Cornpresse<I ^spb^^lt 
® Peeving BIocKs 

For Streets ^ 

NOTHING BETTER MADE, SANITARY, NOISELESS, THE 
EASIEST STREET TO KEEP CLEAN, CAN BE TAKEN 
UP AND RELAID AT VERY LITTLE EXPENSE. 
EVERY CITY CAN HAVE ITS OWN LABORERS PUT 
THEM DOWN. SEND FOR PRICES TO . . . 

G. L. Bo^vortb 6* Co. 
HolyoKe, A\ass. 



PATENTS. 

SPECIALTIES for expert work: Hetallurgical 
Inventions and Interference Causes. 

We report -without charge whether your in- 
vention is patentable. Send for our new book, 
"Patent Practice." 

CHAMPION & CHAMPION, 

Pacific Building, Washington, D. C. 

AVOID GREASE AM> 1>IKT by oUing your machine with 
the best and neatest oil can in the world, the "Perfect Pocket 
Oiler." Does not leak. Regulates supply of oil to a nicety. 
Price 25 cents each, handsomely nickel plated. 



2.'-ls^ 




CLKUMAxN Ai J>EM80X, 17S &tli Avenue, N. Y. 




"Brennan" Breaker^ Best 

CRUSHES FASTER 

LESS REPAIRS 

USES LESS POWER 

Capacities, 8 to 150 TONS per HOUR 



Young-Brennan Crusher Co. 

42 Cortlandt Street, New York City 



Gates Rock Breaker 




MACADAM IS THE BEST AND CHEAPEST ROAD METAL 
IT IS PRODUCED AT LOWEST COST IN THE 

GATES BREAKER 



Address for Catalogues and Plans 



Gates Iron Works 



136 Liberty St. 

NEW YORK 



237 Franklin St. 

BOSTON 



50 S. Clinton St., Chicago, U. S. A. 



\)OU*'T GET GI^VSGHT 

WITH A BREAK IN YOUR TIRE 
AND NOTHING TO MEND IT WITH 
GET OUR . . . 




WHICH CONTAINS EVERYTHING YOU NEED FOR 
REPAIRING. ALWAYS HANDY, FITS THE 
POCKET, AND ABSOLUTELY NECES- 
SARY TO EVERY OWNER OF EVERY 
WHEEL. . . 

IF YOUR LOCAL DEALERS DO 
NOT KEEP 

The COMPANION 

SEND YOUR ORDER AND 50c. TO 

BOSTOHPBEKGEinENTCO. 

200 Devonshire St., Boston, Mass. 




^pfin9Tield 





Q5prin5lield,Obio 



<§|)ifnjjfield 
l^t^mnAsphali 

ROLLERS 



UNIFORM AND CONTRACTING DEPARTMENT, 

Browning, King & Co. 



406 TO 4^/3 

BROOME STREET 
NEV» YORK CITY 




Contract Prices 

Coat, $8.00 

Breeches, . . 5.25 

Cap, 1.25 



Cloth per yard, .. 2.10 
Coat buttons, (each) .05 
Small " " .03 



Ladies' Clotli, 
per yard, . 



1.00 



THE- 



Offieial Tailors 



SAMPLES OF 



League of flmepieao 
~ Wheelmen 



REGULATION LEAGUE CLOTH g'", 



BE OBTAINED 
APPLICATION TO 



BROWNING, KING & CO., New York 



h M * M > I ' I ' I > I ' I > M » M>I « M * M * M'M * I * M * M ' I ' 



Here is a Dllfeieimi! of $3li.00 

IN PRICE BETWEEN A $150.00 BICYCLE 

AND THE . . . 




WHICH PLEASE EXAMINE. 

IT WILL PAY YOU TO DO SO. 
YOU WILL FIND IT AS GOOD AS 
ANY, AND BETTER THAN SOME 
SELLING AT $150.00. 

DO NOT FORGET 

CREDENDA PNEUMATICS 

HAVE INNER TUBES. 



A. G. Spalding & Bros. 

CHICAGO NEW YORK PHILADELPHIA 

■I * I ' I ' I ' I « I ' I ' I * I * I * I « I ' I ' I ' I * M « I « I ' I 'I' I 'I' I ' I * I * I * ] 



SUNOL" CAMERAS 




Make as Good Photographs as the hirhcr priced 
Camtias. 

Have Bl! modern Improvements Peitecteil to Date! 

Make a 4x5 Picture, using either "DRY PLATES" 

or " CUT FILMS," and cost but one-fifth the price of 

Cameras heretofore offered. 

No. 1. Highly Finished Oak Case S5.00 

No. 2. Covered with Grain Leather 7.50 

No. 3. (Folding) Covered with Grain Leather (see cut). lO.UO 
The No. 3 Folding " Snnol " is the most modern perfected 

Camera offered to the public. 

"SUNOL" CAMERA CO., 174 Pearl St., M York. 



t«— 



Whether quaffed 
from a vessel of 
tin, glass or gold; 

There's nothing so 
good for the j^oung 

or the old — as 





Hires' 

Root Beer 

A delicious, health- 
giving, thirst-satis- 
fying beverage. A 
temperance drink for 
temperance people. ^ 

A 2JC. package makes 5 gallons. ^ 

Sold and Enjoyed Everywhere. 




TAKE THE 




GOLD PRIZE 



by photographing bad roads with a 
Kodak. It makes the best pictures; 
is easiest to carry on your bicycle. 

$6.00 TO $75.00 

SEND FOR CATALOGUE 

Eastman Kodak Company 

Rochester, N. Y. 




Agents ^^ 1^ Largest Stock in America 
SYLPHS, RUDGES 
OVERLANDS and 
WESTERN WHEEL 
WORKS' CYCLES 

Offer unequalled values and variety to Dealers and 
Wheelmen. All sizes and styles of wheels in stock 
and 20 to 50 per cent, saved on many patterns. Easy 
payments if desired. No matter v^rhat you want in 
the cycle line it will pay you to write to us. Our 
Superior Inducements bring us orders from every- 
where. Send for catalogue and bargain list free. 

BOUSE, PZHBD & CO., 177 G Street, Peoria, III. 

Manufacturers, Importers and Jobbers 



GENDRON CYCLES 



1893 



THE DIAMOND <a> CYCLE WRENCH 




Price, each, Blued, 8 .75 
" Nickeled, 1.00 

LIGHTEST I NEATEST I STRONOESTI 

AND COSTBINED 'WTrH PT 

A PERFECT SPOKE GRIPI 




nade by QENDRON IRON WHEEL CO. 
Toledo. Chicago. New York. St. Loata. 

rOK 8AI.B BT AI.I. LEASINQ CYCLE DEATJtBS. 



PRICE WITH IDEAL cb<IC/> 
PNEUMATIC TIRES, ^10U 





Ope Hundred Dolletrs 

In Gold to bs Paid in Prizes for F*hotooraf»hs 
OF- Bad Roads. 



To stimulate Die coUe£lion of Thotographs to be used in showing 

the need of improved roads in the United States, I offer 

three prices, aggregating $ioo in gold, as follows : 

1. One prize of $50 (gold) for the best collection of not less than three 

photographs. 

2. One prize of $30 (gold) for the second best collection of not less 

than three photographs. 

3. One prize of $20 (gold) for the third best collection of not less 

than three photographs. 



T 



His OFFER IS MADE SUBJECT TO THE FOLLOWING CONDITIONS AND 
SUGGESTIONS WHICH SHOULD BE OBSERVED : :: :: :: :: 



^i■ 



All photographs must be accompanied by the negatives, unless the latter hav« 
been destroyed. 

Competition will close on the first day of July, 1893, and all photographs must b« 
submitted on or before that date. 

Photographs must be confined to such subjects as most strongly illustrate the un- 
fitness of the present public roads (especially the common "dirt" roads) used as public 
highways. 

To aid you by a suggestion, I would recommend the following as good subjects for 
competitive pictures : 

Photographs showing the common spectacle of the farmer's team and wagon, hub- 
deep and knee-deep in the muddy road. 

Photographs showing rough, rutty and muddy roads in their worst condition. 

"Stuck in the mud " photographs, showing the farmer or merchant with his loaded 
wagon vainly trying to drive his patient team and load out of the inevitable mud hole. 

Photographs showing the everyday breakdown caused by rough or muddy roads 
or steep grades. 

Photographs showing smooth, hard-surfaced roads and (if possible) teams hauling 
loads over the same. 

And other pictures illustrating the goodness of good roads and the badness of bad 
roads. Your opportunities and observation will suggest the proper thing in this line. 

Each photograph must be accompanied by a full statement of particulars, giving 
date, location, etc., by which the picture may be identified. Blanks for this purpose 
will hp supplied on application. . . 

All photographs and negatives submitted must be sent marked with a fictitious 
name or pseudonym, by which the competitor is to be known until the date of award. 
Each competitor must also send a sealed envelope containing his or her real name and 
address, and marked upon the outside with the fictitious name of the competitor. 

All photographs and negatives submitted in this competition are to remain the 
permanent property of the League of American Wheelmen. At least ten persons must 
compete in order to insure the reward here offered. 

In deciding upon the respective merits of the work submitted, the following points 
will be considered. 

1. The subject of the photograph and its force in illustrating the necessity for 
better roads. 

2. Clearness and general excellence of photographic work. 

3. Location (giving preference to those views which show bad roads in important 
counties, suburbs of large towns, etc.) 

4. Size of photograph. The question of size will be considered least and last of all. 
Any competitor may send more than three photographs if desired. The committer 
will select the three best of those submitted by each competitor. 

The prizes will be awarded before July 15, 1893, by a committee to be selected by 
the Executive Committee of the League of American Wheelmen. All cominuni- 
cations will be in every respect confidentially treated, and further information will be 
furnished on application to the undersigned, to whom all photographs and negative* 
should be sent. 

ISAAC B. POTTER, manager. 

POTTER BUILDINQ, IM EW YORK ClT». 



THE TELEQRiin FMEUn/ITIC TIRE 




GIVES LESS TROUBLE AND BETTER SERVICE 
THAN ANY OTHER MADE .*. *.* .'. 

fitted with Telegram Tires are 
without a peer in the Cycle line. 



mEmm mm 



FOR PRICES AND INFORMATION, ADDRESS 

. E. VRN VLEGK, u. s. egent nm cycles 



Write for Catalogue 



310 Broadway, N. Y. City 

THE TIRE PROBLEM SOLVED No wires to kink, no paste, no 

=^1 wirehooks. One minute for com- 
plete deflation, removal of inner lube and re-inflation. 



% 
% 

% 
% 
% 

% 
% 



"All's well that ends well," 

But that delightful bicycle ride would not end very well if you had to 
WALK HOME because you had punctured your tire. Even with GOOD ROADS 
you would consider it a hardship. 

HOWEVER, if you ride a CLEVELAND BICYCLE, IN CASE OF PUNCT- 
URE the CLEVELAND RIM permits the tire to be removed instantly, and 
permanent repairs made in less than FlVC A^IIJut^S. 
AL.I- WOULD BE VEUU 

Clevelzii7cl /I0. 4 

L-igbt Roziclster 

Cleveland rio. 5 

Fitted with . . . 

CuEVELAWD Thread Tire 

and . . . 

BURWEL.L. Dust Proof BEaRiTSCS 

Easy running qualities unexcelled with this combination. Catalogue on application. 

H. A. UOZIER & CO., Clcvelapd, Obio 



* 




« 







Tbe sterling Specizil 
Ro2i<I Rzicer 
TracK Wb^^l 

Wyisbt 27 lb;. 



Jterlipsf Bicycles 

THE HIGHEST GRADE ONLY 

Veilugibl^ Points of Advzintage 

SEffD FOR CATALOGUE 

oHNvS""' STOKE5 nFG- CO. 

/vyiLLWAUKEB />\aknufActurcr3 

OFFICE AND SALESROOM . . . 

293 Wz^bzisb A^eijue 

CHICAGO 



Press of Vanden Houten & Co., 249 Pearl Street, TiT. Y. 



BOSTON PUBLIC LIBRARY 



3 9999 05985 750 6 



BtP.U Bindery, 
(JCT ^4 1893